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High-speed rail

High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that runs faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks. While there is no single standard that applies worldwide, new lines in excess of 250 kilometres per hour and existing lines in excess of 200 kilometres per hour are considered to be high-speed; the first high-speed rail system, the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, began operations in Japan in 1964 and was known as the bullet train. High-speed trains operate on standard gauge tracks of continuously welded rail on grade-separated right-of-way that incorporates a large turning radius in its design. Many countries have built and developed high-speed rail infrastructure to connect major cities, including Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Morocco, The Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sweden, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and Uzbekistan. Only in Europe does high-speed rail cross international borders. China had built over 29,000 kilometres of high-speed rail as of December 2018, accounting for two-thirds of the world's total.

Multiple definitions for high-speed rail are in use worldwide. The European Union Directive 96/48/EC, Annex 1 defines high-speed rail in terms of: Infrastructure: track built specially for high-speed travel or specially upgraded for high-speed travel. Minimum Speed Limit: Minimum speed of 250 km/h on lines specially built for high speed and of about 200 km/h on existing lines which have been specially upgraded; this must apply to at least one section of the line. Rolling stock must be able to reach a speed of at least 200 km/h to be considered high speed. Operating conditions: Rolling stock must be designed alongside its infrastructure for complete compatibility and quality of service; the International Union of Railways identifies three categories of high-speed rail: Category I – New tracks specially constructed for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 250 km/h. Category II – Existing tracks specially upgraded for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 200 km/h.

Category III – Existing tracks specially upgraded for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 200 km/h, but with some sections having a lower allowable speed. A third definition of high-speed and high-speed rail requires simultaneous fulfilment of the following two conditions: Maximum achievable running speed in excess of 200 km/h, or 250 km/h for high-speed, Average running speed across the corridor in excess of 150 km/h, or 200 km/h for high-speed; the UIC prefers to use "definitions" because they consider that there is no single standard definition of high-speed rail, nor standard usage of the terms. They make use of the European EC Directive 96/48, stating that high speed is a combination of all the elements which constitute the system: infrastructure, rolling stock and operating conditions; the International Union of Railways states that high-speed rail is a set of unique features, not a train travelling above a particular speed. Many conventionally hauled trains are able to reach 200 kilometres per hour in commercial service but are not considered to be high-speed trains.

These include the French SNCF Intercités and German DB IC. The criterion of 200 kilometres per hour is selected for several reasons. Standard signaling equipment is limited to speeds below 200 km/h with the traditional limits of 79 mph in the US, 160 km/h in Germany and 125 mph in Britain. Above those speeds positive train control or the European Train Control System becomes necessary or mandatory. National domestic standards may vary from the international ones; the KTX Incheon International Airport to Seoul Line was closed in 2018, due to a mix of issues, including poor ridership and track sharing.. The AREX was not constructed as high-speed rail, resulting a cap of 150 km/h on KTX service in its section. Many conventional lines upgraded up to 200km/h had high-speed services abolished because proper high-speed lines replaced them; the most recent case is Hankou–Danjiangkou railway being replaced by Wuhan–Shiyan high-speed railway. Railways were the first form of rapid land transportation and had an effective monopoly on long distance passenger traffic until the development of the motor car and airliners in the early-mid 20th century.

Speed had always been an important factor for railroads and they tried to achieve higher speeds and decrease journey times. Rail transportation in the late 19th century was not much slower than non-high-speed trains today, many railroads operated fast express trains which averaged speeds of around 100 km/h. High-speed rail development began in Germany in 1899 when the Prussian state railway joined with ten electrical and engineering firms and electrified 72 km of military owned railway between Marienfelde and Zossen; the line used three-phase current at 45 Hz. The Van der Zypen & Charlier company of Deutz, Cologne built two railcars, one fitted with elec

Lebanon national football team

The Lebanon national football team, controlled by the Lebanese Football Association, has represented Lebanon in association football since their inception in 1933. The squad is governed by the Asian Football Confederation continentally, FIFA worldwide. While Lebanon is yet to qualify for the World Cup, they have participated twice in the Asian Cup: in 2000, when they hosted the event, in 2019, the first time through regular qualification. Lebanon's main venue is the Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium in Beirut, however they play in other locations such as the Saida International Stadium in Sidon. In 1934, Lebanon played their first match against the Romanian side T. A. C, but was not ratified by FIFA. Lebanon's first FIFA-recognized game, was played in 1940 against Mandatory Palestine. During their 2014 qualification campaign for the World Cup, Lebanon reached the fourth round of qualifying for the first time thanks to a 2–1 victory against South Korea at home in 2011, but failed to qualify for the 2014 FIFA World Cup by finishing bottom of that group.

At the 2019 Asian Cup, Lebanon were close to qualifying to the knock-out stages for the first time. However, they lost a tiebreaker to Vietnam in the third-place ranking on the fair play rule and were knocked out of the competition at the group stage. Lebanon competes in the WAFF Championship, the Arab Nations Cup and the Pan Arab Games, they have finished third once at the Arab Nations Cup and twice at the Pan Arab Games, in all three occasions as hosts. Inspired by their national symbol, the Lebanese team is known as "the Cedars" by media, their home kit is red and their away kit white, in reference to their national flag. After a steady decrease in their FIFA ranking from 1998 to 2016, Lebanon jumped 66 places and reached their highest rank to date – 77th – in September 2018; this came after a 15-game unbeaten streak, from 24 March 2016 to 11 October 2018, in which Lebanon won eight games and drew seven. On 22 March 1933, representatives of thirteen associations gathered in the city of Mina Al Hosn to form the Lebanese Football Association, with Lebanese journalist Nassif Majdalani helping in its formation.

It joined FIFA in 1935 and the Asian Football Confederation in 1964. On 27 January 1934, Beirut's International team lost to the varsity team of the American University of Beirut 5–1; the following month, a Beirut team composed of AUB varsity and Renaissance athletes played two matches against the Romanian side T. A. C. at home. The first match, on 18 February at the Edmond Rubeiz Field, ended in a 1–9 defeat; the unofficial matches are regarded. The All-Beirut Team lost again to T. A. C. on 21 November 1935 at the Varsity Field. Beirut XI, representing Lebanon, played its first game against Syria in 1939 at the Habib Abou Chahla Stadium; the team played 17 unofficial games against Damascus XI until 1963, winning nine, drawing two and losing six. The national team's first official FIFA game was a 5–1 loss to Mandatory Palestine on 27 April 1940, with Kamil scoring Lebanon's first official international goal. In 1944, Lebanon lost to an unofficial Iraq national team representing Iraq's Ministry of Education and coached by George Raynor.

During the 1950s, Lebanon was coached by Vinzenz Dittrich and Ljubiša Broćić. The side played three official games, only managing one draw, against Syria in 1953; the team played unofficial games against top-level European clubs such as Dynamo Moscow and Spartak Trnava in 1957. Lebanon played Energia Flacara Ploiesti the same year in the opening game of the Sports City Stadium; the match ended 1–0 to Lebanon thanks to a Joseph Abou Murad goal. From 19 to 27 October 1957 Lebanon hosted the second edition of the Pan Arab Games, were drawn with Saudi Arabia and Jordan in the group stages. After two 1–1 draws against Saudi Arabia and Syria, Lebanon defeated Jordan 6–3 in their first official international win thanks to two braces by Joseph Abu Murad and Mardek Chabarian and one goal each by Robert Shehada and Levon Altonian. In the semifinals, Lebanon lost 4–2 to Tunisia, they finished in third place, since Morocco withdrew from the third-place match. In 1958, Joseph Nalbandian was appointed coach of the national team.

He was one of Lebanon's most successful coaches, winning eight of 22 official matches during his 11-year tenure. Under Nalbadian, Lebanon hosted the 1959 Mediterranean Games and were grouped with Italy B and Turkey B, they finished last after four losses to the two European teams. In 1963 Lebanon hosted the inaugural edition of the Arab Cup, were grouped with Tunisia, Syria and Jordan, they won their first match against Kuwait 6–0, thanks to a hat trick by captain Levon Altonian. This tied Lebanon's biggest win to date, a 7–1 victory against Saudi Arabia in 1961. After another win and two losses, Lebanon finished third in the tournament. In the following edition, in 1966, Lebanon was drawn with Iraq, Jordan and Bahrain in Group A. After three wins and a draw, they qualified to the semi-finals against Syria, where they lost 1–0. In the third-place match Lebanon lost 6 -- 1 to Libya, their first Asian Cup qualifying campaign was in 1971, coached by Joseph Abou Murad. In the first round they lost to host Kuwait 0–1, but defeated traditional rival Syria 3–2 to qualify for the next round.

In a decisive semi-final match against Iraq, Lebanon was eliminated. Despite the country's civil war, Lebanon appeared in the 1980 AFC Asian Cup qual

Fujiwara no Otsugu

Fujiwara no Otsugu was a Japanese statesman, courtier and editor during the Heian period. He is credited as one of the collaborative compilers of the Nihon Kōki, he was a minister during the reigns of Emperor Saga, Emperor Junna and Emperor Ninmyō. 788: He received his first court rank. 825: From the rank of Dainagon, Otsugu was raised to the position of Udaijin. 832: Otsugu was named Sadaijin. 837: Otsugu asked to resign due to the poor state of the imperial treasury, which he blamed on an excess of officials and overly lavish dining, an insufficient knowledge of Yin and yang. 843: Work was completed on the multi-volume Nihon Kōki. Otsugu's father was Fujiwara no Momokawa. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691