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Herod Agrippa II

Herod Agrippa II named Marcus Julius Agrippa and sometimes shortened to Agrippa, was the eighth and last ruler from the Herodian dynasty. He was the fifth member of this dynasty to bear the title of king, but he reigned over territories outside of Judea only as a Roman client. Agrippa was overthrown by his Jewish subjects in 66 and supported the Roman side in the First Jewish–Roman War. Herod Agrippa II was the son of the first and better-known Herod Agrippa, the brother of Berenice and Drusilla.. He was educated at the court of the emperor Claudius, at the time of his father's death he was only seventeen years old. Claudius therefore kept him at Rome, sent Cuspius Fadus as procurator of the Roman province of Judaea. While at Rome, he voiced his support for the Jews to Claudius, against the Samaritans and the procurator of Iudaea Province, Ventidius Cumanus, thought to have been the cause of some disturbances there. On the death of king Herod of Chalcis in 48, his small Syrian kingdom of Chalcis was given to Agrippa, with the right of superintending the Temple in Jerusalem and appointing its high priest, but only as a tetrarchy.

In 53, Agrippa was forced to give up the tetrarchy of Chalcis but in exchange Claudius made him ruler with the title of king over the territories governed by Philip, Batanea and Gaulonitis, the kingdom of Lysanias in Abila. The tetrarchy of Chalcis was subsequently in 57 given to Aristobulus. Herod Agrippa celebrated by marrying off his two sisters Drusilla. Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian, repeats the gossip that Agrippa lived in an incestuous relationship with his sister, Berenice. In 55, the Emperor Nero added to Agrippa's realm the cities of Tiberias and Taricheae in Galilee, Livias, with fourteen villages near it, in Peraea, it was before Agrippa and his sister Berenice that, according to the New Testament, Paul the Apostle pleaded his case at Caesarea Maritima in 59. Agrippa expended large sums in beautifying Jerusalem and other cities Berytus, a Hellenised city in Phoenicia, his partiality for the latter rendered him unpopular amongst his own subjects, the capricious manner in which he appointed and deposed the high priests made him disliked by his coreligionists.

In the seventeenth year of Agrippa's reign, Agrippa tried to avert a war with Rome, when he saw his countrymen disposed to fight against Rome, because of certain insults and abuses they had had under the Roman procurator, Gessius Florus. At this time, they had broken-off the cloisters leading from Antonia Fortress to the Temple Mount where Roman soldiers were wont to keep guard during the Jewish holidays, they refused to pay the tribute, due to Caesar. Agrippa convened the people and urged instead that they tolerate the temporary injustices done to them and submit themselves to Roman hegemony. At length, Agrippa failed to prevent his subjects from rebelling, during a certain holiday when the Roman governor of Syria, Cestius Gallus, had passed through Judea to quell the rebellion, he was routed by Jewish forces. By 66 the citizenry of Jerusalem expelled their king and his sister, from Jerusalem. During the First Jewish-Roman War of 66–73, he sent 2,000 men and cavalry, to support Vespasian, showing that, although a Jew in religion, he was devoted to the Roman Empire.

He accompanied Titus on some campaigns, was wounded at the siege of Gamla. After the capture of Jerusalem, he went with his sister Berenice to Rome, where he was invested with the dignity of praetor and rewarded with additional territory. Agrippa had a great intimacy with the historian Josephus, having supplied him with information for his history, Antiquities of the Jews. Josephus preserved two of the letters. According to Photius, Agrippa died, childless, at the age of seventy, in the third year of the reign of Trajan, that is, 100, but statements of historian Josephus, in addition to the contemporary epigraphy from his kingdom, cast this date into serious doubt; the modern scholarly consensus holds that he died before 93/94. He was the last prince from the House of Herod. Herodian kingdom List of Hasmonean and Herodian rulers This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Agrippa, Herodes II". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Matthew George. "Agrippa II". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons. Yohanan Aharoni & Michael Avi-Yonah, "The MacMillan Bible Atlas", Revised Edition, p. 156. Jewish Encyclopedia: Agrippa II Agrippa II - Article in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith Livius.org: Julius Marcus Agrippa

War of the Rebellion Atlas

The Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies was published as a companion piece to the Official Records of the American Civil War. It contains maps and other images derived from materials generated by both Union and Confederate military personnel during the American Civil War; the Atlas was published by the United States Department of War in 1895. It features maps of engagements large and small including Gettysburg, the Siege of Vicksburg and the various epochs of the Atlanta campaign; the Atlas is composed of 178 plates containing more than 1,050 individual graphic elements. Graphic elements include maps, line art illustrations derived from photographs, technical drawings, other illustrations; the Atlas contains three general types of illustrations: maps, illustrations based on photographs, illustrations/technical drawings. MapsA total of 156 plates containing maps ranging from small-scale engagements to regional views and date-specific snapshots of long-running sieges like Vicksburg and Atlanta.

Illustrations based on photographsTwelve plates that include images of Charleston Harbor and Ft. Sumter, Missionary Ridge and various elements of mid-nineteenth century warfare. Illustrations and technical drawingsTen plates containing diagrams of defensive elements and armaments, flags. In the fall of 2010, the Digitization Projects Group of the Baylor University Electronic Library digitized an high quality copy of the Atlas and placed the plates online via their Digital Collections site; the collection is searchable by keywords including state, military personnel and battle name, among others. Atlas to Accompany the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies from the Baylor University Digital Collections

Cumberland, Indiana

Cumberland is a town located in Hancock and Marion counties, United States. The population was 5,169 at the 2010 census. Cumberland was founded in the 1830s. Cumberland contained a post office from 1834 until it was discontinued in 1958. Since 1970, the Marion County portion of Cumberland has been subject to Unigov as an included town. Cumberland is located at 39°47′1″N 85°57′8″W. According to the 2010 census, the town has a total area of 2.07 square miles, of which 2.06 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,169 people, 1,972 households, 1,422 families living in the town; the population density was 2,509.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,233 housing units at an average density of 1,084.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 77.0% White, 16.8% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.3% of the population.

There were 1,972 households of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.9% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the town was 38.4 years. 27.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,500 people, 2,030 households, 1,565 families living in the town; the population density was 2,907.0 people per square mile. There were 2,190 housing units at an average density of 1,157.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.20% White, 10.56% African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.76% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.75% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.45% of the population. There were 2,030 households out of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.9% were non-families. 19.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.08. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $57,875, the median income for a family was $61,739. Males had a median income of $48,750 versus $28,239 for females; the per capita income for the town was $24,746. About 5.0% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 1.5% of those age 65 or over.

Town website

Election surprise

An election surprise is an event which occurs preceding an election which has enough shock value that it may be able to sway voters in close elections. When planned, an election surprise may be an act of propaganda. Election surprises fall into categories such as terrorism, political scandals, etc. There may be disagreement as to what constitutes an election surprise for several reasons: There may be general disagreement as to whether the event in question affected, or was intended to affect the outcome of the election as the event and the election may occur in different countries. There may be a lack of consensus as to which party the election surprise may have helped, or was intended to help; the relative weight of a declaration, the ability to catch on, help to distinguish true election surprises from minor events. What was a surprise for some of the population may have been obvious for another part; the role a speech act, such as an expression of opinion/research could play. The documentary Hacking Democracy may not constitute an election surprise, whereas a statement issued by Osama bin Laden might.

Rumours of potential election surprises may abound preceding an election. The term "election surprise" may be used to denote an election with a surprising outcome. In October 1980, the Iranian Embassy Hostages preceding elections in United States on November 4, 1980, Ronald Reagan's election campaign manager William Casey, Laurence Silberman and George HW Bush went to Paris and held a series of meetings with Iranian officials from October 15 to October 20, 1980 to discuss the fate of the 52 remaining hostages taken from the US embassy building in Tehran, Iran on November 4, 1979. Iranian officials agreed not to release the hostages prior to election day on November 4, 1980 in exchange for a shipment of F-4 Phantom II aircraft tires and spare parts supplied to Iran from Israel between October 21 and October 23, 1980 in contravention of the United States' boycott and the Trading with the Enemy Act; the 52 hostages were released after 444 days in captivity on the same day, at the same hour, that Ronald Reagan was sworn into office on January 20, 1981.

The United States Congress held hearings in 1991 led by Lee H. Hamilton on the matter, which were underreported in the media and considered to be a whitewash, in which "no credible evidence" was found "linking Reagan's team to the delay of the hostages' release." A 1976 drunk driving citation on candidate George W. Bush was considered an election surprise for its suspicious timing, coming out one week before the 2000 US Presidential Election. Madrid train bombings on 11 March 2004, preceding elections in Spain on 14 March 2004; this led to the defeat of the sitting government subsequently leading to the Spanish withdraw from Iraq. The Killian documents, a faked set of papers provided to CBS News prior to the 2004 US Presidential Election were considered an election surprise for the timing and negative propaganda value. Rep. Mark Foley admitted to sending explicit instant messages to underage pages on 29 September 2006, preceding mid-term elections in the United States on 7 November 2006. Democrats said that high-ranking members of the Republican Party in the House of Representatives may have known about the events.

Saddam Hussein was found guilty of crimes against humanity on 5 November 2006, preceding mid-term elections in the United States on 7 November 2006. Season of bitter verdicts is upon US October Is Time for Election'Surprise' Who Will'Osama Surprise' Help

Malvina Garrigues

Malvina Garrigues Malvina Schnorr von Carolsfeld was a Portuguese operatic soprano, born in Denmark and made her career in Germany. She and her husband Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld created the title roles in Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde in 1865, her given name appears as Malwina and Malwine but Malvina is the correct spelling. Eugénia Malvina Garrigues was born a Portuguese citizen in Copenhagen, the daughter of the Portuguese consul there, João António Henriques Garrigues, his German wife of French descent. Portugal's Queen Maria II assigned her father as consul to Denmark by decree of 17 November 1825, she was great-grand-niece of David Garrick. Her first cousin was Danish-American doctor Henry Jacques Garrigues, she studied in Paris with Manuel Patricio Rodríguez García. She made her debut in Giacomo Meyerbeer's Robert le diable in Breslau in 1841, where she sang until 1849. From 1849 to 1853 she worked at the ducal Hoftheater at Coburg, in Gotha and Hamburg. In 1854 she was engaged by the Karlsruhe Opera, where she met Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld, ten years her junior.

They appeared there together in such operas as Les Huguenots. They became engaged in 1857 and married in April 1860; the same year they were engaged by the Dresden Court Opera. After conducting 70 rehearsals of his Tristan und Isolde in Vienna and still finding the singers wanting, Richard Wagner turned to Malvina and Ludwig Schnorr von Carolsfeld to create the roles; the premiere was set for 15 May 1865 in Munich, but had to be postponed to 10 June owing to Malvina's hoarseness. After Ludwig's sudden and untimely death at the age of 29 on 21 July 1865, only six weeks after the premiere, Malvina sank into a deep depression and never sang again, she took up spiritualism, was influenced by one of her mediumistic pupils to believe she was destined to marry Wagner. This caused her to be jealous of Cosima von Bülow, living with Wagner at Tribschen, she tried to create a rift between them, she taught singing at Frankfurt. Malvina Garrigues Schnorr von Carolsfeld wrote a small number of songs dedicated to Jenny Lind, to texts by Heinrich Heine and Lord Byron.

She published some poetry by her husband. She died in Karlsruhe in 1904, aged 78, was cremated in Heidelberg, her ashes are located in Dresden, she has been the subject of a one-woman stage show, O, Malvina!, created by Dame Gwyneth Jones, who played her in the 1983 film Wagner. Malvina Garrigues at the bayerisches musiker lexikon online Malvina Garrigues at Find a Grave

Hong Kong Letters Patent 1917

The Hong Kong Letters Patent 1917 was one of the principal constitutional instruments of Hong Kong when she was a British Crown colony and dependent territory. The Hong Kong Letters Patent 1917 has been amended many times since its coming into force; the Hong Kong Letters Patent 1917 superseded the letters patent issued on 5 April 1843, all subsequent letters patent amending the 1843 one, the letters patent issued on 19 January 1888. The 1917 letters patent, as amended from time to time, remained part of the basis for Hong Kong's system of government until the transfer of the territory's sovereignty on 1 July 1997 to the People's Republic of China. Issued under the royal prerogative, the letters patent was the formal legal basis of the office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief, the Executive Council, the Legislative Council. After the transfer of sovereignty to China, the Hong Kong Letters Patent 1917 ceased to have legal effect, as it is superseded by the new Basic Law. Hong Kong Letters Patent Hong Kong Royal Instructions 1917 Hong Kong Royal Instructions History of Hong Kong Colonial Hong Kong Letters patent Royal assent Estatuto Orgânico de Macau, Portuguese Macau equivalent Full text of the Hong Kong Letters Patent 1917 as of 30 June 1997 Full texts of all Hong Kong Letters Patent