Culps Hill is a landform 0.75 mi south of Gettysburg, which played a prominent role in the Battle of Gettysburg. It consists of two rounded peaks, separated by a narrow saddle and its heavily wooded higher peak is 630 ft above sea level. The lower peak is about 100 feet shorter than its companion, the eastern slope descends to Rock Creek, about 160 feet lower in elevation, and the western slope is to a saddle with Stevens Knoll with a summit 100 ft lower than the main Culps Hill summit. The hill was owned in 1863 by farmer Henry Culp and was publicized as Culps Hill, holding the hill was by itself unimportant because its heavily wooded sides made it unsuitable for artillery placement, but its loss would have been catastrophic to the Union army. It dominated Cemetery Hill and the Baltimore Pike, the latter being critical for keeping the Union army supplied and for blocking any Confederate advance on Baltimore or Washington, D. C. His third division, under Maj. Gen. Edward Allegheny Johnson, had just arrived on the battlefield, Johnson did not take Culps Hill.
Johnsons party was taken by surprise and almost taken prisoner before fleeing, Ewells failure to take Culps Hill or Cemetery Hill that evening is considered one of the great missed opportunities of the battle. Another reason for his reluctance to proceed was intelligence that Union troops were approaching from the east on the Hanover Road and this was the vanguard of the XII Corps under Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum. If those troops had arrived at the time, Ewells flank would have been turned. By mid-morning of July 2, the XII Corps arrived and fortified the hill. Brig. Gen. George S. Greene, who at 62 was the oldest Union general on the field, was a commander in the division of Maj. Gen. John W. Geary. As a civil engineer before the war, he had an understanding of the value of defensive works. His division and corps commanders did not believe they would be stationed at Culps Hill very long and did not share his enthusiasm for constructing breastworks and he set his troops to the task of felling trees and collecting rocks and earth to create very effective defensive positions.
Gen. Thomas L. Kane connecting to Greenes line behind breastworks on the lower slope and that morning, Confederate General Robert E. Lee ordered attacks on both ends of the Union line. Lt. Gen. James Longstreet attacked with his First Corps on the Union left, Ewell was to exploit any success his demonstration might achieve by following up with a full-scale attack at his discretion. Ewell began his demonstration at 4 p. m. upon hearing the sound of Longstreets guns to the south, for three hours, he chose to limit his demonstration to an artillery barrage from Benners Hill, about a mile to the northeast. But despite this demonstration, Ewell did not hold the attention of Army of the Potomac commander, Meade was occupied with the fierce fighting on his left flank and was scrambling to send as many reinforcements as possible. He ordered Slocum to send the XII Corps in support, Greene extended his line to the right to cover part of the lower slope, but his 1,400 men would be dangerously overextended if a Confederate attack came
Skirmish of Sporting Hill
It is known as the northernmost engagement of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia during the Civil War. However, he had significantly delayed in crossing the rain-swollen Potomac River. Pausing another day at Chambersburg, Ewell finally marched northwards through the Cumberland Valley towards Harrisburg, laborers hired by Couch quickly erected earthworks and fortifications along the western portion of Bridgeport, adjacent to Camp Hill. The two largest of these became known as Fort Couch and Fort Washington, Ewells cavalry, a brigade under the command of Brig. Gen. Albert G. Jenkins, raided nearby Mechanicsburg on June 28. As a result, Ewell began to withdraw, and would never realize the objective of taking Harrisburg, Jenkins briefly skirmished with the 22nd and 37th New York Militia at Sporting Hill on the west side of Camp Hill on June 29,1863. The Confederates used the barn of the Johannes Eberly House as cover while engaging the Union soldiers positioned along the Carlisle Pike, the Confederates attempted to cross the Carlisle Pike and outflank the Union soldiers but the Union soldiers saw their maneuvering and stymied their efforts.
The Confederate soldiers began artillery fire upon the Union position with shot, just then, Lieutenant Perkins of the Federal Army arrived with two cannon and began firing upon the Eberly Houses barn. The Federals very first shot at the barn smashed through the wooden structure. The Confederates withdrew in the direction of Carlisle to rejoin Ewells infantry for the march southward towards Heidlersburg and Gettysburg, at least 16 Confederates from the 16th and 36th Virginia Cavalry were killed during the fighting and an additional 20 to 30 were wounded. Union losses were listed at 11 men wounded, some of the battlefield was lost to development and the construction of PA Route 581. A Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission historical marker, denoting the skirmish, the wooden part of the Eberly barn, where the Confederate soldiers were positioned, was destroyed by a tornado on March 21,1976, but the barns limestone foundation still remains. Boyd, The Confederate Invasion of Central Pennsylvania and the Battle of Sporting Hill Yankee Gazette #6 Battle Imminent In Pennsylvania, Harrisburg Attacked
James Longstreet was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. Longstreets talents as a made significant contributions to the Confederate victories at Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg. He performed strongly during the Seven Days Battles, the Battle of Antietam and his performance in semiautonomous command during the Knoxville Campaign resulted in a Confederate defeat. He enjoyed a successful career working for the U. S. government as a diplomat, civil servant. His reputation in the South further suffered when he led African-American militia against the anti-Reconstruction White League at the Battle of Liberty Place in 1874, authors of the Lost Cause movement focused on Longstreets actions at Gettysburg as a primary reason for the Confederacys loss of the war. His reputation in the South was damaged for over a century and has recently begun a slow reassessment. James Longstreet was born on January 8,1821 in Edgefield District, South Carolina, jamess ancestor Dirck Stoffels Langestraet immigrated to the Dutch colony of New Netherland in 1657, but the name became Anglicized over the generations.
Jamess father was impressed by his sons rocklike character on the plantation, giving him the nickname Peter. Longstreets father decided on a career for his son. At the age of nine, James was sent to live with his aunt and uncle in Augusta and his uncle, Augustus Baldwin Longstreet, was a newspaper editor, and a Methodist minister. James spent eight years on his uncles plantation, just outside the city while he attended the Academy of Richmond County, James was a poor student academically and a disciplinary problem at West Point, ranking 54th out of 56 cadets when he graduated in 1842. Longstreet was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 4th U. S. Infantry. Longstreet spent his first two years of service at Jefferson Barracks, where he was joined by his friend. Soon after, Longstreet met his future first wife Maria Louisa Garland and she was the daughter of Longstreets regimental commander, Lt. Col. John Garland. They married in March 1848, after the Mexican-American War, at about the same time as Longstreet began courting Garland, Grant became acquainted with and courted Longstreets fourth cousin, Julia Dent, and the couple eventually married.
Historians agree that Longstreet attended the Grant wedding on August 22,1848 in St. Louis, Grant biographer Jean Edward Smith asserted that Longstreet served as Grants best man at the wedding. Longstreet served with distinction in the Mexican-American War with the 8th U. S. Infantry, early in the war, he served as a lieutenant in Zachary Taylors army at the Battle of Monterrey in September 1846. He received brevet promotions to captain for Contreras and Churubusco and to major for Molino del Rey, Longstreet was a veteran member of the Aztec Club of 1847
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3,1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the war and is often described as the wars turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meades Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lees attempt to invade the North. After his success at Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved of command just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade. Elements of the two armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1,1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, his objective being to engage the Union army. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division under Brig.
Gen. John Buford, on the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. In the late afternoon of July 2, Lee launched an assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devils Den. On the Union right, Confederate demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culps Hill, all across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines. The charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire, at great loss to the Confederate army, Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 soldiers from both armies were casualties in the battle, the most costly in US history. Shortly after the Army of Northern Virginia won a victory over the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Such a move would upset U. S. plans for the campaigning season. The invasion would allow the Confederates to live off the bounty of the rich Northern farms while giving war-ravaged Virginia a much-needed rest, in addition, Lees 72, 000-man army could threaten Philadelphia and Washington, and possibly strengthen the growing peace movement in the North.
Thus, on June 3, Lees army began to shift northward from Fredericksburg, the Cavalry Division remained under the command of Maj. Gen. J. E. B. The Union Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of seven corps, a cavalry corps. The first major action of the campaign took place on June 9 between cavalry forces at Brandy Station, near Culpeper, Virginia
George J. Stannard
George Jerrison Stannard was a Vermont farmer and Union general in the American Civil War. After the war, he served as Doorkeeper of the United States House of Representatives, Stannard was born in Georgia, Vermont. He worked as a farmer and foundry operator in St. Albans, Stannard served as a noncommissioned officer during the Vermont militias activation for the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1838. Just before the American Civil War, he served as Colonel of the 4th Vermont Militia Regiment, in June 1861, Stannard was elected lieutenant colonel of the 2nd Vermont Volunteer Infantry. Some local residents claimed that he was the first Vermonter to volunteer for duty in the Civil War, a week after the campaign, on July 9,1862, he was appointed colonel of the 9th Vermont Infantry. During the Maryland Campaign in September 1862, 9th Vermont was part of the Federal garrison that was forced to surrender to Stonewall Jackson at Harpers Ferry, Stannard was conspicuous in the defense of Bolivar Heights against Jacksons attack.
Col. William H. Trimble, his commander, had Stannard accompany him in an inspection of the Union lines in that sector. Both thought the end of the line weak. Stannard is reported to have tried to extract his regiment from Harpers Ferry before the surrender could take effect, upon his exchange in January 1863, Stannard returned to Vermont. He was appointed brigadier general on March 11,1863, and given command of the 2nd Vermont Brigade in April, joining it in its camps in the defenses of Washington, the brigade consisted of the 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th Vermont Infantry regiments. Stannards immediate predecessor had been Brig. Gen. Edwin H. Stoughton, Stannard drilled his new brigade strenuously and his quiet but effective command style made him well respected by the men and significantly improved morale in the Brigade. During the Gettysburg Campaign, the 2nd Vermont Brigade was one of four brigades sent from the Capital to join the Army of the Potomac as it pursued Robert E. Lee into Pennsylvania, Stannards command left the Washington defenses on June 25.
Marching 18 miles a day for a week, the reported to the 3rd Division of the I Corps. The I Corps had fought, and lost, heavily in the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg, three regiments of Stannards men arrived only after the fighting ceased that day, adding to the divisions depleted ranks. On July 2, Stannard was brigade officer of the day, the Vermonters recovered these guns despite resistance from Wrights Georgians. The brigades greatest fight, was on July 3, the Vermonters lost men to sharpshooter fire and to the bombardment preceding the Confederate attack. Minutes later, the assaults by the Confederate brigades of Brig. Gen. Cadmus M. Wilcox. Stannard once again wheeled two regiments and repeated his tactic of flanking fire to repulse the assault, Stannard was wounded in his right thigh by an artillery shell fragment, but stayed on the field until the end of the battle
72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument
The 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument is an 1891 statuary memorial on the Gettysburg Battlefield. It is located on Cemetery Ridge, by The Angle and the copse of trees, the monument was the subject of a Pennsylvania Supreme Court case over control of the battlefield. It is depicted on the 2011 Gettysburg America the Beautiful quarter commemorative coin, the regiment erected an earlier monument in 1883. To avoid confusion, that is now referred to as the Philadelphia Brigade Monument. The 72nd Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, commanded by Colonel DeWitt Clinton Baxter and their dress uniforms were modeled on those of the Zouaves, a North African Berber tribe famous for its ferocious fighting. The 72nd played an important role in beating back Picketts Charge on July 3,1863, at the beginning of the Confederate advance across the valley, the 72nd was posted in support and to the rear of the batteries upon Hancocks front. As the enemy drove in the brigade pickets from the Emmitsburg Road, the regiment was rushed to the front line, striking the assailants at the stone wall.
That morning, the Fire Zouaves had numbered 458 officers and men, after the fury of the conflict, there were but 266 of the 72nd left for further duty. In 1864, Pennsylvania granted a charter to the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association for promoting and protecting memorial structures, the GBMA subsequently asserted that it had exclusive authority to approve the design and location of all Gettysburg monuments, including on battlefield land not owned by the GBMA. In 1896, the GBMAs land holdings totalled 522 acres, Gettyburg National Military Park now totals 3,965 acres, in 1883, the first 72nd PA Infty monument was approved, and the GBMA placed it on the Roberts Line … where their heavy losses were. This location seems to have been a choice by the GBMA. Members of the regiment vehemently disagreed with the placement of the monument, the GBMA-chosen location was nearly 70 yd behind the Union front line, instead of right at it. Much of the land was still in private hands. Significantly, the regiment bypassed the GBMA, obtaining approval for the monument from a different Pennsylvania commission.
In July 1888, the GBMA denied permission for the 72nd to build the second monument – on its own land. On December 12,1888, the GBMA had the 72nds Captain John Reed arrested for trespassing, the units 1889 history, The Seventy-second Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, at Bloody Angle, published the units actions on July 3 of the Battle of Gettysburg. GBMA v. 72nd PA Regiment In October 1889, Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association v. Seventy-second Pennsylvania Regiment heard testimony regarding the regiments Picketts Charge location. The approximately-13.5 ft monument consists of a two-part, polished-granite shaft set on a two-part, rough- and finish-cut stepped base, the Fire Zouave figure is in close combat with the enemy, swinging his rifle as a club
The farthest point reached by the attack has been referred to as the high-water mark of the Confederacy. The charge is named after Maj. Gen. George Pickett, Picketts charge was part of Lees general plan to take Cemetery Hill and the network of roads it commanded. His military secretary, A. L. Long, described Lees thinking, sloping westward, formed the depression through which the Emmitsburg road passes. Perceiving that by forcing the Federal lines at that point and turning toward Cemetery Hill would be taken in flank, Lee determined to attack at that point, and the execution was assigned to Longstreet. On the night of July 2, Meade correctly predicted at a council of war that Lee would attack the center of his lines the following morning. The infantry assault was preceded by an artillery bombardment that was meant to soften up the Union defense and silence its artillery. Approximately 12,500 men in nine infantry brigades advanced over open fields for three-quarters of a mile under heavy Union artillery, years later, when asked why his charge at Gettysburg failed, Pickett replied, Ive always thought the Yankees had something to do with it.
Pettigrew commanded brigades from Maj. Gen. Henry Heths old division, under Col. Birkett D. Fry, Col. James K. Marshall, Brig. Gen. Joseph R. Davis, and Col. John M. Brockenbrough. Trimble, commanding Maj. Gen. Dorsey Penders division, had the brigades of Brig, alfred M. Scales and James H. Lane. Two brigades from Maj. Gen. Richard H. Andersons division were to support the attack on the flank, Brig. Gen. Cadmus M. Wilcox. The target of the Confederate assault was the center of the Union Army of the Potomacs II Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock. Directly in the center was the division of Brig. Gen. John Gibbon with the brigades of Brig. Gen. William Harrow, Col. Norman J. Hall, and Brig. Gen. Alexander S. Webb. Meades headquarters were just behind the II Corps line, in the house owned by the widow Lydia Leister. The specific objective of the assault has been the source of historical controversy, the copse of trees on Cemetery Ridge has been cited as the visual landmark for the attacking force. Historical treatments such as the 1993 film Gettysburg continue to popularize this view, the copse of trees, currently a prominent landmark, was under ten feet high in 1863, only visible to a portion of the attacking columns from certain parts of the battlefield.
From the beginning of the planning, things went awry for the Confederates. While Picketts division had not been used yet at Gettysburg, A. P. Hills health became an issue, some of Hills corps had fought lightly on July 1 and not at all on July 2. However, troops that had heavy fighting on July 1 ended up making the charge
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the rank of sergeant major general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the officer ranks. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the general was called a Generalmajor. Todays Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term, see Rank insignias of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces General de Brigade is the lowest rank amongst general officers in the Brazilian Army. AGeneral de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. In tha Brazilian Air Force, the two-star, three-star and four-star rank are known as Brigadeiro, Major-Brigadeiro, see Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navys rank of rear-admiral, a major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer.
The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead. In the Canadian Army, the insignia is a wide braid on the cuff. It is worn on the straps of the service dress tunic. On the visor of the cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Major-generals are initially addressed as general and name, as are all general officers, major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the general rank is called kindralmajor. The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish, the French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps darmée rank, the position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. In the French Army, Major General is a position and the general is normally of the rank of corps general
Gettysburg is a borough and the county seat of Adams County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg and President Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address are named for this town, the town hosts visitors to the Gettysburg National Battlefield in the Gettysburg National Military Park. As of the 2010 census, the borough had a population of 7,620 people, Samuel Gettys settled at the Shippensburg–Baltimore and Philadelphia–Pittsburgh crossroads with a 1761 tavern where soldiers and traders came to rest. To the southwest is the 1776 Dobbin House Tavern within the subsequent 1786 border established for the borough, after a Strabane township location between Hunters and Gettys towns was planned as the county seat in 1790, in 1791 Revd. Alexander Dobbin and David Moore Sr. were appointed trustees for the county of Adams to erect public buildings in…Gettysburg, the founder of the Studebaker Corporation was born in 1833 in Gettysburg. In 1858 the Gettysburg Railroad completed construction of a line from Gettysburg to Hanover.
The Gettysburg Railroad Station opened in 1859, passenger train service to the town ended in 1942. The station was restored in 2006, in 2011, Senator Robert Casey introduced S.1897, which would include the railroad station within the boundary of Gettysburg National Military Park. By 1860, the borough had around 450 buildings housed carriage manufacturing, the Battle of Gettysburg, one of the largest battles during the American Civil War, was fought between July 1 and 3,1863, across the fields and heights south of the town. In the end, Confederate General Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia retreated into Virginia, while George G. Meade, casualties were high, there were over 27,000 Confederate and 23,000 Union losses. The residents of Gettysburg were left to care for the wounded, approximately 8,000 men and 3,000 horses lay under the summer sun. A 20-year-old woman, Jennie Wade, was the only civilian killed during the battle and she was hit by a stray bullet that passed through her kitchen door while she was making bread on July 3.
Physical damage can still be seen in some of the houses throughout the town, the furniture manufacturing grew in Gettysburg in the early 1900s. The Gettysburg Manufacturing Company was formed in 1902 to manufacture a variety of residential furniture and it had become the Gettysburg Furniture Company by 1912. Another local furniture company was the Warner Furniture company and its successor, the Engle Furniture Company, Engle became the Reaser Furniture Company in 1907, and continued to produce dozens of styles. In 1917 the joint venture Stouck-Reaser Company formed to buy, the company continued to appear in local newspapers through the 1920s. Furniture production remained an important industry in the area through the 1920s, in 1920 the Gettysburg Panel Company formed to manufacture veneer panels for the other firms. In 1923, the Gettysburg Chair Company was chartered to supply chairs that the factories needed to complete their bedroom
I Corps (Union Army)
I Corps was the designation of three different corps-sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The first two were units of limited life, the third was one of the most distinguished and veteran corps in the entire Union Army. The term First Corps is used to describe the First Veteran Corps from 1864 to 1866, the I Corps was activated March 13,1862, when President Abraham Lincoln ordered the creation of a four-corps army, under the command of Major General George B. McClellan. The first commander of corps was Major General Irvin McDowell. One of its divisions, the Pennsylvania Reserves, was sent to join the main army in June. Temporarily attached to the V Corps, it saw action at Gaines Mill. Division commander Brig. Gen. George McCall and future I Corps commander Brig. Gen. John Reynolds were both captured and freed in an exchange that August. It rejoined the Army of the Potomac and crossed the Potomac River into Maryland to fight at South Mountain, John Reynolds was temporarily detached to train militia troops in his home state of Pennsylvania and did not participate in the Maryland Campaign.
At Antietam, the I Corps was among the first troops to fight and suffered losses in the battles around the cornfield. Hooker was wounded in the foot during the battle and command of the I Corps devolved on Meade, in October, Reynolds returned and was made commander of the corps. Having fought three battles in six weeks, the I Corps was severely depleted, an influx of new volunteer regiments arrived to replenish its ranks, and by November it was back up to full strength. At Fredericksburg and John Gibbons divisions fought Stonewall Jacksons corps south of the town while Doubledays division was held in reserve, the I Corps did not see any significant action in the Chancellorsville Campaign. In its last major battle, the Battle of Gettysburg, General Reynolds was killed just as the first troops arrived on the field, and command was inherited by Major General Abner Doubleday. Although putting up a fight, the I Corps was overwhelmed by the Confederate Third Corps. It was forced to retreat through the town of Gettysburg, taking up positions on Cemetery Hill after the 16th Maines brave stand of which only 39 soldiers returned.
The next day, the command was given to Major General John Newton and this was a controversial move that deeply offended the more senior Doubleday. Newton led it through the remainder of the battle, including the defense against Picketts Charge, and through the Mine Run Campaign that fall