The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th and 18th centuries, to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, with the
The Alsea Bay Bridge is a concrete arch bridge that spans the Alsea Bay on U. S. Route 101 near Waldport, Oregon. There have been two bridges on this site; the first bridge was designed by Conde McCullough and opened in 1936. It was a 3,011 feet long, reinforced-concrete combination deck and through arch bridge built in 1936; the hostile environment caused significant corrosion to the steel reinforcements. In 1972 the Oregon Department of Transportation began projects aimed at extending the life of the bridge. By the mid-1980s it was decided to replace the bridge rather than continuing costly rehabilitation efforts; the first bridge was demolished in 1991. Construction of the second bridge, designed by HNTB, began in 1988, it was opened in the fall of 1991 at a cost of $42.4 million. The bridge is 2,910 ft in total length, with a 450 ft main span that provides 70 ft. of vertical clearance. The bridge has a latex concrete deck and the piers are thicker than normal in an attempt to thwart corrosion.
Its life expectancy is 75 to 100 years. Transport portal Engineering portal Oregon portal List of bridges on U. S. Route 101 in Oregon Photos Alsea Bay Bridge at Structurae Alsea Bay Bridge at Structurae Alsea Bay Bridge Interpretive Center Survey number HAER OR-14 – Old Alsea Bay Bridge, Spanning Alsea Bay at Oregon Coast Highway, Lincoln County, OR at the Historic American Engineering Record New Alsea Bay Bridge, Spanning Alsea Bay at Oregon Coast Highway, Waldport vicinity, Lincoln, OR at HAER Alsea Bay Bridge Photo Gallery
The Driglam Namzha is the official behaviour and dress code of Bhutan. It governs how they should behave in formal settings, it regulates a number of cultural assets such as art and architecture. In English, driglam means "order, custom, regimen" and namzha means "system", though the term may be styled "The Rules for Disciplined Behaviour"; the Driglam Namzha traces its roots directly back to the 17th-century pronouncements of Ngawang Namgyal, the first Zhabdrung Rinpoche, a Tibetan lama and military leader who sought to unify Bhutan not only politically but culturally. He established guidelines for dzong the characteristic monastery-fortresses of Bhutan, he established many of the traditions of the tshechu "district festival" such as the Cham dance. The guidelines were intentionally codified to encourage the emergence of a distinctively-Bhutanese identity. In 1989, the government elevated the status of the dress code from recommended to mandatory. All citizens were required to observe the dress code in public during business hours.
The decree was resented by Lhotshampas in the southern lowlands, who complained about being forced to wear the clothing of the Ngalop people. Under the Driglam Namzha, men wear a heavy knee-length robe tied with a belt, called a gho, folded in such a way to form a pocket in front of the stomach. Women wear colourful blouses called wonju over which they fold and clasp a large rectangular cloth called a kira, thereby creating an ankle-length dress. A short silk jacket or toego may be worn over the kira. Everyday gho and kira are cotton or wool according to the season, patterned in simple checks and stripes in earth tones. For special occasions and festivals, colourfully-patterned silk kira and, more gho, may be worn. Additional rules apply when visiting a dzong or a temple, when appearing before a high-level official. A white, raw silk sash with fringes called a kabney is worn by commoner men from left shoulder to opposite hip, with other colours reserved for officials and monks. Women wear a narrow embroidered cloth draped over the left shoulder.
The Driglam Namzha codifies the traditional rules for the construction of the sacred fortresses known as dzongs. No plans are nails allowed in their construction. Under the direction of an inspired lama, citizens build dzongs as part of their tax obligation to the state; as as 1998, by decree, all buildings must be constructed with multi-coloured wood frontages, small arched windows and sloping roofs. Culture of Bhutan History of Bhutan Dzong architecture Lhotshampa Bhutanese refugees