Herring are forage fish belonging to the family Clupeidae. Herring move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast; the most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found in shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognised, provide about 90% of all herrings captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring. Fishes called herring are found in the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal. Herring played a pivotal role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe, early in the 20th century, their study was fundamental to the evolution of fisheries science; these oily fish have a long history as an important food fish, are salted, smoked, or pickled. A number of different species, most belonging to the family Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the origins of the term "herring" is somewhat unclear, though it may derive from the Old High German heri meaning a "host, multitude", in reference to the large schools they form.

The type genus of the herring family Clupeidae is Clupea. Clupea contains three species: the Atlantic herring found in the north Atlantic, the Pacific herring found in the north Pacific, the Araucanian herring found off the coast of Chile. Subspecific divisions have been suggested for both the Atlantic and Pacific herrings, but their biological basis remains unclear. In addition, a number of related species, all in the Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the table below includes those members of the family Clupeidae referred to by FishBase as herrings which have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. A number of other species are called herrings, which may be related to clupeids or just share some characteristics of herrings. Just which of these species are called herrings can vary with locality, so what might be called a herring in one locality might be called something else in another locality; some examples: The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae, which comprises some 200 species that share similar features.

These silvery-coloured fish have a single dorsal fin, soft, without spines. They have a protruding lower jaw, their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring is small, 14 to 18 cm. At least one stock of Atlantic herring spawns in every month of the year; each spawns at place. Greenland populations spawn in 0–5 m of water, while North Sea herrings spawn at down to 200 m in autumn. Eggs are laid on the sea bed, on rock, gravel, sand or beds of algae. Females may deposit from 20,000 to 40,000 eggs, according to age and size, averaging about 30,000. In sexually mature herring, the genital organs grow before spawning, reaching about one-fifth of its total weight; the eggs sink to the bottom, where they stick in layers or clumps to gravel, seaweed, or stones, by means of their mucous coating, or to any other objects on which they chance to settle. If the egg layers are too thick they suffer from oxygen depletion and die, entangled in a maze of mucus, they need substantial water microturbulence provided by wave action or coastal currents.

Survival is highest in crevices and behind solid structures, because predators feast on exposed eggs. The individual eggs are 1 to 1.4 mm in diameter, depending on the size of the parent fish and on the local race. Incubation time is about 40 days at 3 °C, 15 days at 7 °C, or 11 days at 10 °C. Eggs die at temperatures above 19 °C; the larvae are 5 to 6 mm long at hatching, with a small yolk sac, absorbed by the time the larvae reach 10 mm. Only the eyes are well pigmented; the rest of the body is nearly transparent invisible under water and in natural lighting conditions. The dorsal fin forms at 15 to 17 mm, the anal fin at about 30 mm —the ventral fins are visible and the tail becomes well forked at 30 to 35 mm — at about 40 mm, the larva begins to look like a herring; the larvae are slender and can be distinguished from all other young fish of their range by the location of the vent, which lies close to the base of the tail, but distinguishing clupeoids one from another in their early stages requires critical examination telling herring from sprats.

At one year, they are about 10 cm long, they first spawn at three years. Herrings consume copepods, arrow worms, pelagic amphipods and krill in the pelagic zone. Conversely, they are a central prey forage fish for higher trophic levels; the reasons for this success is still enigmatic. Herring feed on phytoplankton, as they mature, they start to consume larger organisms, they feed on zooplankton, tiny animals found in oceanic surface waters, small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight, herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when the chance of being seen by predators is less, they swim along with their mouths open, fi

Abdul Hamid Lahori

Abdul Hamid Lahori was a traveller and historian during the period of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan who became a court historian of Shah Jahan. He wrote the book Badshahnama, about the reign of Shah Jahan, he has described Shah Jahan's life and activities during the first twenty years of his reign in this book in great detail Infirmities of old age prevented him from proceeding with the Third decade, chronicled by Waris, a historian. Not much is known about the biographical details about Abdul Hamid Lahori, except from Amai-i Salih of Muhammad Salih, another court writer, who mentions his date of death to be 1659 AD. In his own preface to the text, Lahori mentions that he was recalled from his retirement in Patna to write official history as the Emperor wanted someone who could emulate the style of Akbarnama of Abul Fazl which he too admired. Abdul Hamid Lahori wrote the history of the first twenty years of Shah Jahan's rule in Padshahnama and completed the book in 1648 AD. Taj Mahal, the world-renowned monument was built and completed by the end of 1653 AD or early 1654 AD in the 17th-century.

So the 350th anniversary of Taj Mahal occurred around 1994. More than 20,000 workers toiled for years to build the majestic Taj Mahal with four slender minarets, it was built by the heartbroken Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his second wife, Empress Mumtaz Mahal, who had died in childbirth. Shah Jahan's official chronicler Abdul Hamid Lahori writes that the construction began six months after Empress Mumtaz Mahal's death, on 17 June 1631. Abdul Hamid Lahori calls the glass pieces of the Sheesh Mahal of the Agra Fort as glass pieces "Shish-i-Halebi" because Haleb was the original name of Aleppo, the main centre for manufacturing these glass pieces. To build a strong foundation of this grand mausoleum known as the Taj Mahal, a network of wells was laid down along the river line and the wells were filled with stones and other solid materials, he was widely-known to be a good scholar. He had good knowledge of science and astronomy. Abdul Hamid was called Lahori because he was from Punjab although he died in Agra.

Lahori, Abdul Hamid. Badshahnamah of Lahori, Vol. 1. College Press Calcutta. Lahori, Abdul Hamid. Badshahnamah of Lahori, Vol. 2, Bibliotheca Indica. College Press Calcutta. Lahori, Abdul Hamid. Badshanama of Abdul Hamid Lahori. Hafiz Press, Lahore. Bádsháh-Náma of'Abdu-L Hamíd Láhorí Packard Humanities Institute The Padshahnama at the Royal Collection Trust website

Crime in Transnistria

Crime in Transnistria covers criminality-related incidents in the breakaway Republic of Transnistria, still nominally part of Moldova. The police organisations of Transnistria are tasked with fighting crime in the republic. Transnistria has a reputation of being a haven for smuggling. In 2002, the European Parliament's delegation to Moldova named Transnistria "a black hole in which illegal trade in arms, the trafficking in human beings and the laundering of criminal finance was carried on". In 2005, The Wall Street Journal called Transnistria "a major haven for smuggling weapons and women". However, in more recent statements, OSCE and European Union diplomats cited by Radio Free Europe called the smuggling claims "likely exaggerated". Since 30 November 2005 the European Union has had a Border Assistance Mission on Transnistria's borders with the United Nations Development Programme as implementing partner. In its official statements, the EU mission confirmed an absence of any signs of weapons smuggling from Transnistria.

Foreign experts working on behalf of the United Nations confirm that the current situation in the region "has prevented effective small arms control and undermined reform of the security sector". In 2004, a Washington Times article claimed that a cache of surface-to-air missile launchers, other weapons, may have disappeared from a former Soviet stockpile, that officials were at the time unable to account for their whereabouts; the OSCE and European Union officials state that there is no evidence that Transnistria has at any time in the past, trafficked arms or nuclear material. Foreign experts working on behalf of the United Nations say that the low levels of transparency and continued denial of full investigation to international monitors has reinforced negative perceptions of the Transnistrian regime, although recent good levels of cooperation on the part of Transnistrian authorities in some areas may reflect a shift in the attitude of PMR, it says that the evidence for the illicit production and trafficking of weapons into and from Transnistria has in the past been exaggerated, that although the trafficking of light weapons is to have occurred before 2001.

The last year when export data showed US$900,000 worth of ‘weapons, their parts and accessories’ exported from Transnistria. In 2006 special monitoring mission of Russia and Ukraine headed by deputy secretary of the Security Council of Russia Yuri Zubakov and deputy secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine Serhiy Pirozhkov visited Transnistria and inspected enterprises, suspected in arms production. Based on the results of the inspection Zubakov and Pirozhkov stated that there have been no signs that any of the enterprises produced armaments or their components. In 2013 Ukrainian Foreign Minister and Acting Chairman of the OSCE Leonid Kozhara gave an interview to El País newspaper, commenting on situation in Transnistria and results of work of the EUBAM mission. According to Kozhara, there have been no cases of arms traffic found. Over the past few years, there have been several minor antisemitic incidents in Transnistria. 14–15 April 2001 the Synagogue of Tiraspol suffered a pipe bomb attack.

The building was damaged. 13–30 March 2004 over 70 tombstones in the Jewish cemetery of Tiraspol were vandalized. Local community leaders said the authorities refused to help clean up the anti-Semitic graffiti painted over the tombstones in May 2004, there was an attempt by a Russian neo-nazi organization to set on fire a synagogue in Tiraspol, using a Molotov Cocktail and a flammable liquid near a gas pipe; the attack failed. In July 2006, a bomb killed eight in a Tiraspol minibus. in August 2006, a grenade explosion in a Tiraspol trolleybus killed two and injured ten. Certain countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom and Spain caution their citizens from traveling to both Moldova and Transnistria. In April 2010 the journalist Ernest Vardanean was arrested on accusations of espionage in favour of Moldova. In May 2011 Igor Smirnov signed a decree saying that Ernest can be released from the jail Crime in Moldova