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Herstmonceux Castle

Herstmonceux Castle is a brick-built castle, dating from the 15th century, near Herstmonceux, East Sussex, England. It is one of the oldest significant brick buildings still standing in England; the castle was renowned for being one of the first buildings to use that material in England, was built using bricks taken from the local clay, by builders from Flanders. It dates from 1441. Construction began under the then-owner, Sir Roger Fiennes and from his death in 1449, by his son, Lord Dacre; the parks and gardens of Herstmonceux Castle and Place are Grade II* listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Other listed structures on the Herstmonceux estate include the Grade II listed walled garden to the north of the castle, the Grade II* listed telescopes and workshops of the Herstmonceux Science Centre; the first written evidence of the existence of the Herst settlement appears in William the Conqueror's Domesday Book which reports that one of William's closest supporters granted tenancy of the manor at Herst to a man named ‘Wilbert'.

By the end of the twelfth century, the family at the manor house at Herst had considerable status. Written accounts mention a lady called Idonea de Herst, who married a Norman nobleman named Ingelram de Monceux. Around this time, the manor began to be called the "Herst of the Monceux", a name that became Herstmonceux. A descendant of the Monceux family, Roger Fiennes, was responsible for the construction of Herstmonceux Castle in the County of Sussex. Sir Roger was appointed Treasurer of the Household of Henry VI of England and needed a house fitting a man of his position, so construction of the castle on the site of the old manor house began in 1441, it was this position as treasurer which enabled him to afford the £3,800 construction of the original castle. In 1541, Sir Thomas Fiennes, Lord Dacre, was tried for murder and robbery of the King's deer after his poaching exploits on a neighboring estate resulted in the death of a gamekeeper, he was convicted and hanged as a commoner, the Herstmonceux estate was temporarily confiscated by Henry VIII of England, but was restored to the Fiennes family during the reign of one of Henry's children.

The profligacy of the 15th Baron Dacre, heir to the Fiennes family, forced him to sell in 1708 to George Naylor, a lawyer of Lincoln’s Inn in London. Bethaia Naylor, who became the heiress of Herstmonceux on the death of her brother's only daughter, married Francis Hare and produced a son, who inherited in turn, his mother's property; the castle came into the possession of Robert Hare-Naylor, upon the nagging of his second wife, Henrietta Henckell, followed the architect Samuel Wyatt’s advice to reduce the Castle to a picturesque ruin by demolishing the interior. Thomas Lennard, 17th Baron Dacre, was sufficiently exercised as to commission James Lamberts Jnr of Lewes to record the building in 1776; the castle was dismantled in 1777 leaving the exterior walls standing and remained a ruin until the early 20th century. Radical restoration work was undertaken by Colonel Claude Lowther in 1913 to transform the ruined building into a residence and, based on a design by the architect, Walter Godfrey, this work was completed by Sir Paul Latham in 1933.

The existing interiors date to this period, incorporating architectural antiques from England and France. The one major change in planning was the combination of the four internal courtyards into one large one; the restoration work, regarded as the apex of Godfrey's architectural achievement, was described by the critic Nikolaus Pevsner as executed'exemplarily'. The Royal Observatory was founded by King Charles II at Greenwich in 1675. Observing conditions at Greenwich deteriorated following the urban growth of London, plans were made in the early 20th century to relocate the observatory to a rural location with clearer, darker skies. Herstmonceux Castle and estate were put up for sale by their private owners and were sold in 1946 to the Admiralty, which operated the Royal Observatory on behalf of the British government; the relocation of the observatory took place over a decade, was complete by 1957. A number of new buildings were erected in the castle grounds; the institution at Herstmonceux Castle was known as the Royal Greenwich Observatory, where it remained until 1988, when the observatory relocated to Cambridge.

Several of the telescopes remain but the largest telescope, the 100 inch aperture Isaac Newton Telescope was moved to La Palma, Canary Islands, in the 1970s. The estate provides housing to the Equatorial Telescope Buildings, which have been converted to an interactive science centre for schoolchildren; the empty dome for the Newton Telescope is a landmark, visible from afar. In 1992 Alfred Bader, an alumnus of Queen's University, learned of the castle's vacancy and offered to purchase the castle for his wife, but in 1994, after intensive renovations, the Queen's International Study Centre was opened. It hosts undergraduate students studying arts, science, or commerce through the Canadian University Study Abroad Program, as well as graduate students studying Public International Law or International Business Law. Specialty summer programmes including engineering, international health sciences, law have become popular in recent years with students from both Queen's and other universities. In late January 2009, the ISC was renamed the Bader International Study Centre.

As part of the 25th anniversary celebrations, new science and innovation labs were opened on the campus to increase the ability for first year science-tracked students to attend. Herstmonceux castle is associated with a

Recep Peker

Mehmet Recep Peker was a Turkish military officer and politician. He served in various ministerial posts and as the Prime Minister of Turkey. Born in Constantinople on 5 February 1889, his father was named Mustafa and was of Circassian descent, migrated to Anatolia from the Dagestan region of the Caucasus, he was Lezgi. He studied at the Military College following his graduation from the Kuleli Military High School, where he enrolled after completing his primary and secondary education at Koca Mustafa Pasha Primary School and Military Middle School. After finishing the academy in the rank of a lieutenant in 1907, he was assigned to the staff officer class. Recep Peker took part at the battles of Yemen and Libya, Balkan Wars and Caucasus campaigns of the World War I, he graduated in 1919, as the first of his class, from the Staff College to which he entered in 1911. At the second half of 1919, he served as assistant teacher of history of war at the Military Academy, he joined on the Turkish War of Independence in Anatolia as a squadron leader.

He was appointed secretary general of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 23 April 1920, the day the parliament was opened. He served in this position more than three years. In the time between his appointment as the parliament's secretary general until the Battle of Sakarya, he served in addition as the chief of Second Branch Office at the General Staff. On 12 July 1923, he was re-elected into the parliament as the deputy from Kütahya, he was the Minister of Finance between 6 March and 22 November 1924, Minister of Interior and on commission the Minister of Barter and Minister of Development and Housing. Peker was appointed as the Minister of National Defence on 4 March 1926, the Minister of Public Works in 1927, he was elected the parliamentary group spokesman and secretary general of the Republican People's Party in 1928. Recep Peker initiated the introduction of the "History of the Revolution" in the school curriculums, he taught Republican Ideology at universities in Ankara and Istanbul in the academic year 1933-1934.

His classes were known as revolution lessons. He wrote a book about it, he supported the idea that women should be liberated from the sack and the arabic letters should be replaced by the Turkish alphabet. On 17 August 1942, he was appointed Minister of Interior in the cabinet of Şükrü Saracoğlu serving nine months. Recep Peker became the first prime minister of the multi-party period on 7 August 1946, however Peker was a strong advocate of statism and the authoritarian one-party state; as prime minister, he opposed the introduction of the multi-party system. He served in this position until 7 September 1947. In 1948, he retired from political life. Recep Peker died on 2 April 1950, was laid to rest at the Edirnekapı Martyr's Cemetery in Istanbul. Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the General Directorate of Cultural Heritages and Museums

Seasons of Love (film)

Seasons of Love is a four-hour Canadian television miniseries based on the acclaimed novel The Earth Abideth by George Dell. The book, for many years a buried treasure, was found by the author’s daughter-in-law and sent to Ohio State Press, it was written in 1934 but not published until 1988. The two part miniseries, produced for CBS by Sullivan Entertainment was broadcast in the US on March 7 and 9, 1999, under the title Seasons of Love. In Canada, it was subsequently broadcast on television and released on home video under the title Love on the Land; the film, directed by Daniel Petrie and starring Peter Strauss, Rachel Ward, Rip Torn and Hume Cronyn, was shot on location in Toronto and at Upper Canada Village near Morrisburg, Ontario. Love on the Land is an epic drama spanning forty years in the lives of Thomas Linthorne and his wife Kate as they endure trials and tribulations while raising their family in rural Ohio during the period after the Civil War; when Thomas sets out to start a new life, he acquires a large piece of land and goes on a search for the woman of his dreams.

He rescues Kate from an abusive relationship, they develop a strong love for one another. Kate is unaware of the threat standing before her. Thomas’ choices threaten to destroy his family, his marriage, his life. Peter Strauss – Thomas Linthorne Rachel Ward – Kate Linthorne Hume Cronyn – Lonzo Brewster Rip Torn – Spence Vitt Nick Stahl – Grover Linthorne Justin Chambers – Hocking Linthorne Chandra West – Lucille Brewster - Official Seasons of Love Page

Matt Hamilton (racing driver)

Matthew Hamilton is a British auto racing driver. He is best known for competing in the British Touring Car Championship. Hamilton raced in karting between 1999 and 2005. In 2005 he won a Formula BMW scholarship, he raced in Formula Palmer Audi in 2007. He won the opening race of the season at Silverstone, was on pole position for the second. A fast-changing red starting light left Hamilton stranded on the startline, he was spun around. Hamilton was extracted from the cockpit and airlifted to hospital in Coventry with a broken right femur. In 2008 he competed in the British Formula Ford Championship. In 2009 he made his GT racing debut at Silverstone racing in the FIA GT4 European Cup in a Ginetta G50, he competed in the final two rounds of the 2009 British Touring Car Championship in a TH Motorsport-prepared Honda Civic, continued in the same car for 2010. At the season's first meeting at Thruxton he collected funds for Help For Heroes, he was forced to miss the Croft round of the championship due to budgetary issues.

Matt Hamilton signed for THM Racing in March 2014 the Watford-based Volkswagen Racing Cup outfit,to compete in the competitive Volkswagen Racing Cup series backed by the giant Volkswagen Group Official Website

Oscar Torp

Oscar Fredrik Torp was a Norwegian politician for the Norwegian Labour Party. He was party leader from 1923 to 1945, mayor of Oslo in 1935 and 1936. In 1935 he became acting Minister of Defence in the government of Johan Nygaardsvold, he was Minister of Social Affairs from 1936 to 1939, Minister of Finance from 1939 to 1942. He was appointed Minister of Defence again in 1942 in the London-based Norwegian exile government, he continued until the election in 1945 when he became Minister of Provisioning and Reconstruction until 1948. Hailing from Skjeberg, he was first elected to the Parliament of Norway representing Oslo in 1936, but did not take a seat in the Parliament until 1948, he became the faction leader for the Labour Party in Parliament. He became Prime Minister of Norway in 1951, he held this position until his death. He was born in Skjeberg as a son of Anne Bolette Andreassen Gade, he had eight siblings, lost his father at a young age. His father worked in Canada from 1903, sailed home to collect his family to emigrate to Canada in 1907.

However he died en route, near Liverpool. Torp attended primary school before joining the workforce at age 13, he became an electrician, at the age of 14 he became deputy treasurer in his local trade union. He joined the Norwegian Labour Party, was elected to the national board in 1918, when an opposition of revolutionaries assumed power in the party. Torp chaired the party chapter in Sarpsborg from 1919 to 1921 and in Østfold county from 1921 to 1923, he was a supervisory council member in the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions from 1920 to 1925, board chairman of Østfold Arbeiderblad from 1921 to 1923. He was married to Kari Hansen since April 1916, he was the father of Reidar Torp. In 1922 Torp was a delegate at the Fourth Comintern Congress. In 1923 the revolutionary wing that had assumed power in the Labour Party in 1918 had split into two wings, one for and one against Comintern membership. Torp belonged to the latter wing. Torp was elected chairman of the entire party; when he became chairman, the chairman of the party's youth wing was four years older.

Torp chaired the party until 1945. It has been said, that Martin Tranmæl was the "real" chairman of the Labour Party. Torp had been a member of Sarpsborg city council from 1919 to 1923 and deputy member of Aker municipal council from 1925 to 1928 when he in 1930 moved to Oslo, he served as mayor in 1935 and 1936, was elected to the Parliament of Norway in the 1936 Norwegian parliamentary election. By that time he had become acting Minister of Defence in Nygaardsvold's Cabinet, filling in for Fredrik Monsen, ill, he was Minister of Social Affairs from November 1936 to July 1939, Minister of Finance from July 1939 to March 1942. In April 1940 Norway had been invaded by Nazi Germany, Torp was responsible for initiating the successful flight of the Norwegian National Treasury. After overseeing the start of the flight, he fled together with the rest of Nygaardsvold's Cabinet. In Åndalsnes he was injured in the foot during the German air raids; the Cabinet reached Tromsø where they embarked for England, where they stayed until the war's end.

Torp was acting Minister of Defence from November 1941 to February 1942, the permanent Minister of Defence from March 1942 to November 1945, in Nygaardsvold's and Gerhardsen's First Cabinet. Torp was a former antimilitarist, was imprisoned for five months in 1924 as he called for a military strike, but shed this ideology from the mid-1930s. Before the Second World War, Torp was chairman of Bærumsbanen from 1935 to 1940, Oslo Sporveier from 1935 to 1940 and the Oslo airport committee from 1935 to 1940, he was a board member of Folketeaterbygningen from 1935 to 1940, Idrettskomiteen av 1935, Felleskomiteen for forstadsbanene from 1935 to 1940. He was a deputy board member of Norges Kommunalbank from 1935 to 1940. All of these positions were lost; the German occupation ended on 8 May 1945, the exiled politicians returned home. Torp chaired the Government Delegation from London to Oslo on 14 May 1945, until 31 May 1945 he was thus the acting Prime Minister and acting Minister of Foreign Affairs in Oslo.

Much because of his exile, Torp was no longer found fit to be party chairman, was replaced, against the party by-laws. He was demoted to Minister of Provisioning and Reconstruction in Gerhardsen's Second Cabinet, he was pressured to leave this office as well, left on 10 January 1948. He sat through his parliamentary term to which he had been elected in 1945, he was the Labour Party parliamentary leader. He moved to Vestfold in 1948. After a short time, he decided to stand for election again, in 1949 he was elected for the Market towns of Vestfold county. In the same year he was one of the architects behind the Norwegian NATO membership. In November 1951 a political shock happened in Norway as Einar Gerhardsen unexpectedly resigned as Prime Minister of Norway. Gerhardsen asked Oscar Torp to take over. Gerhardsen favored Sverre Støstad, but he rejected the offer. Torp led his cabinet for four years, had to double as acting Minister of Trade and Shipping from 3 to 15 June 1954. Carl Henry took his seat in Parliament.

Torp was pressured to give the position back to Gerhardsen in January 1955, when Gerhardsen had strengthened hims


Acolman de Nezahualcóyotl is a town and municipality located in the northern part of Mexico State, part of the Greater Mexico City area, just north of the city proper. According to myth, the first man was placed here after being taken out of Lake Texcoco. In the community of Tepexpan, the fossilized bones more than 12,000 years old of a man were found in the 20th century; the settlement was founded in the 8th century and was an important commerce center at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. After the Conquest, Acolman became the site of an important Augustinian monastery in the 16th century which still contains important art and architecture from that time period. According to an ancient myth, when the gods created the first man, they took him from the waters of Lake Texcoco and placed him alone in Acolman; the arm of this man, ringed by drops of water from the lake is the Aztec glyph for the site. The glyph can be seen on the monastery which dominates the landscape here. Acolman is derived from a Nahuatl phrase, interpreted in various ways.

It may mean "man with hand or arm" or "where man is made." Acolman is the modern name but the settlement has been referred to as Oculma and Aculma in colonial era documents. The municipality is home of the "Tepexpan Man," named after the community; the Tepexpan Man is a human fossilized skeleton between 12,000 and 14,000 years old, found in the mid-20th century. The founding of the settlement of Acolman is attributed to the Acolhuas, a Chichimeca tribe, around the 8th century; the settlement started out independent but was first conquered by the Huexotzincas and remained subject to one dominion or another since. By the time of King Nezahualcoyotl, Acolman was an important town in the Texcoco dominion, after it was conquered by the Aztecs in 1396; the town was important because it was the only place in Mesoamerica that specialized in the breeding and raising of dogs. At the time of the Spanish conquest, Acolman was governed by Moctezuma II. After, Acolman became his son Francisco; the Franciscans arrived first, but the Augustinians were in charge of evangelization efforts after 1539, with twenty four friars in residence by 1580.

This order built one of the most important early colonial era monasteries in New Spain here. The 17th and 18th century is marked by severe floodings issues, which caused widespread damage and population shifts; these floods caused the disappearance of towns near Acolman such as Tlacuilocan and Tescazonco. During one of the attempts to control the rivers in the area, a dam was constructed which cause havoc for the area. During one of the floods, the monastery was submerged in over six feet of water, covering the church floor with silt and nearly destroyed the cloisters. In the 17th and 18th centuries, epidemics such as smallpox decimated the native population. After the Mexican War of Independence, Acolman became the seat of the municipality of the same name. In 1876, due to political instability, the seat was temporarily moved to a town called Xometla. In 1877, it returned to the appendage "de Nezahualcoyotl" as added. Another flood affected the municipality in 1925 and affected the monastery, but spurred the beginning of restoration efforts that would last until the end of the 20th century.

The monastery was declared a national monument in 1933. The torch of the 1968 Summer Olympics passed through here on its way to Mexico City; the most important feature of the town by far is the former monastery of San Agustin, located next to the main plaza. However, there are some other attractions as well; the Central Library and Casa de la Cultura contain paintings and sculptures by a native of Acolman named Parmeno. At the municipal market, foods such as mixiote, barbacoa and turkey in mole can be found as well as pulque. Main festivals include the Feast of Saint Nicholas on 10 September, of the Archangel Michael on 29 September and the Virgin of Guadalupe on 12 December; these are celebrated with traditional dances such as Concheros, Contradance, Pastores and Teomates as well as fireworks, amusement rides and music. The most distinguishing festival for the town is the Feria de la Posada y la Piñata, held here every December since 1985. Acolman claims to be the origin of the Las Posadas tradition in Mexico as well as the "cradle" of piñatas, as they have been a tradition here for over 420 years.

Both kinds of piñatas, those made with clay pots and those made of paper are created here. Participants gather from various communities in the area and the main event is a piñata contest. There are horse races, nativity scenes, "pastorelas" a type of play based on the Christmas season, regional dance, popular music shows. Horse racing is a tradition. Declared a national monument in 1933, the monastery of San Agustín was built between 1539 and 1580 with most of the work being done after 1550; the walls are of rubble-stone construction and covered in plaster, topped by battlements, the overall appearance is that of fortress. The crown of battlements, the single bell tower, the open chapel and the Plateresque facade identify the complex as a classic 16th century religious construction; the fortress appearance of complexes of this time were not for protection but rather served to dominate the landscape much as mediaeval castles in Europe did. In areas where there are fitted stones, these stones have been carved.

The construction of the monastery is attributed to Andrés de Olmos. Restoration work has been done in this complex since the 1920s, which has revealed all of the