Stjepan Vukčić Kosača
Stjepan Vukčić Kosača was the most powerful and for the most part unruly vassal in the Kingdom of Bosnia. A member of the Kosača noble family, he became Grand Duke of Bosnia upon the death of his uncle Sandalj, he refused to recognize the accession of King Tomaš, proclaiming himself a semi-independent herzog, recognizing the suzerainty first of the Ottoman Empire Aragon and again the Ottoman Empire. Peace was restored by the marriage of King Tomaš and Stjepan's daughter Katarina, but it did not last long, it was Stjepan's title Herceg of Saint Sava that gave rise to the name of Ottoman sanjak established after 1482 when the Kosača family domain fell under Ottoman rule. The name remained since and it is used for modern region of Herzegovina, town of Herceg Novi in present day's Montenegro as well. Stjepan was the son of Vukac Hranić Kosača and his wife Katarina, a daughter of Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić, as well as the fraternal nephew of Sandalj Hranić, Grand Duke of Bosnia. Along with his father and uncles Sandalj and Vuk, Stjepan was admitted into the nobility of the Republic of Ragusa by a charter dated 29 June 1419.
The same charter granted the family a house in Dubrovnik. Sandalj's father died in 1432, when his uncle followed him on 15 March 1435, it was Stjepan who inherited the lands and prestigious ducal title, becoming the most powerful vassal of King Tvrtko II of Bosnia. At the end of September 1441, Kosača captured the territory of Upper Zeta on the left bank of Morača. Stefan Crnojević, who represented the whole Crnojević family, joined him in this campaign and was awarded by Kosača with control over five villages. King Tvrtko II died in September 1443. Being a staunch supporter and adherent of the Bosnian Church, Stjepan refused to recognize the deceased king's cousin and chosen heir Thomas, a convert to Roman Catholicism, as King of Bosnia. Instead, Stjepan supported Thomas' exiled brother Radivoj, a candidate put forward by the Ottoman Empire. In 1443, the Papacy sent envoys to Thomas and Stjepan about a counter-offensive against the Ottomans, but the two were in the middle of a war. Ivaniš Pavlović, sent by King Thomas, attacked Stjepan Vukčić.
Thomas had at the same time been recognized by the Hungarian regent John Hunyadi. Stjepan turned to King Alfonso V of Aragon, who made him "Knight of the Virgin", but did not give him troops. On 15 February 1444, Stjepan signed a treaty with the King of Aragon and Naples, becoming his vassal in exchange for Alfonso's help against his enemies, namely King Thomas, Duke Ivaniš Pavlović and the Republic of Venice. In the same treaty Stjepan promised to pay regular tribute to Alfonso instead of paying the Ottoman sultan as he had done until then. In 1446 the two rivals had made peace. Stjepan Vukčić recognized Thomas as king, the pre-war borders were restored. Peace was sealed by the marriage of Stjepan's daughter Catherine and King Thomas in May 1446, with Catherine converting to Roman Catholicism; the Ottomans were displeased with the peace. Serbian Despot Đurađ Branković was displeased due to the Srebrenica issue. In 1448, the Ottomans sent an expedition to plunder King Tomaš's lands, but they plundered Stjepan Vukčić's lands.
Stjepan Vukčić sent envoys to Despot Đurađ to try to improve the relations between the two. Vukčić joined forces with Despot Đurađ and fought Bosnian forces. In 1448 Stjepan Vukčić, in attempt to "bolster his case with the Ottomans", dropped his title Grand Duke of Bosnia, assumed the title Herzog of Hum and the Coast. In 1449, in a public relation stunt, he changed it into "Duke of Saint Sava", after the Serbian saint whose relics were held in Mileševa at the eastern part of his province; this move had a considerable public relations value since Saint Sava's relics were as are now, considered miracle-working and objects with healing properties by people of all faiths in the region, but more move signified and attested alignment with Despot Đurađ, whose side he took in the Đurađ's war against king Tomaš over the rich mining town of Srebrenica. In 1451 Stjepan Vukčić attacked the Republic of Ragusa, laid siege to the city; as he had earlier been made a Ragusan nobleman, the Ragusan government now proclaimed him a traitor.
A reward of 15,000 ducats, a palace in Dubrovnik worth 2,000 ducats, an annual income of 300 ducats was offered to anyone who would kill him. Along with the promise of hereditary Ragusan noble status which helped hold this promise to whoever did the deed; the threat seems to have worked. After King Thomas and Despot Đurađ reconciled, Ragusa proposed a league against Stjepan. Thomas' charter from 18 December 1451, apart from the theoretical ceding of some of Stjepan's territories to Ragusa included the obligation that he would attack Stjepan. Stjepan Vukčić's attitude towards religion was uncommonly flexible for Europe of the era, but characteristic to Bosnian worldview of the time, he titled himself after the shrine of an Orthodox saint while maintaining close relations with the papacy. In 1454 he both erected an Orthodox church in Goražde and requested that Catholic missionaries be sent from Southern Italy to proselytize in his land, while never flinching from developing close relation and/or allying himself with Ottoman Muslims.
The Holy See in Vatican treated him as a Catholic, while the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople considered him Orthodox. All the while Stjepan Vukčić considered himself adherent of Bosnian Church, his conspicuous attitude toward Bosni
The Neretva known as the Narenta, is one of the largest rivers of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin. Four HE power-plants with large dams provide flood protection and water storage, it is recognized for its natural diversity of its landscape. Freshwater ecosystems have suffered from an increasing population and the associated development pressures. One of the most valuable natural resources of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia is its freshwater resource, contained by an abundant wellspring and clear rivers. Situated between the major regional rivers the Neretva basin contains the most significant source of drinking water; the Neretva is notable among rivers of the Dinaric Alps region regarding its diverse ecosystems and habitats and fauna, cultural and historic heritage. Its name has been suggested to come from the Indo-European root *ner, meaning "to dive"; the same root is seen in the Serbo-Croatian root "roniti". The Neretva flows through Herzegovina and Croatia until reaching the Adriatic Sea.
It is the largest karst river in the Dinaric Alps in the eastern part of the Adriatic basin/watershed. Its total length is 230 kilometres, of which 208 kilometres are in Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the final 22 kilometres are in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia; the Neretva watershed is 11,798 square kilometres in total. The average discharge at profile Žitomislići in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 233 cubic metres /s and at the mouth in Croatia is 341 cubic metres /s in addition to the Trebišnjica River's 402 cubic metres /s; the Trebišnjica River basin is included in the Neretva watershed due to a physical link of the two basins by the porous karst terrain. The hydrological parameters of Neretva are monitored in Croatia at Metković. Geographically and hydrologically the Neretva is divided into three sections, its source and headwaters gorge are situated deep in the Dinaric Alps at the base of the Zelengora and Lebršnik mountains under the Gredelj saddle. The river source is at 1,227 meters above sea level and consists of five small and distinct wellsprings.
On its 90 kilometers course through the first section the Neretva cuts two distinct deep and narrow canyons and two distinct wide and fertile valleys, around Ulog and around Glavatičevo, before it reaches town of Konjic. This section is better known as the Upper Neretva, here river flows from east-southeast to north-northwest as do most Bosnia and Herzegovina rivers belonging to the Danube watershed, covers some 1,390 square kilometres with an average elevation of 1.2%. Right below Konjic, the Neretva again expands into a third and largest valley which provided fertile agricultural land before it was flooded by large artificial reservoir, Jablaničko Lake, formed after construction of a Jablanica Dam near town of Jablanica.. The second section begins from the confluence of the Neretva and the Rama between Konjic and Jablanica where the Neretva takes 180° degrees turn toward east-southeast and flows the short leg before reaches town of Jablanica, from which point turns again toward south. From Jablanica, the Neretva enters third and the largest canyon on its course, running through the steep slopes mountains of Prenj, Čvrsnica and Čabulja reaching 800–1,200 metres in depth.
Three hydroelectric dams operate between Mostar. When the Neretva expands for the second and final time, it reaches its third section; this area is colloquially called the "Bosnian and Herzegovinian California". The last 30 kilometres of its course forms wide alluvial delta, before the river empties into the Adriatic Sea. Rivers of the Jezernica, the Gornji and Donji Krupac, the Ljuta, the Jesenica, the Bjelimićka Rijeka, the Slatinica, the Račica, the Rakitnica, the Konjička Ljuta, the Trešanica, the Neretvica, the Rama, the Drežanka, the Grabovica, the Radobolja, the Trebižat flow into the Neretva from the right, while the Jezernica, the Živašnica, the Lađanica, the Župski Krupac, the Bukovica, the Šištica, the Konjička Bijela, the Idbar, the Glogošnica, the Mostarska Bijela, the Buna, the Bregava, the Krupa flow into it from the left. Towns and villages on the Neretva include Ulog, Glavatičevo, Konjic, Čelebići, Ostrožac, Grabovica, Drežnica, Bijelo polje, Vrapčići, Buna village, the historical town of Blagaj, Žitomislići, the historical village of Počitelj, Tasovčići, Čapljina, Gabela in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The biggest town on the Neretva River is Mostar in Herzegovina. The upper course of the Neretva river is called the Upper Neretva, it includes numerous streams and well-springs, three major glacial lakes near the river and more lakes scattered across the mountains of Treskavica and Zelengora in the wider area, mountains and forests, flora and fauna of the area. The Upper Neretva has water of Class I purity and is certainly the coldest river water in the world as low as 7–8 degrees Celsius in the summer months. Rising from the base of the Zelengora and Lebršnik Mountain, Neretva headwaters run in undisturbed rapids and waterfalls, carving steep gorges reaching 600–800 metres in
Trebinje is a city located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the southernmost city in Bosnia and Herzegovina situated on the banks of Trebišnjica river in the region of East Herzegovina; as of 2013, it has a population of 31,433 inhabitants. The city's old town quarter dates to the 18th-century Ottoman period, includes the Arslanagić Bridge; the city lies in the Trebišnjica river valley, at the foot of Leotar, in southeastern Herzegovina, some 30 km by road from Dubrovnik, Croatia, on the Adriatic coast. There are several mills along the river, as well as several bridges, including three in the city of Trebinje itself, as well as a historic Ottoman Arslanagić Bridge nearby; the river is exploited for hydro-electric energy. After it passes through the Popovo Polje area southwest of the city, the river — which always floods in the winter — runs underground to the Adriatic, near Dubrovnik. Trebinje is known as "the city of the sun and platan trees", it is said to be one of the most beautiful cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The city is cultural center of the region of Eastern Herzegovina. De Administrando Imperio by Constantine VII mentioned Travunija, as a "land of the Serbs". Serbian Prince Vlastimir married his daughter to Krajina, the son of Beloje, that family became hereditary rulers of Travunija. By 1040 Stefan Vojislav's state stretched in the coastal region from Ston in the north, down to his capital, set up along the southern banks of the Skadar Lake, with other courts set up in Trebinje and Bar; the town commanded the road from Ragusa to Constantinople, traversed in 1096 by Raymond IV of Toulouse and his crusaders. It belonged to the Serbian Empire until 1355. Trebinje became a part of the expanded medieval Bosnian state under Tvrtko I in 1373. There is a medieval tower in Gornje Police whose construction is attributed to Vuk Branković; the old Tvrdoš Monastery dates back to the 15th century. In 1482, together with the rest of Herzegovina, the town was captured by the Ottoman Empire; the Old Town-Kastel was built by the Ottomans on the location of the medieval fortress of Ban Vir, on the western bank of the Trebišnjica River.
The city walls, the Old Town square, two mosques were built in the beginning of the 18th century by the Resulbegović family. The 16th-century Arslanagić bridge was built at the village of Arslanagić, 5 kilometres north of the town, by Mehmed-Paša Sokolović, was run by Arslanagić family for centuries; the Arslanagić Bridge is one of the most attractive Ottoman-era bridges in Herzegovina. It has two large and two small semicircular arches. Among noble families in the Trebinje region mentioned in Ragusan documents were Ljubibratić, Starčić, Popović, Krasomirić, Preljubović, Poznanović, Dragančić, Kobiljačić, Paštrović, Zemljić and Stanjević; the burning of Saint Sava's remains after the Banat Uprising provoked the Serbs in other regions to revolt against the Ottomans. Grdan, the vojvoda of Nikšić, organized revolt with Serbian Patriarch Jovan Kantul. From 1596, the center of anti-Ottoman activity in Herzegovina was the Tvrdoš Monastery in Trebinje, where Metropolitan Visarion was seated. In 1596, the uprising broke out in Bjelopavlići spread to Drobnjaci, Nikšić, Piva and Gacko.
The rebels were defeated at the field of Gacko. It failed due to lack of foreign support; the hajduks in Herzegovina had in March 1655 carried out one of their greatest operations, raiding Trebinje, taking many slaves and carrying with them out much loot. On 26 November 1716, Austrian general Nastić with 400 soldiers and c. 500 hajduks attacked Trebinje, but did not take it over. A combined Austro-Venetian-Hajduk force of 7,000 stood before the Trebinje walls, defended by 1,000 Ottomans; the Ottomans were busy near Belgrade and with hajduk attacks towards Mostar, were thus unable to reinforce Trebinje. The conquest of Trebinje and Popovo field were given up to fight in Montenegro; the Venetians took over Hutovo and Popovo, where they recruited militarly from the population. Notable participants in the Herzegovina Uprising from Trebinje include Mićo Ljubibratić. During the Herzegovina Uprising, the Bileća and Trebinje region was led by serdar Todor Mujičić, Gligor Milićević, Vasilj Svorcan and Sava Jakšić.
During the period of Austro-Hungarian administration, several fortifications were built on the surrounding hills, there was a garrison based in the town. The imperial administrators modernized the town, expanding it westwards, building the present main street, as well as several squares, schools, tobacco plantations, etc. Trebinje grew in the era of Josip Broz Tito's Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1945 and 1990, it developed its hydroelectric potential with dams, artificial lakes and hydroelectric plants. This industrial development brought a large increase in the urban population of Trebinje. Trebinje was the largest town in Serb-held eastern Herzegovina during the Bosnian War, it was controlled by Bosnian Serb forces from the fall of 1991, was used as a major command and artillery base by Yugoslav People's Army troops besieging the Croatian town of Dubrovnik. In 1992 Trebinje was declared the capital of the self-proclaimed Serbian Autonomous Region of Herzegovina. Bosniak residents were subsequently conscripted to fight with the JNA and if refused they were executed, thus they fled the region.
Ten of the town's mosques were razed to the ground during the war. Trebinje is one of two municipalities created f
Bosnia is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing 81% of the country. The two regions have formed a geopolitical entity since medieval times, the name "Bosnia" occurs in historical and geopolitical senses as referring to both regions; the official use of the combined name started only in the late period of Ottoman-rule. Bosnia lies in the Dinaric Alps, ranging to the southern borders of the Pannonian plain, with the rivers Sava and Drina marking its northern and eastern borders; the area of Bosnia comprises 41,000 km2, makes up about 80% of the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are no true borders between the region of Herzegovina. Unofficially, Herzegovina is south of the mountain Ivan planina. According to another unofficial definition, Herzegovina encompasses watersheds Neretva and Trebišnjica rivers; the historical records of the region are scarce until its first recorded standalone ruler and viceroy of Bosnian state, Ban Borić, appointed by 1154.
De Administrando Imperio describes a small župa of Bosona, located around the river Bosna in the modern-day fields of Sarajevo and of Visoko. The area is thought to have been inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of the Daesitiates. Under its first known foreign ruler, Duke of Bosnia, in the 1080s, the region spanned the upper course of the rivers Bosna, the Vrbas and the Neretva. At the end of the 14th century, under Tvrtko I of Bosnia, the Bosnian kingdom included most of the territory of today's Bosnia and of what would become known as Herzegovina; the kingdom lost its independence to the Ottoman Empire in 1463. The region of Bosnia's westernmost city at the time of the conquest was Jajce; the Ottoman Empire expanded into Bosnia and Herzegovina through a territory called the Bosansko Krajište. It was transformed into the Sanjak of Bosnia and the Sanjak of Herzegovina after 1462/1463; the first Ottoman administration called Eyalet of Bosnia was formed in 1527, after long armed resistance to the north and to the west by Counts Franjo and Ivaniš Berislavić of the noble house of Berislavići Grabarski.
Following the Great Turkish War, in the 18th century the Eyalet came to encompass the area matching that of today's Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1833, the Eyalet of Herzegovina was temporarily split off under Ali-paša Rizvanbegović; the area acquired the name of "Bosnia and Herzegovina" in 1853 as a result of a twist in political events following his death. After the 1864 administrative reform, the province was named Vilayet of Bosnia. Austria-Hungary occupied the whole country in 1878, it remained formally part of the Ottoman Empire under the title of Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina until 1908, when Austria-Hungary provoked the Bosnian crisis formally annexing it. Birač, eastern Bosanska Krajina, northwestern Posavina, northernmost Semberija, northeastern Tropolje, western Herzegovina
Ljubuški is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in a unit of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the town was first mentioned in 1444. The name Ljubuški originates from an ancient Slavic name, after the first wife of the ruler of Herzegovina Herzeg Stjepan. During the Bosnian War, Ljubuški served as the headquarters of the Croatian Defence Forces. 28.269 total Croats - 26.198 Muslims - 1.812 Serbs - 118 Yugoslavs - 49 Others - 92 In the 1991 census, the municipality of Ljubuški had a population of 28,340, of which 26,127 were Croats, 1,592 Bosniaks, 227 Yugoslavs, 65 Serbs, 329 others. The town of Ljubuški had 7,407 residents: 75% Croats, 20% Bosniaks, 3% Yugoslavs, 1% Serbs 1% others; the town is home to the successful handball club HRK Izviđač, two football clubs, NK Sloga Ljubuški and NK Bigeste Ljubuški. Mirko Alilović, handball player Petar Barbarić Damir Boras, Zagreb University Rector, his father Mile Boras is from Vitina Tomislav Brkić, tennis player Gordan Bunoza, footballer Denis Buntić, handball player Blaž Kraljević, commander of the Croatian Defence Forces Izidor Papo, academic Peter Tomich, World War II hero, awarded with the Medal of Honor for heroics at Pearl Harbor Vjekoslav Vrančić, minister of NDH and writer Andrija Artuković, Croatian lawyer and senior member of the Croatian nationalist and fascist Ustaše organisation Ljubuški official webpage www.ljubuski.info www.ljubusaci.com www.ljubuski.com
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley; the countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania and Herzegovina, Italy and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast, it is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres. The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas; the prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally; the Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin.
The surface water temperatures range from 30 °C in summer to 12 °C in winter moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era; the plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found in the Adriatic, with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast; the western coast is alluvial or terraced, while the eastern coast is indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity; the sea is abundant in flora and fauna—more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic and threatened ones.
The Adriatic's shores are populated by more than 3.5 million people. The earliest settlements on the Adriatic shores were Etruscan and Greek. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire; the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, the eastern coast's control passed to Yugoslavia and Albania; the former disintegrated during the 1990s. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenian, Bosnian-Herzegovinian, Montenegrin waters are still disputed.
Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992. Fisheries and tourism are significant sources of income all along the Adriatic coast. Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. Maritime transport is a significant branch of the area's economy—there are 19 seaports in the Adriatic that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year; the largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year. The origins of the name Adriatic are linked to the Etruscan settlement of Adria, which derives its name from the Illyrian adur meaning water or sea. In classical antiquity, the sea was known as Mare Adriaticum or, less as Mare Superum, " upper sea"; the two terms were not synonymous, however. Mare Adriaticum corresponds to the Adriatic Sea's extent, spanning from the Gulf of Venice to the Strait of Otranto; that boundary became more defined by Roman authors – early Greek sources place the boundary between the Adriatic and Ionian seas at various places ranging from adjacent to the Gulf of Venice to the southern tip of the Peloponnese, eastern shores of Sicily and western shores of Crete.
Mare Superum on the other hand encompassed both the modern Adriatic Sea and the sea off the Apennine peninsula's southern coast, as far as the Strait of Sicily. Another name used in the period was Mare Dalmaticum, applied to waters off the coast of Dalmatia or Illyricum; the names for the sea in the languages of the surrounding countries include Albanian: Deti Adriatik. In Croatian and Slovene, the sea is referred to as Jadran; the Adriatic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea, bordered in the southwest by the Apennine or Italian Peninsula, in the northwest by the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, in the northeast by Slovenia, Croatia, B
Croats or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia. Croats live in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but are recognized minorities in such countries as Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Due to political and economic reasons, many Croats migrated to North and South America as well as Australia and New Zealand, establishing a diaspora in the aftermath of World War II, with grassroots assistance from earlier communities and the Roman Catholic Church. Croats are Roman Catholics; the Croatian language is official in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in the European Union, is a recognised minority language within Croatian autochthonous communities and minorities in Montenegro, Italy and Serbia. Evidence is rather scarce for the period between the 7th and 8th centuries, CE. Archaeological evidence shows population continuity in coastal Istria. In contrast, much of the Dinaric hinterland appears to have been depopulated, as all hilltop settlements, from Noricum to Dardania, were abandoned in the early 7th century.
Although the dating of the earliest Slavic settlements is still disputed, there is a hiatus of a century. The origin and nature of the Slavic migrations remain controversial, all available evidence points to the nearby Danubian and Carpathian regions; the ethnonym "Croat" is first attested in the charter of Duke Trpimir. Much uncertainty revolves around the exact circumstances of their appearance given the scarcity of literary sources during the 7th and 8th century "Dark Ages". Traditionally, scholarship has placed the arrival of the Croats in the 7th century on the basis of the Byzantine document De Administrando Imperio; as such, the arrival of the Croats was seen as a second wave of Slavic migrations, which liberated Dalmatia from Avar hegemony. However, as early as the 1970s, scholars questioned the reliability of Porphyrogenitus' work, written as it was in the 10th century. Rather than being an accurate historical account, De Administrando Imperio more reflects the political situation during the 10th century.
It served as Byzantine propaganda praising Emperor Heraclius for repopulating the Balkans with Croats, who were seen by the Byzantines as tributary peoples living on what had always been'Roman land'. Scholars have hypothesized the name Croat may be Iranian, thus suggesting that the Croatians were a Sarmatian tribe from the Pontic region who were part of a larger movement at the same time that the Slavs were moving toward the Adriatic; the major basis for this connection was the perceived similarity between Hrvat and inscriptions from the Tanais dated to the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, mentioning the name Khoroathos. Similar arguments have been made for an alleged Gothic-Croat link. Whilst there is indeed possible evidence of population continuity between Gothic and Croatian times in parts of Dalmatia, the idea of a Gothic origin of Croats was more rooted in 20th century Ustaše political aspirations than historical reality. Contemporary scholarship views the rise of "Croats" as an autochthonous, Dalmatian response to the demise of the Avar khanate and the encroachment of Frankish and Byzantine Empires into northern Dalmatia.
They appear to have been based around Klis, down to the Cetina and south of Liburnia. Here, concentrations of the "Old Croat culture" abound, marked by some wealthy warrior burials dating to the 9th century CE. Other, distinct polities existed near the Croat duchy; these included the Guduscans, the Narentines and the Sorabi who ruled some other eastern parts of ex-Roman "Dalmatia". Prominent in the territory of future Croatia was the polity of Prince Liutevid, who ruled the territories between the Drava and Sava rivers, centred from his fort at Sisak. Although Duke Liutevid and his people are seen as a "Pannonian Croats", he is, due to the lack of "evidence that they had a sense of Croat identity" referred to as dux Pannoniae Inferioris, or a Slav, by contemporary sources. However, the Croats became the dominant local power in northern Dalmatia, absorbing Liburnia and expanding their name by conquest and prestige. In the south, while having periods of independence, the Naretines "merged" with Croats under control of Croatian Kings.
With such expansion, Croatia soon became dominant power and absorb other polities between Frankish and Byzantine empire. Although the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja has been dismissed as an unreliable record, the mentioned "Red Croatia" suggests that Croatian clans and families might have settled as far south as Duklja/Zeta and city of Drač in today's Albania; the lands which constitute modern Croatia fell under three major geographic-politic zones during the Middle Ages, which were influenced by powerful neighbour Empires – notably the Byzantines, the Avars and Magyars and Bulgars. Each vied for control of the Northwest Balkan regions. Two independent Slavic dukedoms emerged sometime during the 9th century: the Croat Duchy and Principality of Lower Pannonia. Having been under Avar control, lower Pannonia became a march of the Carolingian Empire around 800. Aided by Vojnomir in 796, the first named Slavic Duke of Pannonia, the Franks wrested control of