William the Conqueror
William I known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later; the rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of Duke of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva, his illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as did the anarchy that plagued the first years of his rule. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process, not complete until about 1060.
His marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders. By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointment of his supporters as bishops and abbots in the Norman church, his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, by 1062 William secured control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other potential claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson, named the next king by Edward on the latter's deathbed in January 1066. William argued that Edward had promised the throne to him and that Harold had sworn to support William's claim. William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066, in London.
He made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, by 1075 William's hold on England was secure, allowing him to spend the majority of the rest of his reign on the continent. William's final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, threatened invasions of England by the Danes. In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey listing all the landholdings in England along with their pre-Conquest and current holders. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France, was buried in Caen, his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire but instead continued to administer each part separately. William's lands were divided after his death: Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England.
Norsemen first began raiding in. Permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo; the lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have been used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century, which would have worsened relations between England and Normandy. In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002. Danish raids on England continued, Æthelred sought help from Richard, taking refuge in Normandy in 1013 when King Swein I of Denmark drove Æthelred and his family from England. Swein's death in 1014 allowed Æthelred to return home, but Swein's son Cnut contested Æthelred's return. Æthelred died unexpectedly in 1016, Cnut became king of England. Æthelred and Emma's two sons and Alfred, went into exile in Normandy while their mother, became Cnut's second wife.
After Cnut's death in 1035, the English throne fell to Harold Harefoot, his son by his first wife, while Harthacnut, his son by Emma, became king in Denmark. England remained unstable. Alfred returned to England in 1036 to visit his mother and to challenge Harold as king. One story implicates Earl Godwin of Wessex in Alfred's subsequent death. Emma went into exile in Flanders until Harthacnut became king following Harold's death in 1040, his half-brother Edward followed Harthacnut to England. William was born in 1027 or 1028 at Falaise, Duchy of Normandy, most towards the end of 1028, he was the only son of Duke Robert I, son of Duke Richard II. His mother, was the daughter of Fulbert of Falaise, she was a member of the ducal household, but did not marry Robert. Instead, she married Herluin de Conteville, with whom she had two sons – Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain – and a daughter whose name is unknown. One of Herleva's brothers, became a supporter and protector of William during his minority.
Robert had a daughter, Adelaide, by another mistress. Robert became Duke of Normandy on 6 August 1027, succeeding his elder brother Richard III, who had only succeeded to the title the previous year. Robert and his brother had been at odds over the succession, Richard's death
Ruth Stephanie Nicole George is a British Labour Party politician, who became the Member of Parliament for High Peak in Derbyshire at the 2017 United Kingdom general election. She defeated the incumbent Conservative MP Andrew Bingham with a swing of 7%, becoming the constituency's first female MP. George grew up in Somerset, attended the independent Millfield boarding school before moving to study Politics and Modern History at the University of Manchester. George trained as a tax accountant and, while in her twenties, helped to found an accountancy business in Chapel-en-le-Frith, she has lived in the High Peak area for over 25 years, is married with four children and lives in Tunstead Milton near the centre of the constituency. She has been a school governor in Whaley Bridge, is a committee member for the Whaley Bridge After School Club, she has been involved in local campaigns in the High Peak area. Before becoming an MP, George worked at the Central Office of the Union of Shop and Allied Workers in Manchester, where she was the parliamentary officer for eighteen years, campaigning on behalf of staff in retail, most notably campaigning on wages and maternity/paternity leave and setting up the ‘Freedom from Fear’ campaign which addresses violence and abuse of staff in shops.
Her work as political/parliamentary officer for USDAW involved liaising with parliamentary MPs, organising USDAW members to contact their MPs on relevant issues, including the campaign opposing a proposal to liberalise Sunday trading, defeated by a majority of 31 votes, including 27 Conservative MPs and campaigning against the Trade Union Act, passed in 2016. In the vote of January 2019, George voted against Theresa May's Brexit deal, she voted for Labour's amendment for Parliament to vote on options which prevent the UK leaving the EU without a deal, including a permanent customs union and a referendum, for Tory MP Dominic Grieve's amendment to force the government to make time for six days of debate on Brexit alternatives before 26 March, for Labour MP Yvette Cooper's amendment to give Parliament time to pass a bill that would postpone Brexit until 31 December if the Prime Minister's deal is not approved by 26 February, for Labour MP Rachel Reeves' amendment for the government to ask the EU to postpone Brexit for an indefinite period, for Tory MP Dame Caroline Spelman's amendment to reject leaving the EU without a deal and against Tory MP Sir Graham Brady's amendment to call for Parliament to require the backstop is replaced with "alternative arrangements to avoid a hard border" with Ireland.
In 2017, a 2016 tweet surfaced from @ruthforhighpeak, reading "I enjoyed Theresa May's LABOUR party speech at #CPC16 today. So much better than Mein Fuhrer Amber Rudd yesterday." George's personal twitter account had stated she "tweets as @ruthforhighpeak". George assigned responsibility for the tweet to "a passionate campaign volunteer". On 19 February, asked to comment on a Facebook comment suggesting the The Independent Group's financial backers were "Israelis", replied that "Support from the State of Israel, which supports both Conservative and Labour ‘Friends of Israel’ of which Luciana was chair is possible and I would not condemn those who suggest it when the group’s financial backers are not being revealed". After Jewish groups said that she was indulging an antisemitic conspiracy theory, she apologised and withdrew her comment. On Wednesday 27 March 2019, her Ten Minute Rule Bill calling for sky lanterns to be banned, after some major fires, was passed, she and other MPs will now draw up draft legislation.
Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
Woodhead is a small and scattered settlement at the head of the Longdendale valley in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the trans-Pennine A628 road connecting Greater Manchester and South Yorkshire, 6 miles north of Glossop, 19 miles east of Manchester and 18 miles west of Barnsley, it is close to the Trans Pennine Trail. Like nearby Tintwistle and Crowden, the hamlet lies within the historic county boundaries of Cheshire. Woodhead is the location of the western portals of the Woodhead Tunnels, three former railway tunnels on the electrified Woodhead Line between Manchester and Sheffield. There was a railway station and signal box at Woodhead; the Woodhead railway line closed in 1981. The platforms are still intact. Among the remains in the graveyard of St James Church, a small 18th-century chapel, are the unmarked graves of navvies who died during the construction of the tunnels. Adjoining the church is Bleak House, a Grade-II-listed 19th-century dwelling. Two miles to the east, the Lady Cross marks the highest point of the former packhorse road from Longdendale to Rotherham.
Only its base and the bottom of the shaft survive. The hamlet gives its name to Woodhead Reservoir, the highest in the Longdendale Chain of reservoirs. On 6 July 2014, Stage 2 of the 2014 Tour de France, from York to Sheffield, passed through the hamlet
The Dark Peak is the higher and wilder part of the Peak District in England forming the northern Peak District but extends south into its eastern and western margins. It is in Derbyshire and parts of Staffordshire, Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire, it gets its name because, the underlying limestone is covered by a cap of Millstone Grit which means that in winter the soil is always saturated with water. The land is thus uninhabited moorland plateaux where any depression is filled with sphagnum bogs and black peat; the High Peak is an alternative name for the Dark Peak, but High Peak is the name of an administrative district of Derbyshire which includes part of the White Peak. The areas of Millstone Grit form an'inverted horseshoe' around the lower uncapped limestone areas of the White Peak, enclosing it to the west and east. Hence the Dark Peak is said to cover the higher, northern moors between the Hope Valley and South Pennines, the Western Moors stretching south to near the Churnet Valley, the Eastern Moors southwards towards Matlock.
The Dark Peak is one of 159 National Character Areas defined by Natural England. An area of 31,852 hectares is designated as the Dark Peak Site of Special Scientific Interest, which excludes the separately designated Eastern Moors; the SSSI extends over the borders into West Yorkshire. A large part of the SSSI is included in the South Pennine Moors Special Area of Conservation. Principal upland areas within the Dark Peak include Kinder Scout, Black Hill, the Roaches, Shining Tor and Stanage Edge. Over the years, a number of military aircraft have crashed on the Dark Peak due to a combination of numerous nearby air bases, inexperienced pilots, primitive or faulty equipment and poor visibility; because of the bleakness and emptiness of the high moorlands and the consequent difficulties of recovery, substantial wreckage remains at some sites in remote parts of the moorland, though militarily sensitive materials were removed and salvage teams sometimes gathered debris into piles, or burned or buried it.
There have been reports of ghost planes in the area of a low-flying, propeller-driven plane in difficulty before crashing into the moors. People who recovered items from the crash site were then visited by ghosts. Photos and descriptions of Dark Peak landscapes. Dark Peak Aircraft Wrecks
Glossop is a market town in the High Peak, England, about 15 miles east of Manchester, 24 miles west of Sheffield and 32 miles north of the county town, Matlock. Glossop is near Derbyshire's county borders with Cheshire, Greater Manchester, South Yorkshire and West Yorkshire, it is between 150 and 300 metres above mean sea level, lies just outside the Peak District National Park. The name Glossop refers to the small hamlet that gave its name to an ancient parish recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, the manor given by William I of England to William Peverel. A municipal borough was created in 1866, the unparished urban area within two local government wards; the area now known as Glossop approximates to the villages that used to be called Glossopdale, on the lands of the Duke of Norfolk. A centre of wool processing, Glossop expanded in the late 18th century when it specialised in the production and printing of calico, a coarse cotton, became a mill town with many chapels and churches, its fortunes tied to the cotton industry.
Architecturally, the area is dominated by buildings constructed of the local sandstone. There remain the Dinting railway viaduct. Glossop has transport links to Manchester; the name Glossop is thought to be of Anglo-Saxon origin, named during the Angles' settlement in the 7th century, derived from Glott's Hop – where hop could mean a valley, a small valley in a larger valley system, or a piece of land enclosed by marshes and Glott was a chieftain's name. Because of its size and location, Glossop had many definitions; the village of Glossop is now called Old Glossop. Howard Town and Milltown gained importance, they were named New Town and Glossop. Local government reorganisations had caused the Glossopdale villages to be promoted to a municipal borough and have that status removed. Land has been added to Glossop and other lands removed. From a small settlement it became an ancient parish, a manor, a borough, a township. Two county divisions in High Peak Borough, have Glossop as part of their names.
There is evidence of a Bronze Age burial site on Shire Hill and other prehistoric remains at Torside. The Romans arrived in 78 AD. At that time, the area was within the territory of the Brigantes tribe, whose main base was in Yorkshire. In the late 1st century the Romans built a fort, Ardotalia, on high ground above the river in present-day Gamesley; the site of this fort was rediscovered in 1771 by John Watson. It subsequently acquired the name Melandra Castle; the extensive site has been excavated, revealing a shrine and the fort headquarters. The area has been landscaped to provide picnic areas. King William I awarded the manor of Glossop to William Peveril, who began construction of Glossop Castle, but the entire estate was confiscated. In 1157 King Henry II gave the manor of Glossop to Basingwerk Abbey, they gained a market charter for Glossop in 1290, one for Charlesworth in 1328. In 1433, the monks leased all of Glossopdale to the Talbot family Earls of Shrewsbury. In 1494, an illegitimate son of the family, Dr John Talbot, was appointed vicar of Glossop.
He founded a school, paved the packhorse route over the moors. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1537 the manor of Glossop was given to the Talbot family. In 1606 it came into the ownership of the Howard family, the Dukes of Norfolk, who held it for the next 300 years. Glossop was given to the second son of the family; the land was too wet and cold to be used for wheat but was ideal for the hardy Pennine sheep, so agriculture was predominantly pastoral. Most of the land was owned by the Howards and was leasehold and it was only in Whitfield that there was any freehold land; the few houses were solid, built of the local stone, allowed for the development of home industries such as wool spinning and weaving. The medieval economy was based on sheep pasture and the production of wool by farmers who were tenants of the Abbot of Basingwerk and the Talbot family. During the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century Glossop became a centre for cotton spinning. A good transport network between Liverpool and Glossop brought in imported cotton, spun by a labour force with wool spinning skills.
The climate of Glossopdale provided abundant soft water, used to power mills and finish the cloth, gave the humidity necessary to spin cotton under tension. Initial investment was provided by the Dukes of Norfolk. By 1740, cotton in an unspun form had been introduced to make lighter cloths; the first mills in Glossop were woollen mills. In 1774, Richard Arkwright opened a mill at Cromford, he patented machines for spinning cotton and carding. In 1785, his patents expired and many people copied Arkwright's system and his patents, exemplified by the Derwent Valley Mills. By 1788 there were over 200 Arkwright-type mills in Britain. At the same time there were 17 cotton mills in Derbyshire, principally in Glossop. By 1831 there were at least 30 mills in Glossopdale; the mill owners were local men: the Wagstaffs and Hadfields were freeholders from Whitfield. The Sidebottoms were from Hadfield, the Thornleys were carpenters and John Bennet and John Robinson were clothiers. John Wood of Marsden came from Manchester in 1819 and bought existing woollen mills which he expanded.
These were the Howard Town mills. Francis Sumner was a Catholic whose family had
High Peak Borough Council
High Peak Borough Council is the local authority for High Peak, a borough of Derbyshire, England. It forms part of the two-tier system of local government for High Peak, alongside Derbyshire County Council; the administrative base of High Peak Borough Council is split between sites in the towns of Buxton and Glossop. Full council meetings are held in Buxton; the whole council is elected once every four years. As of May 2015 the council is controlled by the Conservatives. In February 2008, the council formed a strategic alliance with the neighbouring Staffordshire Moorlands District Council, an arrangement where both councils share a number of services and staff to keep costs as low as possible; the High Peak Borough Council was formed on 1 April 1974 by absorbing the municipal boroughs of Buxton and Glossop, the urban districts of New Mills and Whaley Bridge and the rural district of Chapel-en-le-Frith, all of, in the administrative county of Derbyshire, as well as the rural district of Tintwistle, in the administrative county of Cheshire.
At the May 2011 election the Conservative Party lost overall control of the council and it became No overall control, with the Labour Party having the largest number of seats but being short of a majority. Shortly after taking office in 2007, the Conservative Party implemented a number of policies including contracting out the refuse and recycling services; the contract began in August 2008, was continued by the succeeding Labour administration. In June 2009, the ruling Conservative administration took the decision to dispose of the former council headquarters in Chinley, which housed the location of full council meetings; the Council said. The site has now been sold; the Council, made up of 43 councillors, is controlled by the Conservatives, which won 23 seats at the 2015 local election. At the 2015 local election, Tony Ashton became the Leader of High Peak Borough Council and Tony Kemp became the Deputy Leader, after the Conservative Party gained control with a majority of 3. From 2003 to 2007 the Leader was David Lomax of the Liberal Democrats.
In 2007, after the Conservatives gained control of the council, John Faulkner was elected to the post, but he resigned less than a year and Deputy Leader Tony Ashton took over as Leader. From 2011 to 2015 the Leader was Caitlin Bisknell, after the Labour Party gained control with a minority administration; the current Mayor is Cllr Matt Stone, elected as Mayor of High Peak for 2017/2018 in May 2017. Predecessors include: Cllr Stuart Young, Mayor of High Peak for 2015/16 Cllr Alan Barrow, Mayor of High Peak for 2014/15 Cllr Tony Kemp, Mayor of High Peak for 2013/14 Cllr Pat Jenner, Mayor of High Peak for 2012/13 Cllr David Lomax, Mayor of High Peak for 2011/12 Cllr Graham Oakley, Mayor of High Peak for 2010/11 At the 2015 election, the Labour Party lost minority control of the council and the Conservative Party became the largest party with 23 seats, gaining a majority of 3. Upon taking control they increased the number of councillors on the executive from four to five. Below is a list of all 43 serving councillors: "Councillors".
High Peak Borough Council. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2015. High Peak Borough Council
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate