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Hewlett-Packard

The Hewlett-Packard Company, or Hewlett-Packard, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. It developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components as well as software and related services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including customers in the government and education sectors. In 1999, HP split into two companies: one retaining the original company name, the other named Agilent Technologies; the first product line of Hewlett-Packard and measurement equipment, went to Agilent Technologies, while HP retained focus on its products including computers and printers. In 2015, HP again was split into HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise. The company was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto, California by Bill Hewlett and David Packard, produced a line of electronic test and measurement equipment; the company got its first big contract in 1938, providing its test and measurement instruments for production of Walt Disney Pictures' hugely successful animated film Fantasia.

This success led Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard to formally establish their Hewlett-Packard Company on 1 January 1939. The company grew into a multinational corporation respected for its products, its management style and culture known as the HP Way, adopted by other businesses worldwide. HP was the world's leading PC manufacturer from 2007 to Q2 2013, at which time Lenovo ranked ahead of HP. HP specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines included personal computing devices and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP directly marketed its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology vendors. HP had services and a consulting business for its products and partner products.

Hewlett-Packard Company history included the spin-off of its electronic and bio-analytical test and measurement instruments business as Agilent Technologies in 1999. In November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com, with the deal closing on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout of Inc. for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer, which Dell declined to match. Hewlett-Packard spun off its enterprise products and services business as Hewlett Packard Enterprise on November 1, 2015. Hewlett-Packard held onto the PC and printer businesses, was renamed to HP Inc. Bill Hewlett and David Packard graduated with degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935; the company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Frederick Terman at Stanford during the Great Depression. They considered Terman a mentor in forming Hewlett-Packard. In 1938, Packard and Hewlett began part-time work in a rented garage with an initial capital investment of US$538.

In 1939, Hewlett and Packard decided to formalize their partnership. They tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. HP incorporated on August 18, 1947, went public on November 6, 1957. Of the many projects they worked on, their first financially successful product was a precision audio oscillator, the Model HP200A, their innovation was the use of a small incandescent light bulb as a temperature dependent resistor in a critical portion of the circuit, the negative feedback loop which stabilized the amplitude of the output sinusoidal waveform. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $89.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators continued production until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years. One of the company's earliest customers was Bud Hawkins, chief sound engineer for Walt Disney Studios, who bought eight Model 200B audio oscillators for use in the movie Fantasia.

HP's profit at the end of 1939, its first full year of business, was $1563 on revenues of $5369. They worked on counter-radar technology and artillery shell proximity fuzes during World War II, which allowed Packard to be exempt from the draft. Hewlett served as an officer in the Army Signal Corps after being called to active duty. In 1942, they built their first building at 395 Page Mill Road and were awarded the Army-Navy "E" Award in 1943. HP's line of products during the war included the audio oscillator, a wave analyzer, distortion analyzers, an audio-signal generator, the Model 400A vacuum-tube voltmeter, employed 200 people. In 1947, the company incorporated with Packard as president, he handed the presidency over to Hewlett when he became chairman in 1964, but remained CEO of the company. Sales reached $5.5 million in 1951 with 215 employees. In 1959, a manufacturing plant was established in a marketing organization in Geneva. HP

Fort des Hautes Perches

Fort des Hautes Perches was built between 1874 and 1877 in Danjoutin and Belfort in northeastern France. It is part of the first ring of fortifications around the city of Belfort; the Forts des Perches were unique among the first group in their re-use of older sites. They were rebuilt as part of the Séré de Rivières system and incorporated improvements to deal with the improvement in efficacy of artillery in the late 19th century; the fort was built at an elevation of 443 meters. The Fort des Hautes Perches is small compared to others in the Belfort defensive array, although it is somewhat larger than the Fort des Basses Perches about one kilometer away to the southwest, it accommodated 216 soldiers, 8 non-commissioned officers, 4 officers. Initial cost was 1,062,780 francs d'or, it was armed with 5 155mm long guns, 8 138mm guns, 2 121mm guns, one 32mm mortar. The fort is in poor condition, it is not accessible to the public. Fortified region of Belfort Fort des Hautes Perches at Fortiff' Séré

Baba Ram Chandra

This article is on Indian Trade Unionist Baba Ram Chandra. For the Ghadarite leader and editor of Hindustan Ghadar, see Ram Chandra Bharadwaj. Baba Ram Chandra was an Indian trade unionist who organised the farmers of Oudh, India into forming a united front to fight against the abuses of landlords in 1920s and 1930s, he was an influential figure in the history of Fiji, owed his inspiration to take up the cause of the down-trodden to his 12 years as an indentured labourer in Fiji and to his efforts to end the indenture system. He is one of the prime characters in Kamla Kant Tripathi's history based novel "Bedakhal". Ram Chandra was born in a small village in Gwalior State in 1864 or 1875, his real name was Shridhar Balwant Jodhpurkar. He was a Brahmin, of Maharashtrian origin, he left for Fiji as an indentured labourer in 1904 after changing his name to Ram Chandra Rao in order to conceal his identity as a Brahmin, since Brahmins were not preferred as indentured labourers. He stayed in Fiji for thirteen years and took active part in the movement to emancipate the lot of the indentured labourers.

He came in contact with Manilal Doctor, who took keen interest in social and political movements in Fiji. Ram Chandra used religion to organise the people, he was responsible for the staging of Ram Lila in Fiji which helped in creating a sense of solidarity among the Indian indentured labourers. He ensured the dismissal of an official who rode roughshod over the religious sentiments of the labourers, he led popular demonstrations in Fiji to focus on the grievances of indentured labourers. He smuggled into India an article on the deplorable and inhuman conditions of indentured labourers, published in Bharat Mitra, a newspaper from Calcutta; the Fiji Government was on the look out for its writer. The article created such a furore that Ram Chandra was advised by his friends to leave Fiji before the authorities were able to lay their hands on him, he left Fiji in 1916. On his return to India he became a sadhu, he was accused by the local police of spreading disaffection among the peasantry. He married a woman of middle caste and commenced calling himself "Baba Ram Chandra."

He moved around the region with a copy of the Ramayana under his arm, blending readings from this popular Hindu epic with denunciations of both the British Raj and the landlords, appealed to the peasants to act together against their exploiters. Although he began by seeking to harmonise tenant-landlord relations, Ram Chandra soon considered this to be a wasted effort and began to mobilise the peasants, he encouraged peasants to refrain from customary donations. In 1919 he led the first peasant protest against the landlords and by 1920 had organised all the farmers associations in Oudh, forming the Oudh Kisan Sabha, he was arrested on a number of occasions for organising public protests. He tried to get the support of Nehru and other Indian National Congress leaders to fight for the rights of the farmers but was disappointed to discover that the Congress, with its urban-based leadership, was concerned only with independence and did not seem to understand the needs of the peasants; the Origins of the Peasant Agitation in Oudh Baba and Non-Cooperator Congress M.

H. Siddiqi, Agrarian Unrest in North India 1918-1922, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1978 K. Kumar, Peasants in Revolt: Tenants, Landlords and the Raj in Oudh, 1886-1922, Manohar Publications, Delhi, 1984. Kapil Kumar, The Ramcharitmanas as a Radical Text: Baba Ram Chandra in Oudh, 1920-1950, in Social Transformation and Creative Imagination, 1984