Cochise County, Arizona
Cochise County is located in the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. The population was 131,346 at the 2010 census; the county seat is Bisbee. Cochise County includes Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county borders southwestern New northeastern Sonora in Mexico. In 1528 Spanish Explorers: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and Fray Marcos de Niza survived a shipwreck off Texas coast. Captured by Native Americans they spent 8 years finding their way back to Mexico City, via the San Pedro Valley, their journals and stories lead to the Cibola, seven cities of gold myth. The Expedition of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1539 using it as his route north through what they called the Guachuca Mountains of Pima lands and part of the mission routes north, but was occupied by the Sobaipuri descendants of the Hohokam, they found a large Pueblo between Benson and Whetstone, several smaller satellite villages and smaller pueblos including ones on Fort Huachuca, Huachuca City and North Eastern Fry.
About 1657 Father Kino visited the Sobaipuris just before the Apache forced most from the valley, as they were struggling to survive due to increasing Chiricahua Apache attacks as they moved into the area of Texas Canyon in the Dragoon Mountains. In 1776 The Presidio Santa Cruz de Terrante was founded on the West bank of the San Pedro River, to protect the natives as well as the Spanish settlers who supplied the mission stations, but it was chronically short on provisions from raids, lack of personnel to adequately patrol the eastern route due to wars with France and England, so the main route north shifted west to the Santa Cruz valley, farther from the Chiricahua Apache's ranges who exclusively controlled the area by 1821. Cochise County was created on February 1881, out of the eastern portion of Pima County, it took its name from the legendary Chiricahua Apache war chief Cochise. The county seat was Tombstone until 1929. Notable men who once held the position of County Sheriff were Johnny Behan, who served as the first sheriff of the new county, and, one of the main characters during the events leading to and following the Gunfight at the O.
K. Corral. In 1886, Texas John Slaughter became sheriff. Lawman Jeff Milton and lawman/outlaw Burt Alvord both served as deputies under Slaughter. A syndicated television series which aired from 1956 to 1958, Sheriff of Cochise starring John Bromfield, was filmed in Bisbee; the Jimmy Stewart movie Broken Arrow and subsequent television show of the same name starring John Lupton, which aired from 1956 to 1958, took place in Cochise County. J. A. Jance's Joanna Brady mystery series takes place in Cochise County, with Brady being the sheriff. Beginning in the late 1950s, the small community of Miracle Valley was the site of a series of bible colleges and similar religious organizations, founded by television evangelist A. A. Allen. In 1982, Miracle Valley and neighboring Palominas were the site of a series of escalating conflicts between a newly arrived religious community and the county sheriff and deputies that culminated in the Miracle Valley shootout. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,219 square miles, of which 6,166 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water.
Cochise County is close to the size of the States of Rhode Connecticut combined. Chiricahua National Monument Coronado National Forest Coronado National Memorial Fort Bowie National Historic Site Kartchner Caverns State Park Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area As of the 2000 census, there were 117,755 people, 43,893 households, 30,768 families residing in the county; the population density was 19 people per square mile. There were 51,126 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.66% White, 4.52% Black or African American, 1.15% Native American, 1.65% Asian, 0.26% Pacific Islander, 12.05% from other races, 3.72% from two or more races. 30.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.35 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 43,893 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families.
25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,105, the median income for a family was $38,005. Males had a median income of $30,533 versus $22,252 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,988. About 13.50% of families and 17.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.80% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, the largest denominational group was Evangelical Protestants; the largest religious bodies were The Southern Baptist Convention.
As of the 2010 census, there were 131,346 people, 50,865 households, 33,653 families residing in the county
Road Forks, New Mexico
Road Forks is an unincorporated community in western Hidalgo County, New Mexico, United States, in the southwestern corner of the state. It is 6.2 miles east of the Arizona border, due east of Stern's Mountain, at the junction of Interstate 10 and NM Route 80. It is 15 miles southwest of 3 miles east of Steins, New Mexico. Road Forks had a post office from shortly after its founding in 1925 until 1955, when postal services were transferred to Lordsburg. Road Forks was founded in 1925 by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Porter, who gave it its name
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Francisco Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor. He was a professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid and was ousted in 1792, he served in a church in Colima and in Dolores, Dias. After his arrival, he was shocked by the rich soil, he tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, but in Mexico, growing these crops was discouraged or prohibited by the authorities due to Spanish imports of the items. In 1810 he gave the famous speech, "The Cry of Dolores", calling upon the people to protect the interest of their King Fernando VII by revolting against the European-born Spaniards who had overthrown the Spanish Viceroy, he marched across Mexico and gathered an army of nearly 90,000 poor farmers and Mexican civilians who attacked and killed both Spanish Peninsulares and Criollo elites though Hidalgo's troops lacked training and were poorly armed. These troops ran up onto an army of armed Spanish troops. Hidalgo was the second-born child of Don Cristóbal Hidalgo y Costilla and Doña Ana María Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor.
Hidalgo was born a criollo. Under the system of the day, Hidalgo's rights as a criollo were far less than those of someone born in Spain but better than a mestizo, a person of both Spanish and Amerindian ancestry, other castas. Both of Hidalgo's parents were descended from well-respected families within the criollo community. Hidalgo's father was an hacienda manager, which presented Hidalgo with the opportunity to learn at a young age to speak the indigenous languages of the laborers. Eight days after his birth, Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the parish church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos. Hidalgo's parents would have three other sons. In 1759, Charles III of Spain ascended to the throne of Spain. During this period, Don Cristóbal was determined that Miguel and his younger brother Joaquín should both enter the priesthood and hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. Being of significant means he paid for all of his sons to receive the best education the region had to offer. After receiving private instruction from the priest of the neighboring parish, Hidalgo was ready for further education.
At the age of fifteen Hidalgo was sent to Valladolid, Michoacán to study at the Colegio de San Francisco Javier with the Jesuits, along with his brothers. When the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in 1767, he entered the Colegio de San Nicolás, where he studied for the priesthood, he completed his preparatory education in 1770. After this, he went to the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico in Mexico City for further study, earning his degree in philosophy and theology in 1773, his education for the priesthood was traditional, with subjects in Latin and logic. Like many priests in Mexico, he learned some Indian languages, such as Nahuatl and Purépecha, he studied Italian and French, which were not studied in Mexico at this time. He earned the nickname "El Zorro" for his reputation for cleverness at school. Hidalgo's study of French allowed him to read and study works of the Enlightenment current in Europe but, at the same time, forbidden by the Catholic church in Mexico. Hidalgo was ordained as a priest in 1778.
From 1779 to 1792, he dedicated himself to teaching at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid. He was a professor of Latin grammar and arts, as well as a theology professor. Beginning in 1787, he was named treasurer, vice-rector and secretary, becoming dean of the school in 1790 when he was 39; as rector, Hidalgo continued studying the liberal ideas that were coming from France and other parts of Europe. Authorities ousted him in 1792 for revising traditional teaching methods there, but for "irregular handling of some funds." The Church sent him to work at the parishes of Colima and San Felipe Torres Mochas until he became the parish priest in Dolores, succeeding his brother Felipe, who died in 1802. Although Hidalgo had a traditional education for the priesthood, as an educator at the Colegio de San Nicolás, he had innovated in teaching methods and curriculum. In his personal life, he did not live the way expected of 18th-century Mexican priests. Instead, his studies of Enlightenment-era ideas caused him to challenge traditional political and religious views.
He questioned the absolute authority of the Spanish king and challenged numerous ideas presented by the Church, including the power of the popes, the virgin birth, clerical celibacy. As a secular cleric, he was not bound by a vow of poverty, so he, like many other secular priests, pursued business activities, including owning three haciendas. One was with Manuela Ramos Pichardo, with whom he had two children, as well as a child with Bibiana Lucero, he lived with a woman named María Manuela Herrera, fathering two daughters out of wedlock with her, fathered three other children with a woman named Josefa Quintana. He enjoyed gambling; these actions resulted in his appearance before the Court of the Inquisition, although the court did not find him guilty. Hida
New Mexico's 2nd congressional district
New Mexico's second congressional district to the United States House of Representatives serves the southern half of New Mexico, including Las Cruces and the southern fourth of Albuquerque. Geographically, it is the fifth largest district in the nation, the largest not to comprise an entire state, it is represented by Democrat Xochitl Torres Small. The 2nd district leans Republican, in contrast to New Mexico's other two districts, which lean Democratic. Election results from presidential races District created January 3, 1969 from the former at-large district. New Mexico's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Steins, New Mexico
Steins is a ghost town in Stein's Pass of Hidalgo County, New Mexico. It was called Stein's Pass after the nearby pass through the Peloncillo Mountains; the pass was named after United States Army Major Enoch Steen, who camped nearby in 1856, as he explored the acquired Gadsden Purchase. The town can trace its origin to a small stop on the Birch Stage Line, established in 1857. Properly founded in 1880, the town was named after United States Army Major Enoch Steen, killed by members of an Apache tribe in 1873; the town began to prosper when mineral deposits like gold and copper were discovered in the nearby Peloncillo Mountains. Further success was brought when the Southern Pacific Railroad established a rail line in 1878, a local quarry was opened up. Steins had no natural source of water, so all water had to be brought in by train. In 1905 a rock-crushing plant was built to produce track ballast for the railroad. In 1944, toward the end of World War II, the railway ceased operations at the Steins quarry and gave notice it would no longer subsidize water deliveries.
The railway offered the inhabitants of Steins free transport elsewhere with. The post office in the town closed at that time, Steins was abandoned. In 1988, Larry and Linda Link began offering ghost town tours. In 2011, Larry Link was murdered and tours ceased, it is unusual in the old West ghost towns in having been a railroad rather than a mining town. Steins Pass has been mistaken by some people for the pass at Doubtful Canyon near Steins Peak, a location to the northwest in the same mountain range, the location of a Butterfield Overland Mail station and the site of the Battle of Doubtful Canyon. Steins on GhostTowns.com Steins on SouthernNewMexico.com Photo Gallery on GhostTownGallery.com Gone But Not Forgotten – A Story of Steins, New Mexico