Flying Childers was sired by the great Darley Arabian, one of the three foundation stallions of the Thoroughbred breed. His dam Betty Leedes, was by Careless and she was inbred to Spanker in the second, Betty Leedes was the dam of the unraced, but successful sire, Bartletts or Bleeding Childers who was by the Darley Arabian. Careless was by the great stallion Spanker, and both were thought to be the best racehorses of their generation, Betty Leedes was one of the few outside mares allowed to breed to the Darley Arabian, who was mostly kept as a private sire by his owner. Although the Duke received many offers for the colt, including one to pay for the weight in gold. First racing at age six, the 15.2 hand colt won his race, held April 1721 at Newmarket. He won his race in October, at Newmarket, in a walk over. It is said he completed this race, over the Round Course at Newmarket, in 6 minutes,40 seconds and this was claimed to make Flying Childers the only horse on record as having matched the top speed of the unbeaten Eclipse.
As a seven-year-old, he won his one start, a race at Newmarket where he beat Chaunter, in 1723, he won both his starts by walk over, one in April at Newmarket, the other a matchrace against Bobsey, who forfeited. Flying Childers retired to stud, Flying Childers stood as a private stallion at the Dukes Chatsworth estate in Derbyshire, until his death in 1741 at age 26. He sired Spanking Roger, who was undefeated against some of the best horses in the country except for one race where he threw his rider, Fleecem and Blaze. Blaze was especially important, producing Sampsom and Childers, Shales and Messenger, Flying Childers was the damsire of the important foundation Thoroughbred sire Herod. He died in 1741, aged 26 and it was said he was the fleetest horse that ever ran at Newmarket or, as generally believed, that was ever bred in the world. List of leading Thoroughbred racehorses Flying Childers on Thoroughbred Heritage site Flying Childers pedigree* http, //etc. usf. edu/clipart/12600/12603/childers_12603. htm
John Moore (British Army officer)
Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore, KB, was a British soldier and General, known as Moore of Corunna. He is best known for his training reforms and for his death at the Battle of Corunna. John Moore was born in Glasgow, the son of John Moore, a doctor and writer, and the older brother of Admiral Sir Graham Moore. He attended Glasgow High School, but at the age of eleven joined his father and Douglas and this included a two-year stay in Geneva, where Moores education continued. He joined the British Army in 1776 as an ensign in the 51st Regiment of Foot based in Minorca. He first saw action in 1778 during the American War of Independence as a lieutenant in the 82nd Regiment of Foot, from 1779-1781 he was garrisoned at Halifax, Nova Scotia. After the war, in 1783, he returned to Britain and in 1784 was elected to Parliament as the Member for Lanark Burghs, in 1787, he was made Major and joined the 60th briefly before returning to the 51st. In 1791 his unit was assigned to the Mediterranean and he was involved in campaigning in Corsica and was wounded at Calvi and he was given a Colonelcy and became Adjutant-General to Sir Charles Stuart.
Friction between Moore and the new British viceroy of Corsica led to his recall and posting to the West Indies under Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1796 and he participated in British efforts to repress the slave rebels until falling ill of yellow fever, upon which he returned to Britain. In 1798, he was made Major-General and served in the suppression of the republican rebellion raging in Ireland, although the rebellion was crushed with great brutality, Moore stood out from most other commanders for his humanity and refusal to perpetrate atrocities. In 1799, he commanded a brigade in the Helder Expedition and he recovered to lead the 52nd regiment during the British campaign in Egypt against the French, having become colonel of that regiment in 1801 on the death of General Cyrus Trapaud. Sir John Moore Barracks at Winchester, home of the Army Training Regiment, is called after him, when it became clear that Napoleon was planning an invasion of Britain, Moore was put in charge of the defence of the coast from Dover to Dungeness.
In 1804 Moore was knighted and promoted to Lieutenant-General, in 1806 he returned to active duty in the Mediterranean and in 1808 in the Baltic to assist the Swedish. Disagreements with Gustavus IV led to his being sent home where he was ordered to Portugal. When Napoleon arrived in Spain with 200,000 men, Moore drew the French northwards while retreating to his embarkation ports of A Coruña and he remained conscious, and composed, throughout the several hours. Like Lord Nelson he was wounded in battle, surviving long enough to be assured that he had gained a victory. He said to his old friend Colonel Anderson You know I always wished to die this way, I hope my country will do me justice. He asked Colonel Anderson to speak to his friends and mother but became too emotional to continue and he asked if his staff were safe and was assured that they were, and where his will could be found
Prunella was a British Thoroughbred racehorse. Raced from 1791 to 1794, she won three including a Sweepstakes of 200 guineas each at Newmarket. She was retired to stud and became a broodmare, foaling Epsom Derby winner Pope. Her daughters went on to become top broodmares in their own right and she was owned by Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton. Prunella was a bay filly bred by the 3rd Duke of Grafton and she was sired by the undefeated Great Subscription Purse winner Highflyer. Highflyer was a top stallion, becoming Champion sire thirteen times and he sired three Epsom Derby winners in Noble, Sir Peter Teazle and Skyscraper along with several other classic winners. Sir Peter Teazle became an important stallion, prunellas dam was Promise, a daughter of Champion sire Snap. Prunella made her debut at Epsom Downs on 10 June 1791. Her next race came in October at Newmarket, where she faced two opponents in a Sweepskates of 200 guineas each over two miles, baron Foleys colt Vermin started as the odds on favourite, with both Prunella and Mopsey priced at 4/1.
Prunella won the race, with Vermin finishing second, two weeks she lost a match race against Earl Grosvenors filly Sylph worth 200 guineas, with both fillies carrying the same weight. In April 1792 Prunella beat Mopsey at Newmarket for 25 guineas, at the Newmarket Second October meeting she lost to Sir John Lades Clifden in a Sweepstakes of 25 guineas each. At the Houghton meeting she raced against six rivals in a Handicap Sweepstakes of 50 guineas each, the race was won by Mystery, with Speculator in finishing in second and Prunella in third place. Her final race of the came in a £50 Handicap Plate at Newmarket. Prunella finished the race in place of the twelve runners. Sir Frank Standishs filly Fairy won the race and Quetlavaca finished second and her first race as a five-year-old was the Kings Plate for mares at Newmarket in April 1793. She finished second to the Earl of Clermonts filly Peggy, beating Amelia and Magnolia and her only other race of the season was at Huntingdon, where she faced two rivals in a £50 race comprising two four-mile heats.
Prunella won both heats, with Bustler finishing second in both and Pill-box last, at the Newmarket Craven meeting in April 1794 she finished unplaced behind winner Lurcher in the first class of the Oatlands Stakes. Her final race came at Newmarkets First Spring meeting in early May in the Kings Plate for 100 guineas, Peggy started as the 4/6 favourite, with Kezia at 4/1, Prunella at 6/1 and Gipsy at 12/1
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. It did not include Ireland, which remained a separate realm, the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. Also after the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746. On 1 January 1801, the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were merged to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom, the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used officially in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Edward IV of Englands daughter Cecily and James III of Scotlands son James.
The Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be United into one Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain. However, both the Acts and the Treaty refer numerous times to the United Kingdom and the longer form, other publications refer to the country as the United Kingdom after 1707 as well. The websites of the UK parliament, the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, the term United Kingdom was found in informal use during the 18th century to describe the state. The new state created in 1707 included the island of Great Britain, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a union in 1603. Each of the three kingdoms maintained its own parliament and laws and this disposition changed dramatically when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800, legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the location in Westminster. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws. As a result of Poynings Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, the Act was repealed by the Repeal of Act for Securing Dependence of Ireland Act 1782. The same year, the Irish constitution of 1782 produced a period of legislative freedom, the 18th century saw England, and after 1707 Great Britain, rise to become the worlds dominant colonial power, with France its main rival on the imperial stage
Diomed, foaled in 1777, was an English Thoroughbred race horse who won the inaugural running of the Epsom Derby in 1780. He was subsequently a successful sire in the United States, richard Vernon and owned by Sir Charles Bunbury. and trained by him at Hilton Hall. He was started 19 times, winning 11, finishing second in 4, of these eleven wins, ten were consecutive, which included the inaugural running of the Epsom Derby in 1780. During these early years of Diomeds life, he was considered by many to be the best colt seen in Britain since Eclipse. He was allowed to rest for a while, but when he was back to the races. Sometimes he would win, and sometimes he wouldnt win, and his last win was a Kings Plate in four mile heats carrying 168 pounds. Sir Charles retired Diomed to stud and his fee was five guineas, or about $25. There were few takers, and for the decade or so, Diomeds fee went down and down until, by the age of 21. By then, there were no takers, so the old stallion did nothing. Sir Charles offered Diomed for sale when the stallion was 21 years old, colonel John Hoomes of Bowling Green, Virginia bought him for $250, and shipped him to Virginia where he was returned to stud in 1798.
Besides being personally impressed with the horse, a stallion of Tayloes had hurt himself. In those days, stallions did not stand in one place, Diomed lived like this until he was thirty-one years old and was active to his very last days. His fee increased with his fame and his fame increased so quickly that Hoomes was able to sell a share in him for six times his purchase price soon after he set all four hooves on American soil. Diomed, along with Medley and Messenger, were the four most important stallions introduced into early American bloodstock, Sir Archy had a huge influence on Thoroughbred history, siring the line which led to Timoleon and Lexington. His descendants include Black Caviar, Phar Lap and American Pharoah, Diomeds get included saddlehorses for Thomas Jefferson and statesman and jurist John Marshall. At Diomeds death at the age of 31, it was reported. there was as much mourning over his demise as there was at the death of George Washington
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, Thoroughbreds are considered hot-blooded horses that are known for their agility and spirit. The Thoroughbred as it is today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian, Barb. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, and around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide, Thoroughbreds are used mainly for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates, other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high, averaging 16 hands.
They are most often bay, dark bay or brown, black, less common colors recognized in the United States include roan and palomino. White is very rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray, the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will generally not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, and long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are generally considered spirited. These artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races, the Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred. The term for any horse or other animal derived from a breed line is purebred. Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species.
The term is a noun referring to this specific breed, though often not capitalized, especially in non-specialist publications. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England. It was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horses chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, during the reigns of Charles II, William III, and George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid. Under James grandson, Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, and James great-granddaughter Queen Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses
For the American thoroughbred racehorse born 1814 see American Eclipse. Eclipse was an undefeated 18th-century British Thoroughbred racehorse who won 18 races, after retiring from racing he became a very successful sire and today appears in the pedigree of most modern Thoroughbreds. Eclipse was foaled during and named after the eclipse of 1 April 1764, at the Cranbourne Lodge stud of his breeder, Prince William Augustus. It was at this stud that his sire, the Jockey Club Plate winner Marske stood and his dam, was by Regulus, who was by the Godolphin Arabian. Eclipses male-line great-grandsire was Bartletts Childers, and his male-line great-great-grandsire was Darley Arabian, Eclipse was a brother to the successful broodmare Proserpine. They were inbred to Snake in the generation of their pedigree. After the death of Prince William in 1765, Eclipse was sold for 75 guineas to a dealer from Smithfield. Eclipse was a chestnut with a narrow blaze running down his face. He had a white stocking on his hind leg.
Eclipse was a big horse for his time, just over 16 hands and he was strong and fast. He was sometimes criticized for having a large, unattractive head and his difficult temperament was well documented, and might have led to him being gelded. Instead he was turned over to a rough-rider, who worked him hard all day and this treatment, rather than souring his disposition, settled Eclipse enough to allow him to be raced, although his jockeys never attempted to hold him. Prior to Eclipses first start at the age of five, a trial was arranged at Epsom, trying to verify if rumours about the horse were true, showed up but were too late — the trial had already been run. Accordingly, when Eclipse started in his first race on May 31769, the race consisted of three heats of four miles each. After his second victory in a race in May 1769, Dennis OKelly purchased Eclipse in two stages, supposedly, at this time OKelly used the famous phrase Eclipse first and the rest nowhere, before making his bets for this race.
At that time, a horse that was more than 240 yards behind the lead was said to be nowhere and his jockey was John Oakley, supposedly the only jockey who could handle Eclipses temperamental manner and running style of holding his nose very close to the ground. Eclipse won the race and covered OKellys bet, Eclipse won 18 races, including 11 Kings Plates, supposedly without ever being fully extended and proving far superior to all competition. His toughest challenge was a match race versus the highly regarded Bucephalus in 1770, Bucephalus was game, but Eclipse was the easy winner
The Eclipse Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to horses aged three years or older. It is run at Sandown Park over a distance of 1 mile,2 furlongs and 7 yards, the event is named after Eclipse, a celebrated 18th-century racehorse. It was established in 1886, and the running was won by Bendigo. At that time, it was Britains richest ever race, the prize fund of £10,000 was donated by Leopold de Rothschild at the request of General Owen Williams, a co-founder of Sandown Park. The Eclipse Stakes was contested by high-quality fields from its inception and it was won by Ayrshire, the previous years Derby winner, in 1889. The first three finishers in 1903 — Ard Patrick and Rock Sand — had won seven Classics between them, the race has been sponsored by Coral since 1976, and it is now familiarly known as the Coral-Eclipse. Horseracingintfed. com – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – Eclipse Stakes, pedigreequery. com – Eclipse Stakes – Sandown Park. The Breedon Book of Horse Racing Records
King Fergus was a British Thoroughbred racehorse. He won several races, but achieved success as a sire. He was British Champion sire in 1797 and his progeny included St Leger Stakes winner Hambletonian, King Fergus was a chestnut colt bred by Mr Carver and foaled in 1775. He was sired by the undefeated Eclipse, Eclipse was one of the leading sires of the time, with his progeny including Pot-8-Os, Saltram and Young Eclipse. King Fergus was the foal of Creeping Polly, a daughter of Othello. King Fergus grew to stand 16 hands high and was full of bone, great sinews, well shaped. King Fergus only raced once as a three-year-old, finishing second to Miss Wickham at Bath, at Bath on 27 September 1779 he started as the 1/5 favourite to win a 500 guineas sweepstakes and beat Cinderwench to win the four-mile race. In October he was due to race Sir John Lades Bet Boucher over two miles, but Lade paid a forfeit, in 1780, on the Monday of Newmarkets second spring meeting, he beat Sir John Lades Knight Errant.
Two days at Newmarket he raced against Dorimant and Pot-8-Os in a 140 guineas race, King Fergus was leading as they passed the stands, but cast a shoe. Pot-8-Os won, with King Fergus in second place, in May 1780, at Epsom, he won a £50 race comprising three four-mile heats. He beat Epsom, Don Joseph, Neptune and Foppington, in October he beat the Duke of Cumberlands Pomona of three miles to win 200 guineas. Later in the month he beat Lord Derbys Guildford to win 200 guineas, two days he beat five rivals to win a subscription stakes of five guineas each. Lord Grosvenors Truth had started as the 4/6 favourite, with King Fergus at 7/4, King Fergus started the 1781 season at the first spring meeting at Newmarket, where he beat Whizgig, Prince Ferdinand, Young Tantrum, Little Isaac, Knight Errant and Tantini to win £50. Whizgig had started as the 6/4 favourite, with King Fergus at 2/1, at the same meeting he walked over for another £50. He broke down and was retired from racing and his final race came in 1784, when he was put back into training.
He finished second to Chocolate in the Lord Lieutenants Purse at the Curragh, after retiring from racing in 1781 he was purchased by John Croke, to stand as a stallion in Ireland. After standing a few seasons in Ireland he returned to England and 1786 he stood at Red Lion Livery-Stables near Park Lane, Piccadilly for a fee of 5gns, in 1787 he stood in Catterick in Yorkshire, before moving to Shipton. By 1790 his fee had risen to 10gns and 10s 6d,1792 he moved from Shipton to Maidenhead and stood for a fee of 15gns and 10s 6d
Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
Prince William Augustus KG KB FRS, was the third and youngest son of George II of Great Britain and Caroline of Ansbach, and Duke of Cumberland from 1726. He is best remembered for his role in putting down the Jacobite Rising at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 and he is often referred to by the nickname given to him by his English Tory opponents, Butcher Cumberland. Despite his triumph at Culloden, he had an unsuccessful military career. Following the Convention of Klosterzeven in 1757, he never held active military command and switched his attentions to politics and horse racing. William was born in Leicester House, in Leicester Fields, Westminster and his godparents included the King and Queen in Prussia, but they apparently did not take part in person and were presumably represented by proxy. The young prince was educated well, his mother appointed Edmond Halley as a tutor, another of his tutors was his mothers favourite Andrew Fountaine. At Hampton Court Palace, apartments were designed specially for him by William Kent, Williams elder brother Frederick, Prince of Wales, proposed dividing the kings dominions.
Frederick would get Britain, while William would get Hanover, from childhood, he showed physical courage and ability, and became his parents favourite. He was enrolled in the 2nd Foot Guards and made a Knight of the Bath aged four, in December 1742, he became a major-general, the following year, he first saw active service in Germany. George II and the martial boy shared in the glory of the Battle of Dettingen, after the battle he was made a lieutenant general. As it became clear that the French intention was to take Tournai, Cumberland advanced to the relief of the town, in the resulting Battle of Fontenoy on 11 May 1745, the Allies were defeated by the French. Saxe had picked the battleground on which to confront the British, Cumberland ignored the threat of the woods when drawing up his battle plans, and instead concentrated on seizing the town of Fontenoy and attacking the main French army nearby. Following the battle Cumberland was frequently criticised for his tactics, particularly the failure to occupy the woods, in the wake of the battle, Cumberland was forced to retreat to Brussels and was unable to prevent the fall of Ghent and Ostend.
His appointment was popular, and caused morale to soar amongst the public, recalled from Flanders, Cumberland proceeded with preparations for quelling the Stuart uprising. The Jacobite army had advanced southwards into England, hoping that English Jacobites would rise, after receiving only limited support such as the Manchester Regiment, the followers of Charles decided to withdraw to Scotland. Cumberland joined the Midland army under Ligonier, and began pursuit of the enemy, carlisle was retaken, and he was recalled to London, where preparations were in hand to meet an expected French invasion. Arriving in Edinburgh on 30 January 1746, he at once proceeded in search of Charles and he made a detour to Aberdeen, where he spent some time training the well-equipped forces now under his command for the next stage of the conflict in which they were about to engage. He trained his troops to hold their fire until the enemy came within firing range, fire once
Sir Peter Teazle
Sir Peter Teazle was a good British bred Thoroughbred racehorse, a Leading sire in Great Britain & Ireland nine times, and carried on the sire line of Herod. Bred by Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby, Sir Peter Teazle was by the undefeated Highflyer, Sir Peters sire, Highflyer was on the Leading Sire list 16 times, producing 469 winners, seven of which won classic races. Highflyer got the mare Prunella, and the sons Delpini and his dam, was by Snap, himself on the Leading Sire list four times and a great producer of raw speed. Papillon had some success as a racehorse, finishing out of 22 in the 1773 Craven Stakes, losing to Firetail. Sir Peter was her 7th out of 12 living foals, and one of several winners she produced, including the filly Lady Teazle, the name comes from a character in the classic comic play The School for Scandal. Sir Peter first came to the track at three, and continued the season undefeated and he won a 40 guineas subscription purse and a sweepstakes by walkover. At age four at Newmarket First Spring he won the Jockey Stakes, the rich Claret Stakes, and the Fortescue Stakes, twice beating Buzzard, at Newmarket July he won the Grosvenor Stakes over two miles.
In October at Newmarket he received a forfeit in a 700 guineas match against Mentor and his final race of the year was a 300 guineas match against the good mare Maria, which he won. He was seven for eight that season, his only one in which he was conceding gobs of weight. He defeated Maria in a 300 guineas match and he finished his four-year-old season with seven wins from eight starts. Sir Peter won the Newmarket Craven, beating Meteor again and he forfeited two races—a six mile,1,000 guineas match against Dash, and 500 guineas match against Meteor—probably due to physical problems. Sir Peter lost to Mulberry, who was carrying 28 lbs less and he broke down in a race, and was retired to stud. Sir Peter stood at Derbys Knowsley Stud in Lancashire, where he had success in the breeding shed. During this time, he sired a Doncaster Cup, four Epsom Derby winners and his sons Walton and Sir Harry would be top on the list, Walton in Britain for two years, Sir Harry in the US. His top offspring include, won the Richmond Cup, ambrosio,1793 colt, won 18 races including the St.
Leger in 1796, the Newmarket Craven Oatlands twice, the Newmarkets Jockey Club Plate, and the Great Subscription Purse at York. Barbarossa,1802 colt, won the Egremont Stakes at Brighton, the Somerset Stakes, beatrice,1791 filly, dam to Vicissitude Caleb Quotem,1802 colt, won the Doncaster Cup, 2nd in the St. Leger Cecilia,1793 filly, won at Chesterfield. Ditto,1800 colt, won the Derby in 1803, the Claret Stakes at Newmarket, Newmarkets Craven Stakes, dam to Oaks winner Oriana, and Ashton. Produced daughters Camilla and Galatea Petronius 1805 colt, won the St. Leger in 1808 Pipylin,1799 colt, record 26, 11-3-