London Fire Brigade
The London Fire Brigade is the statutory fire and rescue service for London. It was formed by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act of 1865 under the leadership of superintendent Eyre Massey Shaw. Dany Cotton is the Commissioner for Fire and Emergency Planning, which includes the position of Chief Fire Officer, statutory responsibility for the running of the brigade lies with the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2013/14 the LFB handled 171,067999 emergency calls, of the calls it actually mobilised to,20,934 were fires, including 10,992 that were of a serious nature, making it one of the busiest fire brigades in the world. In the same 12-month period, it received 3,172 hoax calls, the highest number of any UK fire service, in 2015/16 the LFB received 171,488 emergency calls. These consisted of,20,773 fires,30,066 special service callouts and it conducts emergency planning and performs fire safety inspections and education. He introduced a uniform that, for the first time, included personal protection from the hazards of firefighting.
With 80 firefighters and 13 fire stations, the unit was still a private enterprise, funded by the insurance companies, in 1904 it was renamed as the London Fire Brigade. The LFB moved into a new headquarters built by Higgs and Hill on the Albert Embankment in Lambeth in 1937, during the Second World War the countrys brigades were amalgamated into a single National Fire Service. The separate London Fire Brigade for the County of London was re-established in 1948, in 1986 the Greater London Council was disbanded and a new statutory authority, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority, was formed to take responsibility for the LFB. The LFCDA was replaced in 2000 by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, at the same time, the Greater London Authority was established to administer the LFEPA and coordinate emergency planning for London. Consisting of the Mayor of London and other elected members, the GLA takes responsibility for the Metropolitan Police Authority, Transport for London, in 2007 the LFB vacated its Lambeth headquarters and moved to a site in Union Street, Southwark.
In the same year, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that LFB Commissioner Ken Knight had been appointed as the first Chief Fire, Knight was succeeded as Commissioner at that time by Ron Dobson, who served for almost ten years. Dany Cotton took over in 2017, becoming the brigades first female commissioner, dany Cotton is the current commissioner, having taken up the role on 1 January 2017. She holds the Queens Fire Service Medal, frank Jackson, CBE1938 to 1941, Cdr. Sir Aylmer Firebrace, CBE1933 to 1938, Maj. Cyril Morris 1918 to 1933, Arthur Reginald Dyer 1909 to 1918, sir Sampson Sladen 1903 to 1909, RAdm. James de Courcy Hamilton 1896 to 1903, lionel de Latour Wells 1891 to 1896, James Sexton Simmonds 1861 to 1891, Capt. Both divisions were divided into three districts, each under a Superintendent with his headquarters at a superintendent station, the superintendent stations themselves were commanded by District Officers, with the other stations under Station Officers
New Malden is a suburb in south-west London, in the boroughs of Kingston and Merton, and is 9.4 miles from Charing Cross. Neighbouring localities are Kingston upon Thames, Raynes Park, Tolworth, New Malden was established entirely as a result of the arrival of the railway when what is now called New Malden railway station was opened on 1 December 1846 on the main line from Waterloo. However, when Queen Victoria visited distinguished residents in the Coombe Hill area, building started slowly in the area just to the north of the station, gathering pace in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries with two- and three-bedroom terraced houses. Further out are larger detached and semi-detached houses from the 1930s, the name of the road up the hill to Coombe, Traps Lane, is thought to derive from a farm owned by a Mrs Trap. Following the opening of the Kingston bypass in 1927, the farms to its south progressively gave way to suburban development. Two miles to the south is the village of Old Malden whose origins go back to Anglo-Saxon times.
Under the District Councils Act 1895, The Maldens & Coombe Urban District Council was created, in 1936 Malden and Coombe was granted full Borough status, with its own Mayor, and had the rare distinction of a civic mace bearing the royal insignia of King Edward VIII. In 1965, the London Government Act 1963 came into force merging the boroughs of Malden & Coombe, New Malden is home to the offices of many large organisations, including Nestle Purina and Northrop Grumman. New Malden is bounded to the north by the affluent Coombe Hill and to the south and east by Raynes Park, Worcester Park and Tolworth. New Malden includes Motspur Park, home to the ground of Fulham Football Club and the Kings College London sports ground. A minor tributary of the River Thames, Beverley Brook, flows through the east of the town, while its boundary is along the Hogsmill. The first parking meters were made in New Malden at Venners Ltd, in the 2001 census, some small areas of New Malden had Other Asian populations of over 25%, though no whole ward reached over 20%.
Many of the Koreans living in New Malden work for Korean companies, in 2015 Paul Fischer of The Independent wrote that the North Koreans were insular, and that there were tensions between the South Korean majority and the North Koreans in New Malden. The New Malden area has Korean-language churches and nursery schools as well as restaurants, New Malden functions as the shopping and cultural centre for a Korean population spread more widely across South-West London and the neighbouring counties. The area has Korean supermarkets, about 20 Korean restaurants and cafes and it has a noraebang, and many other shops. The Korean language is visible on several shop signs, the original Embassy of South Korea to the United Kingdom was in New Malden, before moving to 60 Buckingham Gate in Westminster. Many Koreans settled the New Malden in the 1970s due to the ambassadors location, a high proportion of the community are expatriate workers for Korean companies, who remain in the UK for a number of years before returning to Korea.
Many work in finance and banking in the City of London, there is a newspaper published in New Malden, Free NK, which is opposed to the government of North Korea
Harvey Nichols, founded in 1831, is a British department store chain with a flagship store in Knightsbridge, London. It sells fashion collections for men and women, fashion accessories, beauty products, wine, in 1831 Benjamin Harvey opened a linen shop in a terraced house on the corner of Knightsbridge and Sloane Street in London. In 1835 the shop expanded to number 8 next door, in 1841 Benjamin employed James Nichols from Oxfordshire. In 1845 Nichols was promoted to management and in 1848 he married Harvey’s niece, Benjamin Harvey died in 1850, leaving the business in the care of his wife Anne, who went into partnership with James Nichols to form Harvey Nichols & Co. In 1889, the space was demolished to make way for a new department store. The building was designed by C Q Stephens and built in stages between 1889 and 1894, in 1904 the location underwent a change of address to become 109-125 Knightsbridge. In 1920 Harvey Nichols was purchased by Debenhams, in 1975 a restaurant called Harvey’s opened on the fifth floor.
In 1985 Debenhams including Harvey Nichols was acquired by the Burton Group, in 1991, Dickson Poon of Dickson Concepts acquired Harvey Nichols from the Burton Group. Ten years in 2002 the restaurant interior was replaced by a new design by Lipschutz Davison, on 17 February 2014 Stacey Cartwright joined Harvey Nichols as Chief Executive Officer of the Harvey Nichols Group of Companies. She replaced Joseph Wan, who held the position of CEO for 21 years, in the United Kingdom, Harvey Nichols has stores in London, Edinburgh, Manchester, Bristol and a Beauty Bazaar at Harvey Nichols store in Liverpool. It has a store in Al-Faysaliyah Tower in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and it opened a store in Istanbuls Kanyon Shopping Mall on 13 October 2006. In February 2006, it opened a store in Dubai, designed by architecture firm Callison in the Mall of the Emirates, the Dubai store is operated by Al Tayer Insignia, the luxury retail arm of Al Tayer Group. A store in the Grand Indonesia mall in Jakarta, Indonesia was operated by the Indonesian retail conglomerate Mitra Adiperkasa from October 2008, on 25 January 2009 a new store opening was announced for Kuwait which opened in 2012.
Harvey Nichols opened a 22,000 square foot store in Manestys Lane in the Liverpool One shopping area in 2012, the London flagship store is located in Knightsbridge, a few streets from rival Harrods. In addition to its fashion retailing business, Harvey Nichols redeveloped the top floor of its London flagship store to create a restaurant, café, wine shop, a similar concept operates from the top floors of all Harvey Nichols full-size stores. In 1996 Harvey Nichols launched its first stand-alone restaurant in London, the OXO Tower Restaurant, Bar, OXO and three of the in-store restaurants were designed by London-based architects Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands. In May 2013, Harvey Nichols announced they were to double the size of the Birmingham store located in The Mailbox complex, the store will cover 45,000 square feet, double the size of the existing store. In 2015, Harvey Nichols opened a store in Baku, after four months, Harvey Nichols terminated its licence agreement with the Baku store, which now trades under a different name
Britannia Royal Naval College
Britannia Royal Naval College, commonly known as Dartmouth, is the initial officer training establishment of the British Royal Navy. It is located on a hill overlooking the port of Dartmouth, Royal Naval officer training has taken place in Dartmouth since 1863. The buildings of the current campus were completed in 1905, earlier students lived in two wooden hulks moored in the River Dart. Since 1998, BRNC has been the centre for Royal Naval officer training. The training of officers at Dartmouth dates from 1863, when the wooden hulk HMS Britannia was moved from Portland. In 1864, after an influx of new recruits, Britannia was supplemented by HMS Hindostan, prior to this, a Royal Naval Academy had operated for more than a century from 1733 to 1837 at Portsmouth, a major naval installation. The original Britannia was replaced by the Prince of Wales in 1869, the foundation stone for a new building at the college was laid by King Edward VII in March 1902. Sir Aston Webb designed the college at Dartmouth, which was built by Higgs and Hill.
The first term of cadets entered at the R. N, College Osborne were transferred to Dartmouth in September 1905. The college was known as the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. As a Royal Naval shore establishment, it was known by the ship name HMS Britannia. The college was named in 1953, when the name Britannia was given to the newly launched royal yacht HMY Britannia, the training ship moored in the River Dart at Sandquay, currently the former Sandown class minehunter HMS Cromer, continues to bear the name Hindostan. Cadets originally joined the Royal Naval College, Osborne, at the age of 13 for two years study and work before joining Dartmouth and they studied there for four years there before starting sea training at age 17. The entry age for the Naval College was changed to 16 in 1948, until 1941, Dartmouth was in effect a specialised boarding school, with parents paying fees for tuition and board. During the Second World War, after six Focke-Wulf aircraft bombed the College in September 1942, two bombs had penetrated the Colleges main block, causing damage to the quarterdeck and surrounding rooms.
In the early 21st century, officer cadets, as they are known until passing out from the college, while most cadets join BRNC after finishing university, some join directly from secondary school. All spend between 30 and 49 weeks at the college, depending on specialisation, a large contingent of foreign and Commonwealth students are part of the student body. The Royal Fleet Auxiliary sends its cadets to BRNC for an 8-week initial officer training course
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chair presides over meetings of the group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officers duties include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world. In some organizations, this position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator, the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U. S, president George H. W. Bush used chairman for men and chair for women. A1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as chairman, the Chronicle of Higher Education uses chairman for men and chairperson for women.
An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times, the National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using chairperson. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called Mr. Chairman, the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using chair or chairperson, rather than chairman. The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the forms are gaining ground. It advocates using chair to refer both to men and to women, the word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be in the chair and is referred to as the chair. Major dictionaries state that the word derives from chair and man, some authorities, including Riddicks Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus, and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president, note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs
County Hall, Kingston upon Thames
County Hall is the main government building for Surrey County Council in England. It was opened 13 November 1893, and is located in Kingston upon Thames, County Hall is a landmark in Kingston and contains a clock tower entrance, plaques of Surrey MPs and Lord Sheriffs, and the council chamber. It is located on Penrhyn Road, named in honour of the first chairman of the county council, Surrey had been administered from Newington since the 1790s, and the county council was initially based in the sessions house there. As Newington was included in the County of London from 1889 it lay outside the area administered by the council, by 1890 six towns were being considered, Guildford, Redhill and Wimbledon. A decision to build the new County Hall at Kingston was made in 1891, the county hall in Kingston was designed by Charles Henry Howell, County Surveyor and partner in Howell and Brooks. It was built by the firm Higgs and Hill and it was built between 1891 and 1893. It was opened on 13 November 1893, with bands entertaining invited guests, the building was extended in 1930 and again in 1938, the Ashcombe Block, creating a quadrangle behind the entrance.
The Ashcombe block was destroyed by a bomb in July 1944. The building was extended in 1963 and 1982, completing a second quadrangle. Due to local government reorganisation in 1965, County Hall is now no longer within the county of Surrey. In July 2003 it was decided to move county government to a new building in Woking, the project was scrapped in January 2006
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Tate Britain is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London. It is part of the Tate network of galleries in England, with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and it is the oldest gallery in the network, having opened in 1897. It is one of the largest museums in the country, the gallery is situated on Millbank, on the site of the former Millbank Prison. Construction, undertaken by Higgs and Hill, commenced in 1893, from the start it was commonly known as the Tate Gallery, after its founder Sir Henry Tate, and in 1932 it officially adopted that name. As a consequence, it was renamed Tate Britain in March 2000, the front part of the building was designed by Sidney R. J. Smith with a classical portico and dome behind, and the central sculpture gallery was designed by John Russell Pope. Tate Britain includes the Clore Gallery of 1987, designed by James Stirling, crises during its existence include flood damage to work from the River Thames, and bomb damage during World War II. However, most of the collection was in storage elsewhere during the war.
In 1970, the building was given Grade II* listed status, the museum stayed open throughout the three phases of renovation. Completed in 2013, the newly designed sections were conceived by the architects Caruso St John and included a total of nine new galleries, with reinforced flooring to accommodate heavy sculptures. A second part was unveiled that year, the centrepiece being the reopening of the buildings Thames-facing entrance as well as a new spiral staircase beneath its rotunda, the circular balcony of the rotundas domed atrium, closed to visitors since the 1920s, was reopened. The gallery now has a dedicated entrance and reception beneath its entrance steps on Millbank. The front entrance is accessible by steps, a side entrance at a lower level has a ramp for wheelchair access. The gallery provides a restaurant and a café, as well as a Friends room and this membership is open to the public on payment of an annual subscription. As well as offices the building complex houses the Prints and Drawings Rooms, as well as the Library.
The restaurant features a mural by Rex Whistler, Tate Britain and Tate Modern are now connected by a high speed boat along the River Thames, which runs from Millbank Millennium Pier immediately outside Tate Britain. The boat is decorated with spots, based on paintings of similar appearance by Damien Hirst, the lighting artwork incorporated in the piers structure is by Angela Bulloch. The main display spaces show the permanent collection of historic British art, the gallery organises career retrospectives of British artists and temporary major exhibitions of British Art. Every three years the gallery stages a Triennial exhibition in which a guest curator provides an overview of contemporary British Art, the 2003 Tate Triennial was called Days Like These
The Hayward Gallery is an art gallery within the Southbank Centre, part of an area of major arts venues on the South Bank of the River Thames, in central London, England. It is sited adjacent to the other Southbank Centre buildings and the Royal National Theatre, following a rebranding of the South Bank Centre to Southbank Centre in early 2007, the Hayward Gallery was known as the Hayward until early 2011. The gallery was closed in September 2015, for two years of renovations. The Hayward Gallery was built by Higgs and Hill and opened on 9 July 1968 and its massing and extensive use of exposed concrete construction are typical of Brutalist architecture. Warren Chalk developed the plan and connective first floor walkways. Alan Waterhouse, Dennis Crompton, worked on the designs for the Hayward, the building is named after Sir Isaac Hayward, a former leader of the London County Council, the GLCs predecessor. Joanna Drew was the founding Director and Ralph Rugoff is the current Director, the Hayward hosts three/four major temporary modern or contemporary exhibitions each year and does not house any permanent collections.
From 1968 to 1986, the gallery was managed by the Arts Council of Great Britain, the gallery is the base of the Arts Councils National Touring Exhibitions programme, as it was, until 2002, of the Arts Council Collection. Unlike British galleries receiving state funding support, but in common with other exhibitions at British galleries. The Haywards exhibition policy embraces visual art from all periods, and past shows have included the works of Leonardo da Vinci, Edvard Munch and the French Impressionists. It has hosted two surveys of works from the Arts Council Collection, British Art 1940–1980 and How to Improve the World,60 Years of British Art. The design brief was for five gallery spaces, two levels of galleries and three outdoor sculpture courts in order to house the Arts Council collection. The two levels of the open to the public are linked by a pair of cast concrete staircases. These staircases, and lavatories at a level, are accommodated in a concrete box in between the eastern and western parts of the indoor galleries.
One of these staircases runs down to level with access to Belvedere Road. This almost hidden private entrance is located below the foyer and external walkway on the facade, above the car park. The building originally had a small main foyer area with cast aluminium doors similar to those of the Queen Elizabeth Hall. A shop had been added earlier inside the north-west end of the lower gallery, the two upper galleries can use heavily filtered natural light from the glass pyramids on their flat roofs
Knightsbridge is a residential and retail district in West London, south of Hyde Park. It is identified in the London Plan as one of two international centres in London, alongside the West End. Knightsbridge was a hamlet located primarily in the parish of St Margaret and it extended into the parishes of Kensington and Chelsea. It was therefore divided between local authorities from an early time. In the time of Edward I, the manor of Knightsbridge appertained to the abbey of Westminster and it was named after a crossing of the River Westbourne, which is now an underground river. It is recorded that the citizens of London met Matilda of England at the Knights Bridge in 1141, the exhibition was very popular, with over 250,000 visitors during its early months. Japanese artisans illustrated the manners and art-industries of their country, attired in their national, magnificently decorated and illuminated Buddhist temple. Five o’clock tea in the Japanese tea-house, W. S. Gilbert and his wife attended the exhibition, which is said to have inspired him to write The Mikado.
When the Mikado requests of Ko-Ko the address of his son after Ko-Ko tells the Mikado that Nanki-Poo has gone abroad, the original bridge was where one of the old roads to the west that crossed the River Westbourne. The allusion may simply be to a place where cnihtas congregated, however there is possibly a more specific reference to the important cnihtengild in 11th century London and to the limits of its jurisdiction. Cniht in the pre Norman days did not have the meaning of a minor noble. There are however other claims of the origins,1. According to a topographer named Norden, the bridge was known as ‘Stonebridge’ until a knight called Sir Knyvett was attacked while walking across the bridge late at night. The knight managed to better his attackers and ‘slew the master thief with his own hand’ and this tale of Sir Knyvett’s valour supposedly gave a new name to the bridge. A claim that the bridge may have used by wealthy residents. A claim that the area was used as a place for local youths – where ‘knight’ was a slang term for ‘lad’.
Even the original name of the area has come under scrutiny with some claiming it was called ‘Knightsbrigg’ while others believe it was ‘Kynesbrigg’, Knightsbridge is east of Exhibition Road and west of Sloane Street. South of this area, the district fades into Chelsea while Belgravia lies to the east, the district has banks that cater to wealthy individuals
Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth. Vauxhall formed part of Surrey until 1889 when the County of London was created, Vauxhall is 2.1 km south of Charing Cross and 1.5 km southwest of the actual centre of London at Frazier st near Lambeth North tube station. The area only became known by this name when the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens opened as a public attraction. Initially most visitors would have approached by river, but crowds of Londoners of all came to know the area after the construction of Westminster Bridge in the 1740s. There are competing theories as to why the Russian word for a railway station is вокзал. This was further embellished into a story that the Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, visiting London in 1844, was taken to see the trains at Vauxhall and made the same mistake. The locality of the L&SWRs original railway terminus, Nine Elms Station, was shown boldly and simply as Vauxhall in the 1841 Bradshaw timetable, in 1838 a music and entertainment pavilion was constructed at the railway terminus.
This pavilion was called the Vokzal in homage to the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens in London, the name soon came to be applied to the station itself, which was the gateway that most visitors used to enter the gardens. It came to any substantial railway station building. Archdeacon William Coxe describes the place as a sort of Vauxhall in that year, there is no mention of Vauxhall in the 1086 Domesday Book. The area originally formed part of the extensive Manor of South Lambeth, falkes de Breauté acquired it in 1216 when he married Margaret, widow of Baldwin de Redvers, de Breautés lands reverted to the de Redvers family after his death in 1226. In 1293 South Lambeth Manor and the Manor of la Sale Faukes passed, probably by trickery, in 1317 King Edward II granted the manor of Vauxhall, Surrey, to Sir Roger dAmory for his good services at the Battle of Bannockburn. From various accounts, three local roads – the South Lambeth Road, Clapham Road and Wandsworth Road – were ancient and well-known routes to and from London.
The land was flat and parts were marshy and poorly drained by ditches, and only started to be developed with the draining of Lambeth Marsh in the mid-18th century, prior to this it provided market garden produce for the nearby City of London. Vauxhall Bridge and Vauxhall Bridge Road were opened in 1816, by 1860 the village had been subsumed by the town of Lambeth. Many of Vauxhalls streets were destroyed during the construction of the railway to Waterloo station, many Vauxhall residents live in social housing. Vauxhall is an ethnically diverse area, with approximately 40% of residents originating from a non-white ethnic group. There is a significant Portuguese community, some with a connection to Madeira, many Portuguese restaurants and bars are located in South Lambeth Road, there is a significant Muslim community, with almost 6% of residents declaring themselves as Muslim in the 2001 census