Anna of Tyrol
Anna of Tyrol, was by birth Archduchess of Austria and member of the Tyrolese branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Bohemia and Queen of Hungary. The first crowned Holy Roman Empress since the mid-15th century, she was responsible for the moving of the Imperial court from Prague to Vienna, which became one of the centers of European culture. A proponent of the Counter-Reformation, she held a great influence over her husband, with whom she founded the Imperial Crypt, who became in the burial place of the Habsburg dynasty. Anna was born in Innsbruck on 4 October 1585 as the third and last daughter of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria, Count of Tyrol, his second wife, Anna Caterina Gonzaga, she had two older sisters, Archduchesses Anna Eleonore and Maria a nun. All them suffered from poor health from birth, her baptism was conducted with special solemnity, being organizated by her uncles Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria.
The godfather of the princess was Emperor Maximilian II, for whom his son Archduke Ernest of Austria stood as proxy, while the rite was celebrated by the Bishop of Brixen. Anna spent her childhood at the Innsbruck court, which thanks to her parents became in the center of Renaissance culture, she lived in Ambras Castle and Ruelyust Palaces. In order to protect the health of her daughter, since 1590 Archduchess-Countess Anna Caterina had a personal cookbook. In January 1595, the princess lost her father, her widowed mother made every effort to give her daughters a good education. Anna discovered an unusual musical talent, acquired for her clavichord, a teacher was hired; the love for music remained in the princess throughout her life. Anna was raised in a strict Catholic environment; as Holy Roman Empress, when she believed that she had committed a sin, she engaged in self-flagellation to torment the flesh. Anna Caterina made frequent pilgrimages, but didn't take her daughters with her due to their poor health.
In 1606, she decided to found a convent there in Innsbruck for the Servants of Mary, Religious Sisters of the Servite Third Order, of which she was a member, after arranging the marriage of her youngest daughter, she took her monastic vows, taking a new name - Anna Juliana. Maria, Anna's older sister, followed their mother's example and took the veil in the same convent under their mother's former name. Upon reaching adulthood, Anna began to receive offers of marriage; the first proposal was made in 1603 by King Sigismund III of Poland, but Emperor Rudolf II didn't give his consent. The Emperor expressed his intention to marry the princess and sent his court painter to Innsbruck, to make a portrait of his intended bride. Once the Emperor showed his interest in Anna, her mother stopped taking other marriage proposals for her, but soon Rudolf II retracted his proposal; the Emperor's younger brother Archduke Matthias began to woo her, some time Rudolf II allowed the marriage of his brother to his former fiancée.
Anna and Matthias married on 4 December 1611 in Vienna at the Augustinian Church. Matthias, although he was in his fifties, hoped to sire an heir with his 26-year-old wife. Four years when Anna became stout, rumors began at the imperial court that she had become pregnant, but soon courtiers began to joke that her corpulence was not related to a pregnancy but because she had a good appetite. The union was childless. On 21 May 1612 Matthias was elected King of Holy Roman Emperor. Anna was crowned Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Germany in Frankfurt on 15 June 1612, two days after her husband, re-assuming the tradition of the coronation of emperors' wives, she was the first crowned Empress since Eleanor of Portugal. Anna was crowned Queen of Hungary on 25 March 1613 in Pressburg and Queen of Bohemia on 10 January 1616 in Prague. Called the "Good-natured and loving Empress", she had a great influence over her husband, jointly with Matthias' mistress Susana Wachter. Contemporaries called both spouses the "Working Couple".
Upon his wife's request Matthias transferred the Imperial court from Prague to Vienna, soon, thanks to their joint efforts, the new court was one of the centers of European culture. The Empress was noted for the special protection she provided to her Tyroleans subjects, arranging different positions for them at court; as a devout Catholic, she refused to interact with Protestant courtiers. Like her mother, Anna collected relics from the holy ascetics, she patronized the Capuchins, played an important role in the Austrian Counter-Reformation. For her devotion to the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Paul V awarded the Empress with the Golden Rose. In 1617 Anna and her husband founded the Capuchin Church, Vienna. On 10 November 1618 construction began on their tomb. Anna died a month after construction started, on 14 December 1618 aged 33. Both spouses were temporarily buried in the royal Poor Clare monastery in Vienna. Only after the completion of construction of the built, continued by their cousin and successor, Emperor Ferdinand II, in 1633 the coffins with the remains of Matthians and Anna were transferred into the tomb, known as the Imperial Crypt.
Their coffins were placed side by side. It was only during the reign of Emperor Ferdin
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna. On 1 January 2019, it had a population of 328,276. In 2015, the population of the Graz larger urban zone who had principal residence status stood at 633,168. Graz has a long tradition as seat of universities: its six universities have 60,000 students, its historic centre is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe. For centuries, Graz was more important to Slovenes, both politically and culturally, than the capital of Slovenia, it remains influential to this day. In 1999, Graz was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, the site was extended in 2010 with Eggenberg Palace. Graz was the sole Cultural Capital of Europe of 2003 and became a City of Culinary Delights in 2008; the name of the city, Graz spelled Gratz, most stems from the Slavic gradec, "small castle". Some archaeological finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people, which over time became a defended fortification.
In literary Slovene, gradec still means "small castle", forming a hypocoristic derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, whichs descends via liquid metathesis from Common Slavic *gardьcъ and via the Slavic third palatalisation from Proto-Slavic *gardiku denoting "small town, settlement". The name thus follows the common South Slavic pattern for naming settlements as grad; the German name'Graz' first appears in records in 1128. Graz is situated on the Mur river in southeast Austria, it is about 200 km southwest of Vienna. The nearest larger urban centre is Maribor in Slovenia, about 50 km away. Graz is the capital and largest city in Styria, a green and forested area; these towns and villages border Graz: to the north: Gratkorn, Weinitzen to the east: Kainbach bei Graz, Hart bei Graz, Raaba to the south: Gössendorf, Feldkirchen bei Graz, Seiersberg to the west: Attendorf, Judendorf-Straßengel Graz is divided into 17 districts: The oldest settlement on the ground of the modern city of Graz dates back to the Copper Age.
However, no historical continuity exists of a settlement before the Middle Ages. During the 12th century, dukes under Babenberg rule made the town into an important commercial center. Graz came under the rule of the Habsburgs and, in 1281, gained special privileges from King Rudolph I. In the 14th century, Graz became the city of residence of the Inner Austrian line of the Habsburgs; the royalty lived in the Schlossberg castle and from there ruled Styria, most of today's Slovenia, parts of Italy. In the 16th century, the city's design and planning were controlled by Italian Renaissance architects and artists. One of the most famous buildings built in this style is the Landhaus, designed by Domenico dell'Allio, used by the local rulers as a governmental headquarters. Karl-Franzens-Universität called the University of Graz, is the city's oldest university, founded in 1585 by Archduke Karl II. For most of its existence, it was controlled by the Catholic church, was closed in 1782 by Joseph II in an attempt to gain state control over educational institutions.
Joseph II transformed it into a lyceum where medical personnel were trained. In 1827 it was re-instituted as a university by Emperor Franz I, thus gaining the name'Karl-Franzens Universität,' meaning'Charles-Francis University.' Over 30,000 students study at this university. The astronomer Johannes Kepler lived in Graz for a short period. There, he worked as a math teacher and was a professor of mathematics at the University of Graz, but still found time to study astronomy, he left Graz to go to Prague. Ludwig Boltzmann was Professor for Mathematical Physics from 1869 to 1890. During that time, Nikola Tesla studied electrical engineering at the Polytechnic in 1875. Nobel Laureate Otto Loewi taught at the University of Graz from 1909 until 1938. Ivo Andric, the 1961 Nobel Prize for Literature Laureate obtained his doctorate at the University of Graz. Erwin Schrödinger was chancellor of the University of Graz in 1936. Graz Steiermark in German. Mark is an old German word indicating a large area of land used as a defensive border, in which the peasantry is taught how to organize and fight in the case of an invasion.
With a strategic location at the head of the open and fertile Mur valley, Graz was assaulted, e.g. by the Hungarians under Matthias Corvinus in 1481, by the Ottoman Turks in 1529 and 1532. Apart from the Riegersburg Castle, the Schlossberg was the only fortification in the region that never fell to the Ottoman Turks. Graz is home to the region's provincial armory, the world's largest historical collection of late medieval and Renaissance weaponry, it has been preserved since 1551, displays over 30,000 items. From the earlier part of the 15th century, Graz was the residence of the younger branch of the Habsburgs, which succeeded to the imperial throne in 1619 in the person of Emperor Ferdinand II, who moved the capital to Vienna. New fortifications were built on the Schlossberg at the end of the 16th century. Napoleon's army occupied Graz in 1797. In 1809, the city withstood another assault by the French army. During this attack, the commanding officer in the fortress was ordered to defend it with about 900 men against Napoleon's army of about 3,000.
He defended the Schlossberg against eight attacks, but they were forced to give up after the Grande Armée occupied Vienna and the Emperor ordered to surrender. Following the defeat of Austri
Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans
Ferdinand IV was made King of Bohemia in 1646, King of Hungary and Croatia in 1647, King of the Romans on 31 May 1653. He served as Duke of Cieszyn. Born in Vienna on 8 September 1633, baptised as Ferdinand Franz, Ferdinand IV was the eldest son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife Maria Anna, the daughter of Philip III of Spain. At a young age, Ferdinand IV took his father's role as Archduke of Austria. In 1646, Ferdinand IV became King of Bohemia as he shared the role with his father Emperor Ferdinand III, he was crowned on 5 August 1646, shared the role of Duke of Cieszyn with Ferdinand III. Ferdinand IV shared the role as King of Hungary and Croatia with his father. After the French attempted to modify the system of the election of King of the Romans, Emperor Ferdinand III made an opportunity of a recent decline in the prestige of France, was able to install Ferdinand IV as King of the Romans, de facto heir to the Holy Roman Empire, he was crowned in Ratisbon on 18 June 1653 after gaining the position on 31 May 1653.
However, Ferdinand IV unexpectedly died of smallpox in Vienna on 9 July 1654, was succeeded by his brother Leopold I as King of the Romans. Prior to his death, it was planned that he would marry Philip IV of Spain's daughter Maria Theresa of Spain, his cousin. Upon the death of Ferdinand III, Leopold I was elected as Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold I was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia. The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. Elected in 1658, Leopold ruled the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1705, becoming the longest-ruling Habsburg emperor. Leopold's reign is known for conflicts with the Ottoman Empire in the east and rivalry with Louis XIV, a contemporary and first cousin, in the west. After more than a decade of warfare, Leopold emerged victorious from the Great Turkish War thanks to the military talents of Prince Eugene of Savoy. By the Treaty of Karlowitz, Leopold recovered all of the Kingdom of Hungary, which had fallen under Turkish power in the years after the 1526 Battle of Mohács. Leopold fought three wars against France: the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years' War, the War of the Spanish Succession. In this last, Leopold sought to give his younger son the entire Spanish inheritance, disregarding the will of the late Charles II.
Leopold started a war. The early years of the war went well for Austria, with victories at Schellenberg and Blenheim, but the war would drag on until 1714, nine years after Leopold's death, which had an effect on the warring nations; when peace returned, Austria could not be said to have emerged as triumphant as it had from the war against the Turks. Born on 9 June 1640 in Vienna, Leopold received a careful education by excellent teachers. From an early age Leopold showed an inclination toward learning, he became fluent in several languages: Latin, German and Spanish. In addition to German, Italian would be the most favored language at his court. Leopold was schooled in the classics, literature, natural science and astronomy, was interested in music, as was his father. Leopold had received an ecclesiastical education and was intended for the Church, until plans changed on 9 July 1654 when smallpox took his elder brother Ferdinand and made Leopold heir apparent. Nonetheless, Leopold's church education had marked him.
Leopold remained influenced by the Jesuits and his education throughout his life, was uncommonly knowledgeable for a monarch about theology, metaphysics and the sciences. He retained his interest in astrology and alchemy which he had developed under Jesuit tutors. A religious and devoted person, Leopold personified the pietas Austriaca, or the loyally Catholic attitude of his House. On the other hand, his piety and education may have caused in him a fatalistic strain which inclined him to reject all compromise on denominational questions, not always a positive characteristic in a ruler. Leopold was said to have Habsburg physical attributes. Short, of sickly constitution, Leopold was cold and reserved in public, awkward. However, he is said to have been open with close associates. Coxe described Leopold in the following manner: "His gait was stately and deliberate. Spielman argues that his long-expected career in the clergy caused Leopold to have "early adopted the intense Catholic piety expected of him and the gentle manners appropriate to a supporting role.
He grew to manhood without the military ambition. From the beginning, his reign was defensive and profoundly conservative."Hungary elected Leopold as its king in 1655, with Bohemia and Croatia following suit in 1656 and 1657 respectively. In July 1658, more than a year after his father's death, Leopold was elected Emperor at Frankfurt in spite of the French minister, Cardinal Mazarin, who sought to put the Imperial Crown on the head of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, or some other non-Habsburg prince. To conciliate France, which had considerable influence in German affairs thanks to the League of the Rhine, the newly elected Emperor promised not to assist Spain at war with France; this marked the beginning of a nearly 47-year career filled with rivalry with France and its king, Louis XIV. The latter's dominant personality and power overshadowed Leopold to this day, but though Leopold did not lead his troops in person as Louis XIV did, he was no less a warrior-king given the greater part of his public life was directed towards the arrangement and prosecution of wars.
Leopold's first war was the Second Northern War, in which King Charles X of Sweden tried to become King of Poland with the aid of allies including György II Rákóczi, Prince of Transylvania. Leopold's predecessor, Ferdinand III, had allied with King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland in 1656. In 1657, Leopold expanded this alliance to include Austrian troops; these troops helped defeat the Transylvanian army, campaigned as far as Denmark. The war ended with the Treaty of Oliwa in 1660; the Ottoman Empire interfered in the affairs of Transylvania, always an unruly district, this interference brought on a war with the Holy Roman Empire, which after some desultory operations began in 1663. By a personal appeal to the diet at Regensburg Leopold induced the princes to send assistance for the campaign. By the Peace of Vasvár the Emperor made a twenty years' truce with the Sultan, granting more generous terms than his recent victory seemed to render necessary. After a few years of peace came the first of three wars between Fr
Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria
Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria was ruler of Further Austria including Tirol. The son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, he was married to Philippine Welser in his first marriage. In his second marriage to Anna Juliana Gonzaga, he was the father of Anna of Tyrol, the would-be Holy Roman Empress. Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was the second son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, he was a younger brother of Emperor Maximilian II. At the behest of his father, he was put in charge of the administration of Bohemia in 1547, he led the campaign against the Turks in Hungary in 1556. In 1557 he was secretly married to Philippine Welser, daughter of a patrician from Augsburg, with whom he had several children; the marriage was only accepted by Emperor Ferdinand I in 1559 under the condition of secrecy. The children were to receive the name "of Austria" but would only be entitled to inherit if the House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line, thus the marriage had many qualities of a morganatic marriage.
The sons born of this marriage received the title Margrave of Burgau, after the Margraviate of Burgau, an ancient Habsburg possession in Further Austria. The younger of the sons, who survived their father received the princely title of Fürst zu Burgau. After his father's death in 1564, Ferdinand became the ruler of Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions under his father's will. However, he remained governor of Bohemia in Prague until 1567 according to the wishes of his brother Maximilian II. In his own lands, Ferdinand made sure, he was instrumental in promoting the Renaissance in central Europe and was an avid collector of art. He accommodated his world-famous collections in a museum built for that purpose, making Ambras Castle Innsbruck the oldest museum in the world, as the only Renaissance Kunstkammer of its kind to have been preserved at its original location, the Chamber of Art and Curiosities at Ambras Castle Innsbruck represents an unrivalled cultural monument; the collection was started during Ferdinand's time in Bohemia and he subsequently moved it to Tyrol.
In particular, the Chamber of Art and Curiosities, the gallery of portraits, the collection of armor were expensive, leading Ferdinand to incurred a high level of debt. Part of collections remained in Innsbruck, part was moved to the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. After the death of his wife Philippine in 1580, he married Anna Caterina Gonzaga, a daughter of William I, Duke of Mantua, in 1582. Archduke Ferdinand died on 24 January 1595. Since his sons from the first marriage were not entitled to the inheritance, the second produced only surviving daughters, Tirol was reunified with the other Habsburg lands, his daughter from the Mantuan marriage to Anna Caterina became Holy Roman Empress Anna, consort of Emperor Mathias, who received his Further Austrian inheritance. He and his first wife Philippine Welser were parents of four children: Margrave Andrew of Burgau. Became a Cardinal in 1576, Margrave of Burgau in 1578, Bishop of Constance in 1589 and Bishop of Brixen in 1591, he had two illegitimate children.
Charles, Margrave of Burgau, Margrave of Burgau. He married his first cousin, the youngest daughter of daughter of William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, Maria, Archduchess of Austria, daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, they had no legitimate children. He and his mistress Chiara Elisa di Ferrero had three illegitimate children. Philip of Austria. Maria of Austria, twin of Philip. On 14 May 1582, Ferdinand married his niece Anne Catherine, she was a daughter of William I, Duke of Mantua, Eleonora of Austria, younger sister of Ferdinand. They were parents to three daughters: Archduchess Anna Eleonore of Austria. Archduchess Maria of Austria, a nun. Holy Roman Empress Anna of Austria. Married her first cousin Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, he had at least two illegitimate children: –With Anna von Obrizon: Veronika von Villanders. Married Giovan Francesco di Gonzaga-Novellara, Lord of Campitello.–With Johanna Lydl von Mayenburg: Hans Christoph von Hertenberg. Married Ursula Gienger. Media related to Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria at Wikimedia Commons
Eleonora Gonzaga (1630–1686)
For other women of the same name, see Eleanor Gonzaga Eleonora Gonzaga, was by birth Princess of Mantua and Rethel from the Nevers branch of the House of Gonzaga and by marriage Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia. Nicknamed the Younger to distinguish herself from her namesake aunt, she was considered one of the most educated and virtuous women of her time. Fascinated by religious poetry, she founded a literary academy and was a patron of musical theater; as Holy Roman Empress, she promoted the development of cultural and spiritual life at the Imperial court in Vienna, despite being a staunch Catholic and benefactress of several monasteries, she had a tolerant attitude towards the Protestantism. She established the Order of the Starry Cross. Eleonora was born on 18 November 1630 in Mantua, as the second child of Charles Gonzaga, styled Duke of Nevers and his wife and cousin Maria Gonzaga. On her father's side her grandparents were Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers and Rethel and Catherine of Mayenne –a member of the House of Lorraine– and on her mother's side her grandparents were Francesco IV Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Margaret of Savoy.
She was named after her mother's paternal aunt Holy Roman Empress Eleonora, her godmother. The marriage of Eleonora's parents was made with the purpose to reinforce the claims of the Nevers branch of the House of Gonzaga to the Duchies of Mantua and Montferrat when the main line would become extinct; the Duke of Nevers, a vassal of the Kingdom of France, had to face the opposition of Ferrante II Gonzaga, Duke of Guastalla, who counted with the support of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Spain and Duchy of Savoy, thus started the War of the Mantuan Succession, during which infant Eleonora, with her parents and older brother Charles leave Mantua, but returned one year after the signing of the Treaty of Cherasco, under which were recognized the rights of Duke Charles of Nevers over the Duchies of Mantua and Montferrat. During this time, Eleonora lived in the Church of Sant'Orsola, where she remained with her mother until 1637, when after the death of her grandfather, her older brother became in the new Duke of Mantua and Montferrat under the regency of their mother Maria.
The princess received an excellent education, being fluent in French and Italian, well versed in literature and art, expert in dances and embroidery. In the adolescence she manifested a poetic talent, expressed in her compositions of philosophical and religious poems. Eleonora's marriage was arranged by her godmother and namesake, the Dowager Holy Roman Empress, who maintained close ties with her niece, the Duchess-Regent Maria, became in the main supporter of her election as wife of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III. During the nuptial negotiations, the Emperor promoted the following conditions: the Duchy of Mantua keeps his loyalty to the interests of the Holy Roman Empire, the bride could retain her possible inheritance rights over the Duchy of Montferrat, a dowry of 400,000 thalers. Duke Charles II agreed with only minor changes: Mantua will kept the loyalty to the Holy Roman Empire only if this alliance couldn't bring negative consequences to the Duchy, the bride's dowry would be paid in several installments in the next years.
The marriage by proxy was solemnized on 2 March 1650 at the Basilica palatina di Santa Barbara, in which the Emperor was represented by his ambassador, Count Johann Maximilian von Lamberg. The celebrations lasted until 22 March, when Eleonora, accompanied by some relatives, traveled from Mantua to Vienna; the cortege arrived to the Austrian city of Villach, where the bride said goodbye to her relatives and in company of her godmother the Dowager Empress continue the trip to Wiener Neustadt, where on 30 April 1651 took place the official wedding ceremony between Eleonora and Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III. After the ceremony, the Emperor gave his new wife a gift of 50,000 florins. For Ferdinand III, this was his third marriage, had children from both unions. In spite of the great difference in age, the marriage was a happy one; the active and sweet nature of the young Empress helped her gain the sympathy of all members of the Imperial family. She established an excellent relationship with all her stepchildren.
She learned German, the Emperor Italian. Together they participated in secular ceremonies. Genuine piety of both spouses did not prevent them from patronizing literature and music activities, like visits to theaters or hunting, one of the passions of the Empress. In her portrait by Frans Luycx, Eleonora is depicted in the image of Diana, the ancient goddess of hunting. During her marriage, Eleonora gave birth four children, two of whom survived into
Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1705 until his death in 1711. He was the eldest son of Emperor Leopold I from Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. Joseph was crowned King of Hungary at the age of nine in 1687 and King in Germany at the age of eleven in 1690, he succeeded to the thrones of the Holy Roman Empire when his father died. Joseph continued the War of the Spanish Succession, begun by his father against Louis XIV of France, in a fruitless attempt to make his younger brother Charles King of Spain. In the process, owing to the victories won by his military commander, Prince Eugene of Savoy, he did succeed in establishing Austrian hegemony over Italy. Joseph had to contend with a protracted revolt in Hungary, fomented by Louis XIV. Neither conflict was resolved after his death, his motto was Amore et Timore. Born in Vienna, Joseph was educated by Prince Dietrich Otto von Salm and became a good linguist. Although he was the first son and child born of his parents' marriage, he was his father's third son and seventh child.
Leopold had been married to Infanta Margaret Theresa of Spain, who had given him four children, one of whom survived infancy. He married Claudia Felicitas of Austria, who gave him two short-lived daughters. Thus, Joseph had six half-siblings. In 1684, the six-year-old Archduke had his first portrait painted by Benjamin Block. At the age of nine, on 9 December 1687, he was crowned King of Hungary. Although he never formally ceased to be a Roman Catholic, Joseph was not devout by nature, he had two great enthusiasms: hunting. In 1702, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, Joseph saw his only military service, he joined Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden, in the Siege of Landau. Prior to his ascension, Joseph had surrounded himself with reform-hungry advisors and the ‘young court’ of Vienna was ambitious in the elaboration of innovative plans, he was described as a "forward-looking ruler". The large number of privy councillors was reduced and attempts were made to make the bureaucracy more efficient.
Measures were taken to modernize the central bodies and a certain success was achieved in stabilizing the chronic Habsburg finances. Joseph endeavoured to strengthen his position in the Holy Roman Empire – as a means of strengthening Austria’s standing as a great power; when he sought to lay claim to imperial rights in Italy and gain territories for the Habsburgs, he risked a military conflict with the Pope over the duchy of Mantua. In Hungary, Joseph had inherited the kuruc rebellion from his father Leopold I: once again, nobles in Transylvania had risen against Habsburg rule advancing for a time as far as Vienna. Although Joseph was compelled to take military action, he refrained – unlike his predecessors – from seeking to teach his subjects a lesson by executing the leaders. Instead, he agreed to a compromise peace, which in the long term facilitated the integration of Hungary into the Habsburg domains, it was his good fortune to govern the Austrian dominions and to be head of the Empire, during the years in which his trusted general, Prince Eugene of Savoy, either acting alone in Italy or with the Duke of Marlborough in Germany and Flanders, was beating the armies of Louis XIV of France.
During the whole of his reign, Hungary was disturbed by the conflict with Francis Rákóczi II, who took refuge in the Ottoman Empire. The emperor reversed many of the authoritarian measures of his father, thus helping to placate opponents, he began the attempts to settle the question of the Austrian inheritance by a pragmatic sanction, continued by his brother Charles VI. Joseph I was threatened with excommunication by Pope Clement XI on 16 June 1708. During the smallpox epidemic of 1711, which killed Louis, le Grand Dauphin and three siblings of the future Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, Joseph became infected, he died on 17 April in the Hofburg Palace. He had promised his wife to stop having affairs, should he survive; the Emperor was buried in resting place of the majority of the Habsburgs. His funeral took place on 20 April, in tomb no. 35 in Karl's Vault. His tomb was designed by Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt, decorated with pictures of various battles from the War of Spanish Succession. Josefstadt is named for Joseph.
On 24 February 1699, he married Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg in Vienna. They had three children and their only son died of hydrocephalus before his first birthday. Joseph had a passion for love affairs and he caught a sexually transmittable disease syphilis, which he passed on to his wife while they were trying to produce a new heir; this incident rendered her sterile. Their father, still alive during these events, made Joseph and his brother Charles sign the Mutual Pact of Succession, ensuring that Joseph's daughters would have absolute precedence over Charles's daughters, neither of whom was born at the time, that Maria Josepha would inherit both the Austrian and Spanish realms. Joseph I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Slavonia, Serbia, Lodomeria and Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Styria, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, C