Hieratic is a cursive writing system used for Ancient Egyptian, the principal script used to write that language from its development in the 33rd century BCE until the rise of Demotic in the mid 1st millennium BCE. It was written in ink with a reed pen on papyrus. In the second century, the term hieratic was first used by Clement of Alexandria, it derives from the Greek for "priestly writing", as at that time, hieratic was used only for religious texts and literature, as had been the case for the previous eight and a half centuries. Hieratic can be an adjective meaning "f or associated with sacred persons or offices. Hieratic developed as a cursive form of hieroglyphic script in the Naqada III period 3200–3000 BCE. Although handwritten printed hieroglyphs continued to be used in some formal situations, such as manuscripts of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, noncursive hieroglyphic script became restricted to monumental inscriptions. Hieratic was used into the Hellenistic period. Around 660 BCE, the more-cursive Demotic script arose in northern Egypt and replaced hieratic and the southern shorthand known as abnormal hieratic for most mundane writing, such as personal letters and mercantile documents.
Hieratic continued to be used by the priestly class for religious texts and literature into the third century BCE. Through most of its long history, hieratic was used for writing administrative documents, legal texts, letters, as well as mathematical, medical and religious texts. During the Græco-Roman period, when Demotic had become the chief administrative script, hieratic was limited to religious texts. In general, hieratic was much more important than hieroglyphs throughout Egypt's history, being the script used in daily life, it was the writing system first taught to students, knowledge of hieroglyphs being limited to a small minority who were given additional training. In fact, it is possible to detect errors in hieroglyphic texts that came about due to a misunderstanding of an original hieratic text. Most hieratic script was written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, stone or pottery ostraca. Thousands of limestone ostraca have been found at the site of Deir al-Madinah, revealing an intimate picture of the lives of common Egyptian workmen.
Besides papyrus, ceramic shards, wood, there are hieratic texts on leather rolls, though few have survived. There are hieratic texts written on cloth on linen used in mummification. There are some hieratic texts inscribed on a variety known as lapidary hieratic. During the late 6th Dynasty, hieratic was sometimes incised into mud tablets with a stylus, similar to cuneiform. About five hundred of these tablets have been discovered in the governor's palace at Ayn Asil, a single example was discovered from the site of Ayn al-Gazzarin, both in the Dakhla Oasis. At the time the tablets were made, Dakhla was located far from centers of papyrus production; these tablets record inventories, name lists and fifty letters. Of the letters, many are internal letters that were circulated within the palace and the local settlement, but others were sent from other villages in the oasis to the governor. Hieratic script, unlike manuscript hieroglyphs, reads from right to left. Hieratic could be written in either columns or horizontal lines, but after the 12th Dynasty, horizontal writing became the standard.
Hieratic is noted for its cursive use of ligatures for a number of characters. Hieratic script uses a much more standardized orthography than hieroglyphs. There are some signs that are unique to hieratic, though Egyptologists have invented equivalent hieroglyphic forms for hieroglyphic transcriptions and typesetting. Several hieratic characters have diacritical additions so that similar signs could be distinguished. Hieratic is present in any given period in two forms, a ligatured, cursive script used for administrative documents, a broad uncial bookhand used for literary and religious texts; these two forms can be different from one another. Letters, in particular, used cursive forms for quick writing with large numbers of abbreviations for formulaic phrases, similar to shorthand. A cursive form of hieratic known as "Abnormal Hieratic" was used in the Theban area from the second half of the 20th dynasty until the beginning of the 26th Dynasty, it derives from the script of Upper Egyptian administrative documents and was used for legal texts, land leases and other texts.
This type of writing was superseded by Demotic—a Lower Egyptian scribal tradition—during the 26th Dynasty, when Demotic was established as a standard administrative script throughout a re-unified Egypt. Hieratic has had influence on a number of other writing systems; the most obvious is that on its direct descendant. Related to this are the Demotic signs of the Meroitic script and the borrowed Demotic characters used in the Coptic alphabet and Old Nubian. Outside of the Nile Valley, many of the signs used in the Byblos syllabary were borrowed from Old Kingdom hieratic signs, it is known that early Hebrew used hieratic numerals. The Unicode standard considers hieratic characters to be font variants of the Egyptian hieroglyphs, the two scripts ha
Arrival of a Train at Vincennes Station is a 1896 French silent actuality film directed by Georges Méliès. It is numbered 7 in its catalogues; the film is presumed lost. Although the film is considered a lost film, South American animator Bernhard Richter suggested that a flipbook published around the turn of the century by Léon Beaulieu may be a surviving print of the film, based on research done with his daughter Sara Richter in 2013. Beaulieu was a manufacturer of flipbooks, or "folioscopes," based on movies produced between 1895 and 1898; the suggested identification is based on the type of train depicted in the flipbook, but Sara Richter noted in a statement to the magazine Variety that no conclusive evidence to link the flipbook to Méliès has yet been found. The UCLA archivist Jan-Christopher Horak has posited that, while the flipbook may well be a Méliès print, it might be a Lumière Brothers film; the preservationist Serge Bromberg commented on the infeasibility of identifying the flipbook with certainty as a Méliès film, rather than one by other early filmmakers, without further evidence.
Georges Méliès's great-great-granddaughter Pauline Méliès noted in an online statement that the flipbook may derive from Méliès, based on scrutiny of the inscriptions on the train, suggested that it may be a later Méliès film, Arrival of a Train. The Richters have announced that they hope to gather more evidence by crowdsourcing the research project. Arrival of a Train at Vincennes Station on IMDb
Stanton H. Cohn was an expert in osteoporosis and the head of the Medical Physics Division at Brookhaven National Lab. Cohn was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1920 to Harry and Ethel Cohn, parents of Eastern European Jewish heritage, he had five children. He served in the United States Army from June 1943 until April 1946 working as a biochemist in the 203rd General Hospital Division. After the war, he attended University of Chicago, graduating with a B. A. and M. S. in 1946. He attended University of California Berkeley where he received his Ph. D. in 1952 in physiology and radiobiology. His thesis was titled The Effects of Metabolism of Bone. From 1950 to 1958, Cohn led the Internal Toxicity Branch of the Biomedical Division of the United States Naval Research Laboratory, he conducted research on mineral metabolism in bone, biological distribution and effects of internally deposited radionuclides, whole-body neutron activation analysis. Cohn worked at Brookhaven National Lab beginning in 1958, he rose to become the head of the Medical Physics Division in 1970, a position that he held until his retirement in 1987.
He held a joint appointment as Professor of Medicine in the School of Medicine of State University of New York at Stony Brook. During his career, Dr. Cohn co-authored over 300 papers. Cohn was a pioneer in the study of non-invasive measurement of calcium and other elements in the human body, he was one of the early developers of in vivo neutron activation analysis for body composition in 1971. Working with H. C. Lukaski, J. Mendez, E. R. Buskirk in 1981, Cohn developed the urinary 3-Methylhistidine method to estimate total body skeletal muscle mass. Along with J. J. Kehayias, K. J. Ellis and J. H. Weinlein he "established the first inelastic scattering facility for estimating total body carbon and oxygen in 1987."At Brookhaven National Lab, he led a group using whole-body counting to identify and measure radioactive material in the body. He was part of a team, among the first to recognize that nuclear fallout from test sites might have local health implications. Cohn was a member of the team that returned to the Marshall Islands after the United States government performed nuclear testing, to aid the Marshallese people and to continue monitoring, in 1959, 1961, 1974 and 1977.
In subsequent years, he expanded his work to study the effects of cadmium and other harmful elements on workers in the smelting and mining industries. He died in 2008 in Oregon. Cohn S. H.. "Effects of total body x-irradiation on blood coagulation in the rat". Blood. 7: 225–34. Doi:10.1182/blood. V188.8.131.52. PMID 14886416. “The Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Growth and Metabolism of Bone,” S. H. Cohn, Ph. D. Thesis: University of California, 1952 “Role of Cybernetics in Physiology,” S. H. Cohn and S. M. Cohn, from The Scientific Monthly, Vol. 76, No. 2, Feb, 1953 “Nature and Extent of Internal Radioactive Contamination of Human Beings and Animals Exposed to Fallout,” S. H. Cohn, R. W. Rinehart, J. K. Gong, J. S. Robertson, W. L. Milne, US Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory, TR-86, Mar, 1954 https://apps.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0617134 “Radiotoxicity Resulting from Exposure to Fallout Simulant: The Metabolism of an Inhaled and Ingested Simulant of Fallout Produced by Land-base Nuclear Detonation,” S. H.
Cohn, W. R. Lane, J. K. Gone, W. L. Milne, US Naval Radiological Defense Labe TR-118, Jan, 1957 https://www.osti.gov/opennet/servlets/purl/16030232-MbeTHc/16030232.pdf Wallach, S.. "Treatment of osteoporosis with calcitonin". Seminars in Drug Treatment. 2: 21–5. PMID 5065516. Cohn, S. H. K. J. "A multivariate predictor for total body calcium in man based on activation analysis". International Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. 1: 131–134. Doi:10.1016/0047-074090017-5. PMID 4817576. “Correlation of Radial Bone Mineral Content with Total-Body Calcium in Various Metabolic Disorders,” S. H. Cohn, K. J. Ellis, I. Zanzi, J. M. Letteri and J. Aloia, From International Conference on Bone Mineral Measurement, Chicago, 1973. DHEW Publication No. 75-683 http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp?purl=/4405764-OE7KED/ “Applications of Neutron Activation Analysis in Nuclear Medicine,” S. H. Cohn and R. Fairchild, From CRC Handbook in Nuclear Medicine, Ed. R. P. Spencer 1, 285-326, 1977 “Medical Applications of In-Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory,” S.
H. Cohn, K. J. ellis, D. Varsky, I. Zanzi and J. F. Aloia, From IAEA, Symposium on Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences, May 1978. IAEA SM – 227/63, pp 747-761, 1978 http://www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp?purl=/6934724-BCCxrP/ “In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis,” S. H. Cohn, From Textbook of Nuclear Medicine: Basic Sciences, A. F. G. Rocha and J. C. Harbert Lea & Febiger, Phil. 1978, pp 394-406 Cohn, Stanton H.. "In vivo neutron activation analysis: State of the art and future prospects". Medical Physics. 8: 145–154. Bibcode:1981MedPh...8..145C. doi:10.1118/1.594899. PMID 7033755. Ettinger, K. V.. H.. "Silicon measurement in a lung phantom by neutron inelastic scattering". Medical Physics. 9: 550–558. Bibcode:1982MedPh...9..550E. Doi:10.1118/1.595100. PMID 7110086. “Use of a High Repetition Rate Neutron Generator for in-vivo Body Composition Measurement via Neutron Inelastic Scattering” J. J. Kehayias, K. J. Ellis and S. H. Cohn, Nucl. Instr. & Methods in Phys. Res. B24/25, 1006-1009, N. Holland, Amsterdam 1987 https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:1807203 “Osteoporosis: How to Preve
Line 700 is one of CFR's main lines in Romania having a total length of 229 km. The main line, connecting Bucharest with the Moldovan border at Giurgiuleşti, passes through the important cities Urziceni, Făurei, Brăila and Galaţi. 701 Ploieşti South - Urziceni - Slobozia - Ţăndărei 702 Buzău - Făurei - Ţăndărei - Feteşti 703 Galaţi - Bârlad 704 Mărășești - Tecuci - Barboşi - Galaţi
Oh, God! Book II is a 1980 American comedy film and a sequel to the film Oh, God!. It was directed by Gilbert Cates, stars George Burns, Suzanne Pleshette, David Birney and Louanne Sirota. Joyce Brothers and Hugh Downs made cameo appearances in the film. Oh, God! Book II was followed by Oh, God! You Devil. Burns was the only cast member. In this sequel, God asks the help of 11-year-old Tracy Richards to help promote Himself. Tracy creates the slogan "Think God" and soon has her friends spreading the message by posters and other ways, but Tracy's parents and psychiatrists think. God is the only one. George Burns as God Suzanne Pleshette as Paula Richards David Birney as Don Richards Louanne Sirota as Tracy Richards John Louie as Shingo Wilfrid Hyde-White as Judge Thomas Miller Conrad Janis as Charles Benson, School Principal Hans Conried as Dr Barnes As of 2018, this film has a 50% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on six reviews with an average rating of 5.1/10. Oh, God! Book II on IMDb Oh, God! Book II at AllMovie Oh, God!
Book II at Rotten Tomatoes
Noam T. Wasserman is an American academic, he is the Dean of the Yeshiva University Sy Syms School of Business. He held the position of Professor of Clinical Entrepreneurship at the University of Southern California and the director of USC's Founders Central Initiative. Additionally, he served as an Associate Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School, his research focuses on Organizational Entrepreneurship. He has written about the challenges faced by the founders of startup companies. Noam Wasserman graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1992, where he received a bachelor of science degree in computer science and engineering and a bachelor of science in economics from Wharton, he received a master in business administration from the Harvard Business School in 1999, where he was a Baker Scholar. He received a master's degree in sociology from the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences in 2001, a PhD in Organizational Behavior from the Harvard Business School in 2002.
Wasserman was an Assistant Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School from 2003 to 2008. He was an Associate Professor from 2008 to 2016, he received the Innovation in Entrepreneurship Pedagogy Award from the Academy of Management in 2010 for "Founders’ Dilemmas", a "second-year M. B. A. elective course" at the HBS. The course asks students if they plan on starting their own businesses after the HBS, highlights what interpersonal issues they may encounter. Additionally, Wasserman was a Visiting Associate Professor at Stanford University in 2014. In 2016, Wasserman become a Professor of Clinical Entrepreneurship at the University of Southern California, he is the Founding Director of USC's Founder Central Initiative which researches issues and decision making faced by founders in the early stages of startups. Wasserman is the author of The Founder’s Dilemmas: Anticipating and Avoiding the Pitfalls That Can Sink a Startup; the book is based on data on "10,000 founders from 3,500 start-ups" assembled by Wasserman.
It was reviewed in the Family Business Review. Wasserman draws a distinction between chief executive offers who are "Kings" and want to keep their job at all costs, those who are "Rich" and don't mind stepping down if this leads to more profit-making for the company. While Wasserman writes about business corporations, Mark Charendoff, the president of the Maimonides Fund applies this dichotomy to philanthropic gifts, arguing that donors should ask themselves if the CEOs of non-profit organizations are more interested in the results derived from their donations, or in their own careerist self-interest. On March 4, 2019, it was announced that Wasserman would become the Dean of the Sy Syms School of Business at Yeshiva University, his position took effect in May 2019. Wasserman is married, he has eight children, they reside in Brookline, Massachusetts