Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian, born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire. He is known for having written the book The Histories, a detailed record of his "inquiry" on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars, he is considered to have been the first writer to have treated historical subjects using a method of systematic investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials and critically arranging them into an historiographic narrative. On account of this, he is referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred on him by the first-century BC Roman orator Cicero. Despite Herodotus's historical significance, little is known about his personal life, his Histories deals with the lives of Croesus, Cambyses, Smerdis and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon, Artemisium, Salamis and Mycale. Herodotus has been criticized for the fact that his book includes many obvious legends and fanciful accounts. Many authors, starting with the late fifth-century BC historian Thucydides, have accused him of making up stories for entertainment.
However, Herodotus states that he is reporting what he has seen and heard. A sizable portion of the information he provides has since been confirmed by historians and archaeologists. Herodotus announced the purpose and scope of his work at the beginning of his Histories: Here are presented the results of the enquiry carried out by Herodotus of Halicarnassus; the purpose is to prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time, to preserve the fame of the important and remarkable achievements produced by both Greeks and non-Greeks. His record of the achievements of others was an achievement in itself, though the extent of it has been debated. Herodotus's place in history and his significance may be understood according to the traditions within which he worked, his work is the earliest Greek prose. However, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a literary critic of Augustan Rome, listed seven predecessors of Herodotus, describing their works as simple, unadorned accounts of their own and other cities and people, Greek or foreign, including popular legends, sometimes melodramatic and naïve charming – all traits that can be found in the work of Herodotus himself.
Modern historians regard the chronology as uncertain, but according to the ancient account, these predecessors included Dionysius of Miletus, Charon of Lampsacus, Hellanicus of Lesbos, Xanthus of Lydia and, the best attested of them all, Hecataeus of Miletus. Of these, only fragments of Hecataeus's works survived, the authenticity of these is debatable, but they provide a glimpse into the kind of tradition within which Herodotus wrote his own Histories. In his introduction to Hecataeus' work, Genealogies: Hecataeus the Milesian speaks thus: I write these things as they seem true to me; this points forward to the "international" outlook typical of Herodotus. However, one modern scholar has described the work of Hecataeus as "a curious false start to history", since despite his critical spirit, he failed to liberate history from myth. Herodotus mentions Hecataeus in his Histories, on one occasion mocking him for his naive genealogy and, on another occasion, quoting Athenian complaints against his handling of their national history.
It is possible that Herodotus borrowed much material from Hecataeus, as stated by Porphyry in a quote recorded by Eusebius. In particular, it is possible that he copied descriptions of the crocodile and phoenix from Hecataeus's Circumnavigation of the Known World misrepresenting the source as "Heliopolitans", but Hecataeus did not record events that had occurred in living memory, unlike Herodotus, nor did he include the oral traditions of Greek history within the larger framework of oriental history. There is no proof that Herodotus derived the ambitious scope of his own work, with its grand theme of civilizations in conflict, from any predecessor, despite much scholarly speculation about this in modern times. Herodotus claims to be better informed than his predecessors by relying on empirical observation to correct their excessive schematism. For example, he argues for continental asymmetry as opposed to the older theory of a circular earth with Europe and Asia/Africa equal in size. However, he retains idealizing tendencies, as in his symmetrical notions of the Nile.
His debt to previous authors of prose "histories" might be questionable, but there is no doubt that Herodotus owed much to the example and inspiration of poets and story-tellers. For example, Athenian tragic poets provided him with a world-view of a balance between conflicting forces, upset by the hubris of kings, they provided his narrative with a model of episodic structure, his familiarity with Athenian tragedy is demonstrated in a number of passages echoing Aeschylus's Persae, including the epigrammatic observation that the defeat of the Persian navy at Salamis caused the defeat of the land army. The debt may have been repaid by Sophocles because there appear to be echoes of The Histories in his plays a passage in Antigone that resembles Herodotus's account of the death of Intaphernes
The 2014–15 Nebraska Cornhuskers women's basketball team will represent University of Nebraska–Lincoln during the 2014–15 NCAA Division I women's basketball season. The Cornhuskers, led by 13th year head coach Connie Yori, play their home games at the newly Pinnacle Bank Arena and were members of the Big Ten Conference, they finished the season 10 -- 8 in Big Ten play to finish in seventh place. They advanced to the quarterfinals of the Big Ten Women's Tournament, they received at-large bid of the NCAA Women's Tournament where they lost to Syracuse in the first round. The Nebraska Cornhuskers finished the 2013-14 season with an overall record of 26–7, with a record of 12–4 in the Big Ten regular season for a 3rd-place finish. In the 2014 Big Ten Tournament, the Cornhuskers won their first Big Ten Women's Basketball Tournament in school history, they were invited to the 2014 NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Tournament, making their 12th appearance. They lost in the second round to BYU. Source 2014–15 Nebraska Cornhuskers men's basketball team
Founded by Brazilian photographer André François in 1995, ImageMagica is a NGO, which develops photographic projects and documentaries that promote education and culture to youth and adults. ImageMagica is affiliated with the UN by the Department of Public Information since 2006. In 2008 it was recognized by the Ministry of Culture, with the Health and Culture Award, besides being certified by the Ministry of Justice of Brazil. Awarded 1st place for best project by PAHO and IUHPE at III Latin America Conference for Health Promotion and Education in 2003. Affiliated to the United Nations through DPI since 2006. ImageMagica is certified by Brazil’s Ministry of Justice. Recognized by the Ministry of Health of Brazil – Health and Culture Award. Projects and methodology were recognized by Unesco, Petrobrás, Banco do Brasil Foundation. Partnership with World Health Organization and photographs donated to WHO’s image bank and publications. Learning to see Developed in schools and community centers, the program teaches the participants to photograph with digital or handmade pinhole.
Since 1995, the program has been in more than 70 educational institutions throughout Brazil. Health and Culture The program acts in health centers, among others. In those places, everybody can turn into a photographer, from doctors, nurses and cleaning staff to patients and their families. With a digital camera in their hands, they are invited to take photos that represent caring: how they take care of others and how others treat them; the hospital’s atmosphere and the relationships between all of them get better and, at the end, the participants receive their photos with captions made by them. In this way, the program helps promoting a more humane health care service. Since 2006, the program has been in over 50 hospitals throughout Brazil. Caring - A documentary about humane medical care in BrazilReleased in 2006, the book is the result of photographer André François’ expedition throughout the five regions of Brazil; the photo-documentary portrays the humanization and care inside hospitals, health centers and among health teams.
The photographer searched stories from all over Brazil, from big cities, such as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, to small isolated villages in the Amazon. These people show that, no matter the resources, taking care of the patients is a fundamental part of their work; some images from Caring were exhibited in an individual room at the São Paulo Museum of Art, as part of the Pirelli/Masp Photography Collection in 2009. In 2011, an iPad version for Caring was released. Besides the pictures and text, the app has making of photos and interviews with the author, revealing curiosities of the documented stories; the curve and the path - Access to health care in BrazilThe book is the important record of the sagas of people in search for access to health in the country. In "The curve and the path", photographer Andre Francois reveals true inspired stories that humanize the statistics and show us the challenges of promoting health in a country as vast as Brazil. In 2008, the book won the 1st place in Published Photo Essay on Conrado Wessel Foundation Award 2008.
Photographs of this documentary were chosen in 2009 to be part of the permanent Pirelli-Masp Photography Collection, the largest photo collection in Brazil. Choosing and living - Treatment and quality of life of chronic renal patientsWhile André François was developing the book The curve and the path, he had the chance to get in touch with several chronic renal patients and their stories. Many of them lived in the countryside and needed to travel three times a week or move to a bigger city to have access to hemodialysis. By researching and getting deeper into the subject, the photographer got in contact with peritoneal dialysis, which although it could be done at home with more convenience, it is still not well known. Keeping that in mind, André decided to photograph stories of people who adhered to this treatment and could move on with their lives inside their homes while awaiting kidney transplant. Published in 2009, Choosing and Living aims to contribute to make this treatment better known and encourage organ donation.
In the same year, the book was one of the finalists in the category Published Photo Essay on Conrado Wessel Foundation Award, one of the most important photography prizes in Brazil. Back home - A documentary about home care in Brazil Home care in Brazil is still little known and publicized. However, it is cheaper for the government and brings better quality of life for the patients, who can enjoy the warmth of their family. Interested in knowing who are these patients and how they live, André François published the book Back home. With a large background from five years of covering health issues in Brazil, André decided to meet and document stories in many homes across the country, from big cities like São Paulo and Curitiba, which have a good medical infrastructure, as in isolated regions, such as Indigenous areas in the Amazon rainforest, with little access to health care. Published in 2010, Back home brings stories of patients and health teams who experience this reality everyday such as little Maria Carolina Leuzenski, that due to a muscular dystrophy, spent the first two years of her life in the hospital and after getting the agreement of the health insurance to cover the expenses of home care, could to go to her home and attend school.
Besides André François’ pictures, the book includes a series of pictures made by the characters of the book, who were invited by ImageMagica’s educational team to s