Wilfrid was an English bishop and saint. Born a Northumbrian noble, he entered religious life as a teenager and studied at Lindisfarne, at Canterbury, in Gaul, at Rome. In 664 Wilfrid acted as spokesman for the Roman position at the Synod of Whitby, became famous for his speech advocating that the Roman method for calculating the date of Easter should be adopted, his success prompted Alhfrith, to appoint him Bishop of Northumbria. Wilfrid chose to be consecrated in Gaul because of the lack of what he considered to be validly consecrated bishops in England at that time. During Wilfrid's absence Alhfrith seems to have led an unsuccessful revolt against his father, leaving a question mark over Wilfrid's appointment as bishop. Before Wilfrid's return Oswiu had appointed Ceadda in his place, resulting in Wilfrid's retirement to Ripon for a few years following his arrival back in Northumbria. After becoming Archbishop of Canterbury in 668, Theodore of Tarsus resolved the situation by deposing Ceadda and restoring Wilfrid as the Bishop of Northumbria.
For the next nine years Wilfrid discharged his episcopal duties, founded monasteries, built churches, improved the liturgy. However his diocese was large, Theodore wished to reform the English Church, a process which included breaking up some of the larger dioceses into smaller ones; when Wilfrid quarrelled with Ecgfrith, the Northumbrian king, Theodore took the opportunity to implement his reforms despite Wilfrid's objections. After Ecgfrith expelled him from York, Wilfrid travelled to Rome to appeal to the papacy. Pope Agatho ruled in Wilfrid's favour, but Ecgfrith refused to honour the papal decree and instead imprisoned Wilfrid on his return to Northumbria before exiling him. Wilfrid spent the next few years in Selsey, where he founded an episcopal see and converted the pagan inhabitants of the Kingdom of Sussex to Christianity. Theodore and Wilfrid settled their differences, Theodore urged the new Northumbrian king, Aldfrith, to allow Wilfrid's return. Aldfrith agreed to do so. Wilfrid went to Mercia, where he acted as bishop for the Mercian king.
Wilfrid appealed to the papacy about his expulsion in 700, the pope ordered that an English council should be held to decide the issue. This council, held at Austerfield in 702, attempted to confiscate all of Wilfrid's possessions, so Wilfrid travelled to Rome to appeal against the decision, his opponents in Northumbria excommunicated him, but the papacy upheld Wilfrid's side, he regained possession of Ripon and Hexham, his Northumbrian monasteries. Wilfrid died in 709 or 710. After his death, he was venerated as a saint. Historians and now have been divided over Wilfrid, his followers commissioned Stephen of Ripon to write a Vita Sancti Wilfrithi shortly after his death, the medieval historian Bede wrote extensively about him. Wilfrid lived ostentatiously, travelled with a large retinue, he ruled a large number of monasteries, claimed to be the first Englishman to introduce the Rule of Saint Benedict into English monasteries. Some modern historians see him as a champion of Roman customs against the customs of the British and Irish churches, others as an advocate for monasticism.
During Wilfrid's lifetime Britain and Ireland consisted of a number of small kingdoms. Traditionally the English people were thought to have been divided into seven kingdoms, but modern historiography has shown that this is a simplification of a much more confused situation. A late 7th-century source, the Tribal Hidage, lists the peoples south of the Humber river. Smaller groups who at that time had their own royalty but were absorbed into larger kingdoms include the peoples of Magonsæte, Hwicce, the East Saxons, the South Saxons, the Isle of Wight, the Middle Angles. Other smaller groups had their own rulers, but their size means that they do not appear in the histories. There were native Britons in the west, in modern-day Wales and Cornwall, who formed kingdoms including those of Dumnonia and Gwynedd. Between the Humber and Forth the English had formed into two main kingdoms and Bernicia united as the Kingdom of Northumbria. A number of Celtic kingdoms existed in this region, including Craven, Elmet and Gododdin.
A native British kingdom called the Kingdom of Strathclyde, survived as an independent power into the 10th century in the area which became modern-day Dunbartonshire and Clydesdale. To the north-west of Strathclyde lay the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata, to the north-east a small number of Pictish kingdoms. Further north still lay the great Pictish kingdom of Fortriu, which after the Battle of Dun Nechtain in 685 came to be the strongest power in the northern half of Britain; the Irish had always had contacts with the rest of the British Isles, during the early 6th century they immigrated from the island of Ireland to form the kingdom of Dál Riata, although how much conquest took place is a matter of dispute with historians. It appears that the Irish settled in parts of Wales, after the period of Irish settlement, Irish missionaries were active in Britain. Christianity had only arrived in some of these kingdoms; some had been converted by the Gregorian mission, a group of Roman missionaries who arrived in Kent in 597 and who influenced southern Britain.
Others had been converted by the Hiberno-Scottish mission, chiefly Irish missionaries wo
Cilurnum or Cilurvum was a fort on Hadrian's Wall mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum. It is now identified with the fort found at Chesters near the village of Walwick, England, it was built in 123 AD, just after the wall's completion. Cilurnum is considered to be the best preserved Roman cavalry fort along Hadrian's Wall; the site is now preserved by English Heritage as Chesters Roman Fort. There is a museum on the site, housing finds from elsewhere along the wall; the site guarded a bridge, Chesters Bridge, carrying the Military Way Roman road behind the wall across the River North Tyne. Massive abutments survive of this bridge across the river from the fort. Cilurnum was a cavalry fort at its foundation, for retaliatory raids into barbarian areas north of the wall given over to infantry later. Hadrian himself encouraged the "Cult of Disciplina" among legions stationed at the wall, an early inscription on an altar dedicated to Disciplina, found in 1978, indicates the earliest known military presence was a wing of cavalry, ala Augusta ob virtutem appellata.
Inscriptions have been found showing the Cohors I Delmatarum, from present-day Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Cohors I Vangionum from Upper Rhineland in Germany were stationed here. Four large Roman columns, believed to come from Cilurnum, may be seen supporting the south aisle in the church of St Giles at Chollerton, a couple of miles upstream from the fort. In the early 19th century Nathaniel Clayton, owner of Chesters House and Estate, moved hundreds of tons of earth to cover over the last remains of the fort as part of his parkland landscaping, thereby creating a smooth uninterrupted grassland slope down to the River Tyne, his son John Clayton, a noted antiquarian, when he inherited the estate in 1832, with a crew of workmen, undid his father's landscaping, exposing the fort, excavating the ruins, establishing a small museum for the finds. John Clayton purchased and made excavations at Housesteads Fort, Carrawburgh Mithraic Temple, Carvoran, other historic sites; the museum was commissioned in 1895 and opened in 1903.
It is a grade II * was designed by Richard Norman Shaw. It displays; until 1950 there was no curator of the Clayton Collection, only a caretaker, paid for by the Keith family. Between 1950 and 1972 Grace Simpson was the Honorary Curator of the Collection, spent a great deal of time working on the Collection, in particular the material excavated by her father, F. G. Simpson; when she left, Dr David J. Smith, who at the time was the keeper at the Museum of Antiquities held the position until 1987. Lindsay Allason-Jones became a trustee of the collection in August 1987 and became the Honorary Curator; the collection became the responsibility of English Heritage in 1983 and the new post of'Curator of Hadrian's Wall Museums'. This position was filled by John Dore, Sally Dumner and Bill Hubbard. Georgina Plowright held the position from 1987 until her retirement in 2012 and was responsible for the refurbishment and re-display of the museum as well as the production of an electronic catalogue of the collections.
Frances McIntosh is the current Curator of the North East for English Heritage. Roman Britain Chesters Roman Fort and Museum - Hadrian's Wall - English Heritage Historic England. "Museum, grade II* listed". Images of England. Retrieved 26 November 2007. Chesters Bridge Petrosomatoglyph Male fertility symbol Chesters Roman Fort and Museum - Hadrian's Wall - official site English Heritage'Chesters Roman for: outpost of empire' on Google Arts & Culture
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Ruins are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction. Natural disaster and population decline are the most common root causes, with many structures becoming progressively derelict over time due to long-term weathering and scavenging. There are famous ruins all over the world, from ancient sites in China, the Indus valley and Judea to Zimbabwe in Africa, ancient Greek and Roman sites in the Mediterranean basin, Incan and Mayan sites in the Americas. Ruins are of great importance to historians and anthropologists, whether they were once individual fortifications, places of worship, ancient universities and utility buildings, or entire villages and cities. Many ruins have become UNESCO World Heritage Sites in recent years, to identify and preserve them as areas of outstanding value to humanity. Ancient cities were highly militarized and fortified defensive settlements.
In times of war they were the central focus of armed conflict and would be sacked and ruined in defeat. Although less central to modern conflict, vast areas of 20th-century cities such as Warsaw, Coventry, Stalingrad, Königsberg, Berlin were left in ruins following World War II, a number of major cities around the world – such as Beirut, Sarajevo and Baghdad – have been or ruined in recent years as a result of more localised warfare. Entire cities have been ruined, some lost to natural disasters; the ancient city of Pompeii was lost during a volcanic eruption in the 1st century AD, its uncovered ruins now preserved as a World Heritage Site. The city of Lisbon was destroyed in 1755 by a massive earthquake and tsunami, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake left the city in complete ruin. Apart from acts of war, some important historic buildings have fallen victim to deliberate acts of destruction as a consequence of social and economic factors; the spoliation of public monuments in Rome was under way during the fourth century, when it was covered in protective legislation in the Theodosian Code and in new legislation of Majorian. and the dismantling increased once popes were free of imperial restrictions.
Marble was still being burned for agricultural lime in the Roman Campagna into the nineteenth century. In Europe, many religious buildings suffered as a result of the politics of the day. In the 16th century, the English monarch Henry VIII set about confiscating the property of monastic institutions in a campaign which became known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Many abbeys and monasteries fell into ruin. In the 20th century, a number of European historic buildings fell into ruin as a result of taxation policies, which required all structures with roofs to pay substantial property tax; the owners of these buildings, like Fetteresso Castle and Slains Castle in Scotland, deliberately destroyed their roofs in protest at, defiance of, the new taxes. Other decrees of government have had a more direct result, such as the case of Beverston Castle, in which the English parliament ordered significant destruction of the castle to prevent it being used by opposition Royalists. Post-colonial Ireland has encouraged the ruin of grand Georgian houses, symbols of British imperialism.
As a rule, towers built of steel are dismantled, when not used any more, because their construction can be either rebuilt on a new site or if the state of construction does not allow a direct reuse, the metal can be recycled economically. However, sometimes tower basements remain. One example of such a basement is the basement of the former radio mast of Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster; the basements of large wooden towers such as Transmitter Ismaning may be left behind, because removing them would be difficult. The contemplation of "rust belt" post-industrial ruins is in its infancy. In the Middle Ages Roman ruins were inconvenient impediments to modern life, quarries for pre-shaped blocks for building projects, or marble to be burnt for agricultural lime, subjects for satisfying commentaries on the triumph of Christianity and the general sense of the world's decay, in what was assumed to be its last age, before the Second Coming. With the Renaissance, ruins took on new roles among a cultural elite, as examples for a consciously revived and purified architecture all' antica, for a new aesthetic appreciation of their innate beauty as objects of venerable decay.
The chance discovery of Nero's Domus Aurea at the turn of the sixteenth century, the early excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii had marked effects on current architectural styles, in Raphael's Rooms at the Vatican and in neoclassical interiors, respectively. The new sense of historicism that accompanied neoclassicism led some artists and designers to conceive of the modern classicising monuments of their own day as they would one day appear as ruins. In the period of Romanticism ruins were frequent object for painters, place of meetings of romantic poets, nationalist students etc.. Ruin value is the concept that a building be designed such that if it collapsed, it would leave behind aesthetically pleasing ruins that would last far longer without any maintenance at all. Joseph Michael Gandy completed for Sir John Soane in 1832 an atmospheric watercolor of the architect's vast Bank of England rotunda as a picturesquely overgrown ruin, tha
Acomb is a village in the south of Northumberland, England. The population at the 2001 Census was 1,184 increasing to 1,268 at the 2011 Census, it is situated to the north of Hexham, not far from the junction of the A69 A6079 road. The name is Anglo-Saxon Old English acum,'at the oak trees'; the traditional pronunciation of the name is "Yeckam". Some Bronze Age cists have been discovered in this vicinity. Hadrian's Wall runs about 1 mile to the NE of Acomb, where the site of Chesters Roman fort is located. Acomb is in the parliamentary constituency of Hexham. In this area there was much quarrying; the coal mine at Acomb in 1886 employed 200 workers and 51,000 tons of coal per annum were raised. It was good 41 coke ovens were in use. At Fallowfield still working was another lead mine, where the Romans had mined and quarried. In 1886 the mine employed mining lead and barites; the pleasing church of St John Lee on the hillside amid the trees is dedicated to St John of Beverley, a local hermit and worker of miracles.
There was a medieval church, but it was rebuilt in 1818 by Dobson and in 1885 enlarged by Hicks, so that it has a tower with spire — a landmark that can be seen from Warden and all around. In 1765 at St John Lee Church a most remarkable marriage was celebrated; the bridegroom was a well-known Northumbrian piper. He was 90 years old and for 26 years he had moved about on crutches, his bride, Jean Middlemas, was only 25 years old and might be regarded as destined to be a nurse to an antique husband. But on his wedding day, he threw his crutches away and walked from the village of Wall, where he lived, to the church, he walked back again among a group of fellow pipers. At the conclusion of the marriage, they were regaled with cakes and ale. Was this a miracle by St John of Beverley? GENUKI Northumberland Communities
Hexham Old Gaol
The Hexham Old Gaol is in the town of Hexham, England. It is reputed to be the oldest purpose-built prison in England; the gaol was built under the order of Margot and William Melton, the Archbishop of York, in 1330–33. It held prisoners from Hexhamshire and in the 16th century, from the English Middle March, before their trial in the Moothall Court Room nearby; the gaol houses a museum, covering: archaeology, archives and textiles, law and order, photography, social history and war. The collections include 15th and 16th century arms and armour, objects of local historical interest; the Border Library holds the Butler Collection, books and music relating to the culture of the Borders. Hexham Old Gaol - official site Old Gaol information at Tynedale Learning Links Images of Hexham Castle Site, Moot Hall & Old Gaol Information from the 24 Hour Museum Review
Carlisle is a historic city and the county town of Cumbria. In Cumberland, it is the administrative centre of the City of Carlisle district in North West England. Carlisle is located at the confluence of the rivers Eden and Petteril, 10 miles south of the Scottish border, it is the largest settlement in the county of Cumbria, serves as the administrative centre for both Carlisle City Council and Cumbria County Council. At the time of the 2001 census, the population of Carlisle was 71,773, with 100,734 living in the wider city. Ten years at the 2011 census, the city's population had risen to 75,306, with 107,524 in the wider city; the early history of Carlisle is marked by its status as a Roman settlement, established to serve the forts on Hadrian's Wall. During the Middle Ages, because of its proximity to the Kingdom of Scotland, Carlisle became an important military stronghold; the castle now houses the Duke of the Border Regiment Museum. In the early 12th century, Henry I allowed the foundation of a priory in Carlisle.
The town gained the status of a city when its diocese was formed in 1133, the priory became Carlisle Cathedral. The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle, which developed into a densely populated mill town. This, combined with its strategic position, allowed for the development of Carlisle as an important railway town, with seven railway companies sharing Carlisle railway station. Nicknamed the Great Border City, Carlisle today is the main cultural and industrial centre for north Cumbria, it is home to the main campuses of the University of Cumbria and a variety of museums and heritage centres. The former County Borough of Carlisle had held city status until the Local Government Act 1972 was enacted in 1974. What is known of the ancient history of Carlisle is derived from archaeological evidence and the works of the Roman historian Tacitus; the earliest recorded inhabitants were the Carvetii tribe of Britons who made up the main population of ancient Cumbria and North Lancashire.
According to Boethius and John of Fordun, Carlisle existed before the arrival of the Romans in Britain and was one of the strongest British towns at the time. In the time of the emperor Nero, it was said to have burned down; the Roman settlement was named Luguvalium, based on a native name, reconstructed as Brittonic *Luguwaljon, " of Luguwalos", a masculine Celtic given name meaning "strength of Lugus". Excavations undertaken along Annetwell Street in the 1970s dated the Roman timber fort constructed at the site of present Carlisle Castle to the winter of AD 73, protecting a strategic location overlooking the confluence of the Caldew and Eden rivers; this walled civitas the only one in northwest Britain served as the tribal centre of the Carvetii on the model of other such sites in Roman Britain. In 79, the two Roman generals Gnaeus Julius Agricola and Quintus Petillius Cerialis advanced through Solway as they continued their campaign further north; as a result, it is that greater control was achieved at Carlisle over anti-imperial groups.
This is indicated from the reconstruction of the fort at Carlisle in 83 using oak timbers from further afield, rather than local alder. At this time the Roman fort was garrisoned by a 500-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Sebosiana. By the early 2nd century, Carlisle was established as a prominent stronghold. The'Stanegate' frontier, which consisted of Luguvalium and several other forts in a line east to Corbridge, was proving a more stable frontier against the Picts than those established deeper into Caledonia. In 122, the province was visited by Hadrian, who approved a plan to build a wall the length of the frontier. A new fort, was built at Carlisle in the Stanwix area of the city north of the river, it was the largest fort along the length of Hadrian's Wall and was completed in stone by around 130. Like Luguvalium, which lay within sight, Petriana housed a 1,000-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Petriana, the sole regiment of this size along the wall. Hadrian's successor Antoninus Pius attempted to move further north.
It was not a success and, after 20 years, the garrisons returned to Hadrian's Wall. Until 400, the Roman occupation fluctuated in importance. At one time, it broke off from Rome, he was assassinated and suffered damnatio memoriae, but a surviving reference to him has been uncovered in Carlisle. Coins excavated in the area suggest that Romans remained in Carlisle until the reign of Emperor Valentinian II, from 375 to 392; the period of late antiquity after Roman rule saw Cumbria organised as the native British kingdom of Rheged. It is that the kingdom took its name from a major stronghold within it. King Urien and his son and successor Owain became the subjects of a great deal of Arthurian legend, their capital has been identified as the Cair Ligualid listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain, which developed into Caer-luel, whence the city's modern Welsh name Caerliwelydd. Rheged came under Northumbrian control before 730 by inheritance after Rienmelth, daughter of Royth and great-granddaughter of Urien, married Oswy, King of Northumbria.
For the rest of the first millennium, Carlisle was an important stronghold c