Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a prominent German polymath and philosopher in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy. His most notable accomplishment was conceiving the ideas of differential and integral calculus, independently of Isaac Newton's contemporaneous developments. Mathematical works have always favored Leibniz's notation as the conventional expression of calculus, while Newton's notation became unused, it was only in the 20th century that Leibniz's law of continuity and transcendental law of homogeneity found mathematical implementation. He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal's calculator, he was the first to describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685 and invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator, he refined the binary number system, the foundation of all digital computers. In philosophy, Leibniz is most noted for his optimism, i.e. his conclusion that our universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created, an idea, lampooned by others such as Voltaire.
Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th-century advocates of rationalism. The work of Leibniz anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy looks back to the scholastic tradition, in which conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or prior definitions rather than to empirical evidence. Leibniz made major contributions to physics and technology, anticipated notions that surfaced much in philosophy, probability theory, medicine, psychology and computer science, he wrote works on philosophy, law, theology and philology. Leibniz contributed to the field of library science. While serving as overseer of the Wolfenbüttel library in Germany, he devised a cataloging system that would serve as a guide for many of Europe's largest libraries. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, in unpublished manuscripts, he wrote in several languages, but in Latin and German.
There is no complete gathering of the writings of Leibniz translated into English. Gottfried Leibniz was born on 1 July 1646, toward the end of the Thirty Years' War, in Leipzig, Saxony, to Friedrich Leibniz and Catharina Schmuck. Friedrich noted in his family journal: 21. Juny am Sontag 1646 Ist mein Sohn Gottfried Wilhelm, post sextam vespertinam 1/4 uff 7 uhr abents zur welt gebohren, im Wassermann. In English: On Sunday 21 June 1646, my son Gottfried Wilhelm is born into the world a quarter before seven in the evening, in Aquarius. Leibniz was baptized on 3 July of that year at Leipzig, his father died when he was six years old, from that point on he was raised by his mother. Leibniz's father had been a Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Leipzig, the boy inherited his father's personal library, he was given free access to it from the age of seven. While Leibniz's schoolwork was confined to the study of a small canon of authorities, his father's library enabled him to study a wide variety of advanced philosophical and theological works—ones that he would not have otherwise been able to read until his college years.
Access to his father's library written in Latin led to his proficiency in the Latin language, which he achieved by the age of 12. He composed 300 hexameters of Latin verse, in a single morning, for a special event at school at the age of 13. In April 1661 he enrolled in his father's former university at age 14, completed his bachelor's degree in Philosophy in December 1662, he defended his Disputatio Metaphysica de Principio Individui, which addressed the principle of individuation, on 9 June 1663. Leibniz earned his master's degree in Philosophy on 7 February 1664, he published and defended a dissertation Specimen Quaestionum Philosophicarum ex Jure collectarum, arguing for both a theoretical and a pedagogical relationship between philosophy and law, in December 1664. After one year of legal studies, he was awarded his bachelor's degree in Law on 28 September 1665, his dissertation was titled De conditionibus. In early 1666, at age 19, Leibniz wrote his first book, De Arte Combinatoria, the first part of, his habilitation thesis in Philosophy, which he defended in March 1666.
His next goal was to earn his license and Doctorate in Law, which required three years of study. In 1666, the University of Leipzig turned down Leibniz's doctoral application and refused to grant him a Doctorate in Law, most due to his relative youth. Leibniz subsequently left Leipzig. Leibniz enrolled in the University of Altdorf and submitted a thesis, which he had been working on earlier in Leipzig; the title of his thesis was Disputatio Inauguralis de Casibus Perplexis in Jure. Leibniz earned his license to practice law and his Doctorate in Law in November 1666, he next declined the offer of an academic appointment at Altdorf, saying that "my thoughts were turned in an different direction". As an adult, Leibniz often
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, images, animations and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia can be recorded and played, interacted with or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art. In the early years of multimedia the term "rich media" was synonymous with interactive multimedia, "hypermedia" was an application of multimedia; the term multimedia was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 opening of his "LightWorks at L'Oursin" show at Southampton, Long Island. Goldstein was aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, who had two years discussed a new approach to art-making he called "intermedia".
On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of Variety borrowed the terminology, reporting: "Brainchild of songscribe-comic Bob Goldstein, the'Lightworks' is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare." Two years in 1968, the term "multimedia" was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein's producers at L'Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s'multimedia' took on its current meaning. In the 1993 first edition of Multimedia: Making It Work, Tay Vaughan declared "Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound and video, delivered by computer; when you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is interactive multimedia. When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia."The German language society Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache recognized the word's significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of German'Word of the Year' in 1995.
The institute summed up its rationale by stating " has become a central word in the wonderful new media world". In common usage, multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images and text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition; some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video and audio data. That era saw a boost in the production of educational multimedia CD-ROMs; the term "video", if not used to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. Video is used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of "footage", used to distinguish motion photography from "animation" of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video.
Single forms of information content with single methods of information processing are called multimedia to distinguish static media from active media. In the fine arts, for example, Leda Luss Luyken's ModulArt brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ModulArt an interactive multimedia form of art. Performing arts may be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media. Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia streamed. Streaming multimedia may be on-demand. Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience. Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images and title user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may enhance the multimedia experience. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories: Linea
A manuscript was, any document, written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way. More the term has come to be understood to further include any written, typed, or word-processed copy of an author's work, as distinguished from its rendition as a printed version of the same. Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in codex format. Illuminated manuscripts are enriched with pictures, border decorations, elaborately embossed initial letters or full-page illustrations. A document should be at least 75 years old to be considered a manuscript; the traditional abbreviations are MS for manuscript and MSS for manuscripts, while the forms MS. ms or ms. for singular, MSS. mss or mss. for plural are accepted.
The second s is not the plural. Before the invention of woodblock printing in China or by moveable type in a printing press in Europe, all written documents had to be both produced and reproduced by hand. Manuscripts were produced in form of scrolls or books. Manuscripts were produced on vellum and other parchment, on papyrus, on paper. In Russia birch bark documents as old as from the 11th century have survived. In India, the palm leaf manuscript, with a distinctive long rectangular shape, was used from ancient times until the 19th century. Paper spread from China via the Islamic world to Europe by the 14th century, by the late 15th century had replaced parchment for many purposes; when Greek or Latin works were published, numerous professional copies were made by scribes in a scriptorium, each making a single copy from an original, declaimed aloud. The oldest written manuscripts have been preserved by the perfect dryness of their Middle Eastern resting places, whether placed within sarcophagi in Egyptian tombs, or reused as mummy-wrappings, discarded in the middens of Oxyrhynchus or secreted for safe-keeping in jars and buried or stored in dry caves.
Manuscripts in Tocharian languages, written on palm leaves, survived in desert burials in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. Volcanic ash preserved some of the Roman library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum; the manuscripts that were being most preserved in the libraries of antiquity are all lost. Papyrus has a life of at most a century or two in moist Italian or Greek conditions. All books were in manuscript form. In China, other parts of East Asia, woodblock printing was used for books from about the 7th century; the earliest dated example is the Diamond Sutra of 868. In the Islamic world and the West, all books were in manuscript until the introduction of movable type printing in about 1450. Manuscript copying of books continued for a least a century. Private or government documents remained hand-written until the invention of the typewriter in the late 19th century; because of the likelihood of errors being introduced each time a manuscript was copied, the filiation of different versions of the same text is a fundamental part of the study and criticism of all texts that have been transmitted in manuscript.
In Southeast Asia, in the first millennium, documents of sufficiently great importance were inscribed on soft metallic sheets such as copperplate, softened by refiner's fire and inscribed with a metal stylus. In the Philippines, for example, as early as 900AD, specimen documents were not inscribed by stylus, but were punched much like the style of today's dot-matrix printers; this type of document was rare compared to the usual leaves and bamboo staves. However, neither the leaves nor paper were as durable as the metal document in the hot, humid climate. In Burma, the kammavaca, Buddhist manuscripts, were inscribed on brass, copper or ivory sheets, on discarded monk robes folded and lacquered. In Italy some important Etruscan texts were inscribed on thin gold plates: similar sheets have been discovered in Bulgaria. Technically, these are all inscriptions rather than manuscripts; the study of the writing, or "hand" in surviving manuscripts is termed palaeography. In the Western world, from the classical period through the early centuries of the Christian era, manuscripts were written without spaces between the words, which makes them hard for the untrained to read.
Extant copies of these early manuscripts written in Greek or Latin and dating from the 4th century to the 8th century, are classified according to their use of either all upper case or all lower case letters. Hebrew manuscripts, such as the Dead Sea scrolls make no such differentiation. Manuscripts using all upper case letters are called majuscule, those using all lower case are called minuscule; the majuscule scripts such as uncial are written with much more care. The scribe lifted his pen between each stroke, producing an unmistakable effect of regularity and formality. On the other hand, while minuscule scripts can be written with pen-lift, they may be cursive, that is, use little or no pen-lift
In textual studies, a palimpsest is a manuscript page, either from a scroll or a book, from which the text has been scraped or washed off so that the page can be reused for another document. Pergamene was made of lamb, calf, or goat kid skin and was expensive and not available, so in the interest of economy a pergamene was re-used by scraping the previous writing. In colloquial usage, the term palimpsest is used in architecture and geomorphology to denote an object made or worked upon for one purpose and reused for another, for example a monumental brass the reverse blank side of, re-engraved; the word "palimpsest" derives from the Latin palimpsestus, which derives from the Ancient Greek παλίμψηστος, a compound word that means "scraped clean and ready to be used again". The Ancient Greeks used wax-coated tablets, like scratch-pads, to write on with a stylus, to erase the writing by smoothing the wax surface and writing again; this practice was adopted by Ancient Romans. Because parchment prepared from animal hides is far more durable than paper or papyrus, most palimpsests known to modern scholars are parchment, which rose in popularity in Western Europe after the 6th century.
Where papyrus was in common use, reuse of writing media was less common because papyrus was cheaper and more expendable than costly parchment. Some papyrus palimpsests do survive, Romans referred to this custom of washing papyrus; the writing was washed from vellum using milk and oat bran. With the passing of time, the faint remains of the former writing would reappear enough so that scholars can discern the text and decipher it. In the Middle Ages the surface of the vellum was scraped away with powdered pumice, irretrievably losing the writing, hence the most valuable palimpsests are those that were overwritten in the early Middle Ages. Medieval codices are constructed in "gathers" which are folded stacked together like a newspaper and sewn together at the fold. Prepared parchment sheets retained their original central fold, so each was ordinarily cut in half, making a quarto volume of the original folio, with the overwritten text running perpendicular to the effaced text. Faint legible remains were read by eye before 20th-century techniques helped make lost texts readable.
To read palimpsests, scholars of the 19th century used chemical means that were sometimes destructive, using tincture of gall or ammonium bisulfate. Modern methods of reading palimpsests using ultraviolet light and photography are less damaging. Innovative digitized images aid scholars in deciphering unreadable palimpsests. Superexposed photographs exposed in various light spectra, a technique called "multispectral filming", can increase the contrast of faded ink on parchment, too indistinct to be read by eye in normal light. For example, multispectral imaging undertaken by researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology and Johns Hopkins University recovered much of the undertext from the Archimedes Palimpsest. At the Walters Art Museum where the palimpsest is now conserved, the project has focused on experimental techniques to retrieve the remaining text, some of, obscured by overpainted icons. One of the most successful techniques for reading through the paint proved to be X-ray fluorescence imaging, through which the iron in the ink is revealed.
A team of imaging scientists and scholars from the United States and Europe is using spectral imaging techniques developed for imaging the Archimedes Palimpsest to study more than one hundred palimpsests in the library of Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. A number of ancient works have survived only as palimpsests. Vellum manuscripts were over-written on purpose due to the dearth or cost of the material. In the case of Greek manuscripts, the consumption of old codices for the sake of the material was so great that a synodal decree of the year 691 forbade the destruction of manuscripts of the Scriptures or the church fathers, except for imperfect or injured volumes; such a decree put added pressure on retrieving the vellum. The decline of the vellum trade with the introduction of paper exacerbated the scarcity, increasing pressure to reuse material. Cultural considerations motivated the creation of palimpsests; the demand for new texts might outstrip the availability of parchment in some centers, yet the existence of cleaned parchment, never overwritten suggests that there was a spiritual motivation, to sanctify pagan text by overlaying it with the word of God, somewhat as pagan sites were overlaid with Christian churches to hallow pagan ground.
Texts most susceptible to being overwritten included obsolete legal and liturgical ones, sometimes of intense interest to the historian. Early Latin translations of Scripture were rendered obsolete by Jerome's Vulgate. Texts might be in foreign languages or written in unfamiliar scripts that had become illegible over time; the codices themselves might be damaged or incomplete. Heretical texts were dangerous to harbor—there were compelling political and religious reasons to destroy texts viewed as heresy, to reuse the media was less wasteful than to burn the books. Vast destruction of the broad quartos of the early centuries took place in the period which followed the fall of the Western Roman Empire, but palimpsests were
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major
Codex Carolinus is a Gothic-Latin diglot uncial manuscript of the New Testament on parchment, dated to the 6th or 7th century. The Gothic text is designated by siglum Car, the Latin text is designated by siglum gue or by 79, it represents the Old Latin translation of the New Testament, it is housed in the Herzog August Bibliothek. It is one of few manuscripts of Wulfila's Gothic Bible; the manuscript is fragmentary. The four leaves of the codex were used as raw material for the production of another manuscript – Codex Guelferbytanus 64 Weissenburgensis, it is a palimpsest, its text was reconstructed several times. Franz Anton Knittel was the first to decipher its text; the codex has survived to the present day in a fragmentary condition. It contains only the text of the Epistle to the Romans 11-15 on four parchment leaves; the text is written in 27 lines per column. The left column is in the right in Latin. Contents Romans 11:33-12:5; the text of the codex is not divided into chapters. The nomina sacra are used both in Latin texts.
All the abbreviations are marked with the superscript bar. Its text has some value in Romans 14:14 for Textual Criticism, it is a palimpsest, the whole book is known as Codex Guelferbytanus 64 Weissenburgensis. The upper text is in Latin, it contains Isidore of his six letters; the lower text of the codex belongs to several much earlier manuscripts, such as Codex Guelferbytanus A, Codex Guelferbytanus B, Codex Carolinus. The manuscript is dated palaeographically to 7th century. According to Tischendorf it was written in the 6th century, it was written in Italy. Nothing is known about its early history. In the 12th or 13th century four of its leaves were used as material for another book and they were overwritten by Latin text, its story is linked with the codices Guelferbytanus A and B. The manuscript was held in Bobbio, Weissenburg and Prague; the Duke of Brunswick bought it in 1689. The manuscript became known to the scholars in the half of the 18th century, where it was found in the Ducal Library of Wolfenbüttel.
The first description of the codex was made by Heusinger. Franz Anton Knittel recognized two lower Greek texts of the New Testament in this palimpsest codex, designated them by A and B, he recognized the Gothic-Latin text. F. A. Knittel deciphered Gothic-Latin text of the Codex Carolinus and published it in 1762 at Brunswick. In his edition all abbreviated forms and Latin, are written in full, it was published in Uppsala in 1763. It was published again by Theodor Zahn. Knittel made many errors in Latin text, he did not decipher every word and left several lacunae in the reconstructed text. Tischendorf made a new and more accurate collation for the Latin text and edited in 1855. Tischendorf used abbreviations for the nomina sacra, he did not leave any lacunae; the new collation of the Gothic text was given by Carla Falluomini in 1999. The codex is located at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel. Another manuscript of Gothic BibleCodex Ambrosianus Codex Argenteus SkeireinsSortable articlesGothic Bible List of New Testament Latin manuscripts Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Falluomini, Carla.
Der sogenannte Codex Carolinus von Wolfenbüttel.. Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der gotisch-lateinischen Blätter. Wolfenbütteler Mittelalter-Studieny. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-04230-3. Falluomini, Carla. Textkritische Anmerkungen zur Gotischen Bibel. AnnalSS 5, 2005. Pp. 311–320. Henning, Hans. Der Wulfila der Bibliotheca Augusta zu Wolfenbüttel. Hamburg: E. Behrens. Knittel, Francisco Antonio. Fragmenta Versionis Ulphilanae. Uppsala. George W. S. Friedrichsen, The Gothic Text of Rom. XIV 14, in Cod. Guelferbytanus, Weissenburg 64, JTS, pp. 245–247. Tischendorf, Constantin von. Anecdota sacra et profana. Leipzig. Pp. 153–158. Streitberg, Wilhelm August. Die gotische Bibel 1: Der gotische Text und seine griechische Vorlage, 6th edn. Heidelberg. Pp. 239–249. Text of the codexCodex Carolinus — with reconstructed text Gothic and Latin Gothic text in Falluomini's reconstruction at the Digitale Edition der Handschrift Cod. Guelf. 64 WeissSortable articlesManuscripts of Gothic Bible at the Wulfila Project Digitalized Codex Guelferbytanus Weissenburgensis 64 at the Herzog August Bibliothek — Images 505-508, 549-550, 555-556 More information at Earlier Latin Manuscripts