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Hideyo Noguchi

Hideyo Noguchi known as Seisaku Noguchi, was a prominent Japanese bacteriologist who in 1911 discovered the agent of syphilis as the cause of progressive paralytic disease. Noguchi Hideyo was born in Inawashiro, Fukushima prefecture in 1876; when he was one and a half years old, he fell into a fireplace and suffered a burn injury on his left hand. There was no doctor in the small village. "The fingers of the left hand are gone," he said, "and the left arm, the left foot, the right hand are burned. In 1883, Noguchi entered Mitsuwa elementary school. Thanks to generous contributions from his teacher Kobayashi and his friends, he was able to receive surgery on his badly burned hand, he recovered about 70 % functionality in his left hand through the operation. Noguchi decided to become a doctor to help those in need, he apprenticed himself to the same doctor who had performed the surgery. He entered Saisei Gakusha, which became Nippon Medical School, he passed the examinations to practice medicine when he was twenty years old in 1897.

He was supported in his studies by Dr. Morinosuke Chiwaki. In 1898, he changed his first name to Hideyo after reading a novel about a doctor who had the same name—Seisaku—as him; the doctor in the story became lazy and ruined his life. In 1900 Noguchi travelled on the America Maru to the United States, where he obtained a job as a research assistant with Dr. Simon Flexner at the University of Pennsylvania and at the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, he thrived in this environment. At this time his work concerned. In part, his move was motivated by difficulties in obtaining a medical position in Japan, as prospective employers were concerned that his hand deformity would discourage potential patients. In a research setting, he did not have a handicap, he and his peers learned from each other. In this period, a fellow research assistant in Flexner's lab was Frenchman Alexis Carrel, who would go on to win a Nobel Prize in 1912. Noguchi's work attracted the Prize committee's scrutiny. In the 21st century, the Nobel Foundation archives were opened for public research.

Historians found that Noguchi was nominated several times for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: in 1913-1915, 1920, 1921 and 1924-1927. During the 1920s, his work was being criticized for inaccuracies. While working at the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research in 1911, he was accused of inoculating orphan children with syphilis in the course of a clinical study, he was acquitted of any wrongdoing at the time but, since the late 20th century, his conduct of the study has come to be considered an early instance of unethical human experimentation. At the time, society had not developed a consensus about how to conduct human experimentation and feelings varied about the medical research community. Antivivisectionists linked their concerns for animals with concerns about humans; the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children was founded in the late 19th century after the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. In 1913, Noguchi demonstrated the presence of Treponema pallidum in the brain of a progressive paralysis patient, proving that the spirochete was the cause of the disease.

Dr. Noguchi's name is remembered in the binomial attached to another spirochete, Leptospira noguchii. In 1918, Noguchi traveled extensively in Central America and South America working with the International Health Board to conduct research to develop a vaccine for yellow fever, to research Oroya fever and trachoma, he believed. He worked for much of the next ten years trying to prove this theory, his work on yellow fever was criticized as taking an inaccurate approach, contradictory to contemporary research, confusing yellow fever with other pathogens. In 1927-28 three different papers appeared in medical journals, it turned out. The vaccine he developed against "yellow fever" was used to treat the latter disease. In 1911 and 1912 at the Rockefeller Institute in New York City, Noguchi was working to develop a syphilis skin test similar to the tuberculin skin test; the subjects were recruited from hospitals in New York. In the experiment, Noguchi injected an extract of syphilis, called luetin, under the subjects' upper arm skin.

Skin reactions were studied, as they varied among healthy subjects and syphilis patients, based on the disease's stage and its treatment. Of the 571 subjects, 315 had syphilis; the remaining subjects were "controls. The hospital patients were being treated for various non-syphilitic diseases, such as malaria, leprosy and pneumonia; the controls were normal individuals children between the ages of 2 and 18 years. Critics at the time from the anti-vivisectionist movement, noted that Noguchi violated the rights of vulnerable orphans and hospital patients. There was concern on the part of anti-vivisectionists that the children would get syphilis from Noguchi's experiments, it became the media discussed it. The editor of Life pointed out: If the researcher had said to these patients: "Have I your permission to inject into your system a concoction more or less related to a hideous disease?"—the invalids might have declined. In Noguchi's

Porcellanite

Porcellanite or porcelanite, is a hard, dense rock somewhat similar in appearance to unglazed porcelain. It is an impure variety of chert containing clay and calcareous matter. Porcellanite has been found, for example, in Northern Ireland and the Czech Republic. At Tievebulliagh, Northern Ireland, porcellanite is a tough contact metamorphosed hornfels formed from a lateritic soil horizon within a basaltic intrusive/extrusive sequence; the rock is black to dark grey in colour. Tievebulliagh is the site of a Neolithic axe or stone tool quarry, there is another quarry on Rathlin Island, it is that roughouts or roughly-shaped prehistoric tools were chipped on site before transportation both within Ireland and over the Irish Sea to Britain. It is likely that the final polish would have been performed near the site of use in cutting vegetation and trees, it was polished on grooved blocks of hard sandstone

1998–99 Swindon Town F.C. season

During the 1998–99 English football season, Swindon Town F. C. competed in the Football League First Division. When the 1998–99 season kicked off, Swindon failed to win their first five games, scoring just three goals and the calls for McMahon's sacking began to be heard. Chairman Rikki Hunt and McMahon seemed united – McMahon saying he wouldn't resign, Hunt saying he wouldn't sack him. Two consecutive derby wins, against Bristol City and Oxford, only strengthened their position; this was followed by a 5–2 defeat at Portsmouth – and when Watford won 4–1 at the County Ground, the fans held an on-pitch protest, sitting in the centre circle at the end of the match, demonstrating that both McMahon and Hunt should resign. McMahon left the club "by mutual consent". Jimmy Quinn was appointed as McMahon's replacement and managed to keep Swindon in the division with the club finishing the season in 17th place. Swindon Town's score comes first Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality

Falsi allarmi

Falsi allarmi is the sixth studio album by Italian singer-songwriter Alice, released in 1983 on EMI Music. The album includes the single releases "Il profumo del silenzio", "Carthago", "Solo un'dea" and "Notte a Roma". After the chart success of the duet "Zu Nah Am Feuer" with German singer Stefan Waggershausen in early 1984 the album was re-released in West Germany and Austria in the Spring of that year with the duet added as a bonus track, placed as track B5; the Benelux editions of the re-release instead included the English-language version "Close to the Fire". In 2003 "Zu Nah Am Feuer" was included on Waggershausen's compilation Balladen. After Alice's participation in the 1984 Eurovision Song Contest with another duet, "I treni di Tozeur" with Franco Battiato, Falsi allarmi was again re-released in the Benelux, again placing this bonus track as B5; the original duet version of the track has since been included on Eurovision compilations such as The Story of Eurovision, The Very Best of Eurovision and Grandes éxitos del Festival de Eurovision and the song appears on the CD set of Eurovision Winners and Classics produced to coincide with the Congratulations 50th Anniversary special of late 2005 as well as on the accompanying DVD.

A solo version with Battiato was included on his 1985 album Mondi lontanissimi and a classical interpretation with a symphony orchestra on 1994's live album Unprotected. Alice in turn recorded a solo version for 1987's Elisir and again for the career retrospective Personal Jukebox in 2000 with the London Session Orchestra and conducted by Gavin Wright. An alternate version of the track "Notte a Roma" was included on the 1987 album Elisir. Side A"Solo un'idea" - 4:16 "Osanna" - 3:25 "La canzone più bella" - 5:07 "Viaggio" - 4:10Side B"Il profumo del silenzio" - 4:32 "Carthago" - 3:19 "Notte a Roma" - 4:22 "Per favore non è amore" - 4:30 Alice - lead vocals, piano Alfredo Golino - drums, percussion instruments, marimba Mino Fabiano - bass guitar Matteo Fasolino - piano, synthesizer Pino Santapaga - guitars Sergio Farina - guitars Maurizio Preti - percussion Ricky Portera - guitar solo track A3 Marco Dassenno - cello I Madrigalisti di Milano - choir track A2 Angelo Carrara – record producer Alice – musical arranger, sound engineer Matteo Fasolino – musical arranger, sound engineer Alfredo Golino – musical arranger Recorded at Studio 7 Fontana Franco Zorzi – sound engineer Mixed at Idea Mix – CGD Olophonic Center: Maurizio & Umberto Maggi – holophonic effects Target - management Antonio Guccione – photography Francesco Messina – art direction EMI Creative Services – graphic design Falsi allarmi at Discogs

Bukharan People's Soviet Republic

The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic was a short-lived Soviet state that governed the former Emirate of Bukhara during the years following the Russian Revolution. In 1924, its name was changed to the Bukharan Socialist Soviet Republic. After the redrawing of regional borders, its territory was assigned to the Uzbek SSR and some to the Turkmen SSR. In 1868, the Russian Empire forced the Emirate of Bukhara to accept protectorate status. Over the next 40 years, the Russians eroded at Bukhara's territory, although never annexing the city of Bukhara itself. However, the emir could not shut out all outside influences, some of the disaffected youth of Bukhara gravitated to Pan-Turkism, inspired by the Young Turks in the Ottoman Empire, ideas taken from the Islamic Jadid reform movement, the new Bolshevik-inspired communism; these various ideologies coalesced in the Young Bukharans, led by Faizullah Khojaev. The Young Bukharans faced extreme obstacles as the emirate was dominated by conservative Sunni Islamic clergy.

The ensuing conflict pitted the secular Young Bukharans and their Bolshevik supporters against the conservative pro-emir rebels, the Basmachi, in a conflict that lasted more than a decade. In March 1918, the Young Bukharan activists informed the Bolsheviks that the Bukharan people were ready for the revolution and awaiting liberation from the emir; the Red Army marched to the gates of Bukhara and demanded that the emir surrender the city to the Young Bukharans. A Russian source reports that the emir responded by killing the Bolshevik delegation and incited the population to a jihad against the Bolshevik "infidels". Thousands of Russians were killed in these religious riots in the surrounding areas. However, the emir had won only a temporary respite. By August 1920 the Turkestan Bolsheviks advocated the liquidation of the Bukhara Emirate as a centre for counter-revolutionary forces. On 3 August 1920 the Bolsheviks and the Young Bukharans agreed to act together on the understanding that the Young Bukharans would join the Communist Party.

On 16 August 1920 the 4th Congress of Bukharan Communist Party held in Bolshevik-controlled Chardjui decided to overthrow the emir. On 25 August 1920 the Politburo of the Russian Communist Party of Bolesheviks confirmed orders for the Revolutionary Military Council of Turkestan concerning the "Bukhara question". On 28 August 1920, an army of well-disciplined and well equipped Red Army troops under the command of Bolshevik general Mikhail Frunze attacked the city of Bukhara. On 31 August 1920, the Emir Alim Khan fled to Dushanbe in Eastern Bukhara. On 2 September 1920, after four days of fighting, the emir's citadel was destroyed, the red flag was raised from the top of Kalyan Minaret. On 14 September 1920, the All-Bukharan Revolutionary Committee was headed by A. Mukhitdinov; the government – the Council of People's Nazirs – was presided over by Faizullah Khojaev. The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 8 October 1920 under Faizullah Khojaev. In Soviet terminology, the republic was a "revolutionary-democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry", a transition stage to a Soviet Socialist Republic.

A new constitution was adopted in September 1921, contrary to the Russian Constitution of 1918, allowed private ownership of land and productive assets and granted voting rights to non-proletarians. The overthrow of the emir was the impetus for the Basmachi Revolt, a conservative anti-communist rebellion. In 1922, most of the territory of the republic was controlled by Basmachi, it took the Red Army until 1926 to suppress the revolt. During the first few years of the Russian Revolution, Lenin relied on a policy of encouraging local revolutions under the aegis of the local bourgeoisie, in the early years of Bolshevik rule the Communists sought the assistance of the Jadid reformists in pushing through radical social and educational reforms. Just two weeks after the proclamation of the People's Republic, Communist Party membership in Bukhara soared to 14,000 as many local inhabitants were eager to prove their loyalty to the new regime; as the Soviet Union stabilized, it could afford to purge itself of so-called opportunists and potential nationalists.

A series of expulsions stripped membership down to 1000 by 1922. The above was reflected in the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic's flag, as designed upon its foundation, combining the Communist Hammer and Sickle with the traditional Crescent, which had appeared in the flag of the Emirate of Bukhara as well as in those of the Ottoman Empire and various other Islamic states. Conversely, the flags of the Soviet Republics among which the Bukharan territory was divided in 1925 featured the Hammer and Sickle alone, omitting the Crescent. From 19 September 1924 to 17 February 1925, the Republic was known as the Bukharan Socialist Soviet Republic; when new national boundaries were drawn up in 1924, the Bukharan SSR voted itself out of existence and became part of the new Uzbek SSR. Today the territory of the defunct Bukhara SSR lies in Uzbekistan with parts in Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. Kho

Darkest Hour: Europe '44-'45

Darkest Hour: Europe'44-'45 is a free modification developed by Darklight Games / The Darkest Hour Team for Tripwire Interactive's multiplayer first-person shooter video game Red Orchestra: Ostfront 41-45, It is based on the Western Front during World War II between 1944 and 1945, depicting the conflict between Allied and German forces. Several large-scale operations are covered, including the invasion of Normandy, Battle of the Bulge, Operation Market Garden, Battle of the Hürtgen Forest. Darkest Hour's gameplay style is similar to its parent game, Red Orchestra: Ostfront 41-45, although with many expansive changes to the armor system, have many features such as the round shatter, the ability to break the traverse of the turret, kill tank crew with a penetrating shot, different ammo types such as APDS, HVAP, HEAT, tank brew ups and many other features not found in the original game. Players assume the role of an individual infantryman or tank crew from either the Allied or German forces in an online multiplayer environment.

Each team attempts to accomplish objectives varying by the historical battle the game map is based upon. The main type of play consists of an Attack and Defend style, whereby one team has to take objective areas from the opposing team in order to claim victory; the game features a complete change of content from its parent in the form of new battlegrounds, vehicles and uniforms. The Allied team players get the chance to play the role of an American, British or Canadian soldier, while the Axis team play as a soldier from the Waffen SS, Fallschirmjäger and other German divisions. Over 20 World War II era firearms can be used including the M1 Garand, M1 Carbine.30-cal, Bren LMG, FG 42, Lee–Enfield, American Bazooka, British PIAT and German Panzerschreck. Crewable vehicles include the King Tiger, Sherman, Cromwell, M10 Wolverine and Kübelwagen. Other new improvements have been made to increase gameplay realism, such as bullet suppression, wall mantling, supersonic cracks, shell shock, deployable mortars, player/vehicle damage, a playable radioman class required for calling in artillery strikes.

The following maps were available as of the latest official release: Juno Beach – Canadians storming the beach in D-Day-style action. Carentan – The US 101st Airborne assaults the town shortly after D-Day. Brecourt – 101st Airborne attempt to put a key German artillery battery out of commission behind the beaches. Vieux – Vast, sweeping armored combat as the British attempt to break out during Operation Goodwood in Normandy. Ginkel Heath – British paratroopers drop into a hotly contested landing zone at the start of Operation Market-Garden. Wacht-am-Rhein – German armor attempts to seize critical roadways from an American armored unit in the opening hours of the Ardennes Offensive. Stoumont – American infantry and armor try to hold back SS PanzerGrenadiers in the streets of a demolished Ardennes town. Bois Jacques – Americans in trench-style defense against a combined German tank and infantry force in the forests between Bastogne and Foy, Belgium. Foy – German forces defend against attacking American Airborne troopers deep in the Ardennes.

Noville - DogGreen - D-Day 0600hrs - Omaha Beach: Dog Green Sector Raids - A British Airborne unit, backed by Cromwell tanks, attempts to take a French town from dug in German troops. La Monderie - This is a fictional tank battle taking place in September 1944 somewhere in the country side of France. Freyneux and Lamormenil - This map models the actual terrain of the Freyneux-Lamormenil area of Belgium in December 1944. La Chapelle - In this scenario, US infantry forces supported by a section of tanks must seize the village from a Germany Infantry force. Hurtgenwald - While the Hurtgen Forest attracts tourists today because of its forested hills and rivers, in 1944 and 1945 it was the site of the longest and bloodiest battles in the history of the U. S. Army. Vieux Recon - Commonwealth recon forces run into their German counterparts just north of Caen in the early dawn hours. Carentan Causeway Cambes-en-Plaine - British armor encounters elements of the 12. SS Panzer Division on D-Day +1. Caen Poteau Ambush - Kamfgruppe Hansen of the 1.

SS Leibstandarte ambush a convoy of the American 14th Cavalry Group. Hill 108 Hill 400 Kommerscheidt Simonskall Lutremange Bridge Head GranAdditionally, unofficial community-made maps are hosted on Darkest Hour's multi-player servers. Development on the game started in November 2006 and was first released publicly on June 6, 2008 as Darkest Hour: Normandy 1944; the original Darkest Hour development team, known as Darklight Games, amassed dozens of contributors prior to the game's first release. For the subsequent second and third releases the entire team was downsized to "provide an efficient core team of multi-skill leads with a network of contributors who help whenever they can". After several members of the original development group departed following the second release, the Darklight name was dropped in favor of the more general, Darkest Hour Team. In order to reach a broader audience, this consolidated group, composed of remaining original team members along with new talent, produced a overhauled version of the game culminating in an acclaimed re-release through Steam in June 2009 under its current title, Darkest Hour: Europe'44-45.

In the intervening years, three more updates to the game have been released via Steam, adding additional maps, vehicles and game features. The developers plan to provide official support for Darkest Hour in its current incarnation through the Autumn of 2011; the current version was released on December 16, 2011. As of Jan 2015 a new version is being worked on. Release Dates