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High Seas Fleet

The High Seas Fleet was the battle fleet of the German Imperial Navy and saw action during the First World War. The formation was created in February 1907. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz was the architect of the fleet. Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German Emperor, championed the fleet as the instrument by which he would seize overseas possessions and make Germany a global power. By concentrating a powerful battle fleet in the North Sea while the Royal Navy was required to disperse its forces around the British Empire, Tirpitz believed Germany could achieve a balance of force that could damage British naval hegemony; this was the heart of Tirpitz's "Risk Theory," which held that Britain would not challenge Germany if the latter's fleet posed such a significant threat to its own. The primary component of the Fleet was its battleships organized in eight-ship squadrons, though it contained various other formations, including the I Scouting Group. At its creation in 1907, the High Seas Fleet consisted of two squadrons of battleships, by 1914, a third squadron had been added.

The dreadnought revolution in 1906 affected the composition of the fleet. Enough dreadnoughts for two full squadrons were completed by the outbreak of war in mid 1914. Two additional squadrons of older vessels were mobilized at the onset of hostilities, though by the end of the conflict, these formations were disbanded; the fleet conducted a series of sorties into the North Sea during the war designed to lure out an isolated portion of the numerically superior British Grand Fleet. These operations used the fast battlecruisers of the I Scouting Group to raid the British coast as the bait for the Royal Navy; these operations culminated in the Battle of Jutland, on 31 May–1 June 1916, where the High Seas Fleet confronted the whole of the Grand Fleet. The battle was inconclusive, but the British won strategically, as it convinced Admiral Reinhard Scheer, the German fleet commander, that a favorable outcome to a fleet action would not secure German victory in the war. Scheer and other leading admirals therefore advised the Kaiser to order a resumption of the unrestricted submarine warfare campaign.

The primary responsibility of the High Seas Fleet in 1917 and 1918 was to secure the German naval bases in the North Sea for U-boat operations. The fleet continued to conduct sorties into the North Sea and detached units for special operations in the Baltic Sea against the Russian Baltic Fleet. Following the German defeat in November 1918, the Allies interned the bulk of the High Seas Fleet in Scapa Flow, where it was scuttled by its crews in June 1919, days before the belligerents signed the Treaty of Versailles. In 1898, Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz became the State Secretary for the Imperial Navy Office. During a speech in support of the First Naval Law on 6 December 1897, Tirpitz stated that the navy was "a question of survival" for Germany, he viewed Great Britain, with its powerful Royal Navy, as the primary threat to Germany. In a discussion with the Kaiser during his first month in his post as State Secretary, he stated that "for Germany the most dangerous naval enemy at present is England."

Tirpitz theorized that an attacking fleet would require a 33 percent advantage in strength to achieve victory, so decided that a 2:3 ratio would be required for the German navy. For a final total of 60 German battleships, Britain would be required to build 90 to meet the 2:3 ratio envisioned by Tirpitz; the Royal Navy had heretofore adhered to the so-called "two-power standard," first formulated in the Naval Defence Act of 1889, which required a larger fleet than those of the next two largest naval powers combined. The crux of Tirpitz's "risk theory" was that by building a fleet to the 2:3 ratio, Germany would be strong enough that in the event of a British naval victory, the Royal Navy would incur damage so serious as to allow the third-ranked naval power to rise to preeminence. Implicit in Tirpitz's theory was the assumption that the British would adopt an offensive strategy that would allow the Germans to use mines and submarines to the numerical odds before fighting a decisive battle between Heligoland and the Thames.

Tirpitz in fact believed Germany would emerge victorious from a naval struggle with Britain, as he believed Germany to possess superior ships manned by better-trained crews, more effective tactics, led by more capable officers. In his first program, Tirpitz envisioned a fleet of nineteen battleships, divided into two eight-ship squadrons, one ship as a flagship, two in reserve; the squadrons were further divided into four-ship divisions. This would be supported by the eight Siegfried- and Odin classes of coastal defense ships, six large and eighteen small cruisers, twelve divisions of torpedo boats, all assigned to the Home Fleet; this fleet was secured by the First Naval Law, which passed in the Reichstag on 28 March 1898. Construction of the fleet was to be completed by 1 April 1904. Rising international tensions as a result of the outbreak of the Boer War in South Africa and the Boxer Rebellion in China, allowed Tirpitz to push through an expanded fleet plan in 1900; the Second Naval Law was passed on 14 June 1900.

Tirpitz planned an larger fleet. As early as September 1899, he had infor

Halton Holegate

Halton Holegate is a small village in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is situated 1 mile east from Spilsby; the village Anglican church is Grade II * dedicated to St Andrew. Originating from the 14th century with additions, it is chiefly Perpendicular in style, except for the tower and the east end which were rebuilt in 1866 by James Fowler; the village has a public house. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward stretches south west to East Kirkby with a total population taken at the 2011 census of 2,495. Media related to Halton Holegate at Wikimedia Commons

N. Khelchandra Singh

Ningthoukhongjam Khelchandra Singh was an Indian writer and historian, known as the author of Manipuri to Manipuri and English, the first modern general dictionary in Meitei language, published in 1964. He was a fellow of the Sahitya Sangeet Natak Akademi; the Government of India awarded him the fourth highest civilian honour of Padma Shri in 1987. Khelchandra Singh was born on 1 September 1920 at Uripok Ningthoukhongjam Leikai, a small hamlet in Imphal, the capital of the northeast Indian state of Manipur, he did his studies in the traditional way under many teachers such as Dinachandra Singh, Pandit Parasuram, Pandit Madhop, Pandit Chandra and Pandit Deva Singh. His career started at Manipur Secretariat and spent the whole of his career with the Government of Manipur to retire as an under secretary. After superannuation from service, he worked as a visiting faculty at the Jawaharlal Nehru University Centre, Imphal for a brief period, he was associated with several Meitei historical associations.

He served as the president of Manipur Historical Society and Manipur Sahitya Parishad and was the vice president of Jawaharlal Nehru Manipur Dance Academy, Imphal. He was the president of Manipuri Martial Arts Association and Atombapu Research Centre and sat on the expert committees of Manipur State Kala Akademi, Department of Arts and Culture and Manipur University, he represented Manipur at several sessions of Indian Historical Records Commission, Purba Bharat Sankritic Sammelan, Indian History Congress and Indo-Myanmar Trade and Economic Co-operation Seminar, Mandalay. Khelchandra Singh died on 31 January 2011, aged 90, at Imphal, he was survived by five daughters, his wife preceding him in death. Khelchandra Singh is known to have published over 30 books. Manipuri to Manipuri and English Dictionary, published in 1964, is reported to be the first modern general dictionary in Meitei language. Another book of linguistics he wrote is Manipuri Language-Status and Importance, published in 1975.

He transliterated Uttarakhand Ramayana and Ashamedha Parba Mahabharat from Old Meitei to modern Meitei. As a historian, he edited eight books, Genealogy of Manipuri Kings, Cheitharol Kumbaba, royal chronicles of Manipur, an anthology of Old Meitei poems, an anthology of Old Meitei prose, a collection of hymns and prayers prevalent in Pre-Vaishnavite Manipur, An account of the hills of Manipur, A treatise on Manuscripts, Sarit Sarat, a book on the heroic accounts of Manipuri Martial Combats. One of his books, History of Old Manipuri Literature, is a text book for post graduate and research studies. Among his books written in English are Battle of Khongjom, Documents of Anglo-Manipuri War 1891, Thangal General and Kangla, he contributed two chapters of the book, Dictionary of National Biography, the biographies of Pandit Raj Atombapu Sharma and Thangal General. Khelchandra Singh received a service excellence award, the President's Silver Medal, in 1951, for his services during the 1951 Census of India.

Manipuri Sahitya Parishad awarded him the Gavesana Bhusan award for his research activities in 1971 and he was elected as a fellow of the Manipur State Kala Akademi in 1980. The Government of India awarded him the civilian honour of Padma Shri in 1987. Three years Sahitya Akademi chose him as their fellow in 1999 and the Sangeet Natak Akademi followed suit with their fellowship in 2006. Manipur Historical Society have instituted an annual lecture, Pandit Ningthoukhongjam Khelchandra Singh Memorial Lecture, in honour of Singh. "Tribute to Ningthoukhongjam Khelchandra Singh". North American Thang Ta Association. 1993. Retrieved 26 August 2015

Chemical Agent Resistant Coating

Chemical Agent Resistant Coating is a paint applied to military vehicles to provide protection against chemical and biological weapons. The surface of the paint is engineered to be decontaminated after exposure to chemical warfare and biological warfare agents; the paint is resistant to damage and removal by decontaminating solutions. Two-component systems are employed; this coating is described in MIL-DTL-53072E. As of 2018, the U. S. Army Research Laboratory led research and development activity for CARC and was the approving authority of CARC products for the Department of Defense. Since 1985, U. S. Army Regulation 750-1 mandated the use of CARC systems on all tactical equipment. Regulations mandated the hardening of equipment against the impacts of chemical attacks and subsequent cleaning agents following contamination; these same regulations were followed by the Marine Air Force. As of 1985, most military vehicles and equipment have a topcoat applied with camouflaged CARCs; these topcoats produced a non-porous finish that acted as a protectant against radioactive and chemical contamination.

CARC repelled chemical by preventing absorption, with chemicals beading up on the finish surface where they could be washed away. CARC coatings were used by government contractors who refurbish vehicles and parts for the U. S. military. Examples included Light Armored Vehicles, High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles, generators and shelter exteriors. Solvent-borne CARCs were developed in the early 1980s; the impetus for CARC development was the need to protect costly military equipment. Operation Desert Storm further increased concern of the potential for chemical attacks. Since 2000, high-performance water-reducible CARCs were used; these materials contained no hazardous air pollutants. The impetus for improved CARC formulations was to reduce the cost of material degradation for the DoD. An improved topcoat was composed to have 44% primary pigments and inorganic extenders, 24% resins, 30% solvent, 2% additives. Formulations changed from inorganic to polymeric-based extenders in to enhance the protective features of the topcoat and reduce the cost of material degradation.

Additionally, air pollution regulations required reformulation of the coating’s solvent content to reduce the emission of hazardous air pollutants. As of 2000, two different CARC topcoats included:1) One-component, moisture-cure urethane: MCU CARCs cured in a two-stage process where water and isocyanate groups combined to produce a cured paint film; the materials were designed for resistance to windblown dust and chemical agents. An improvement to solvent-borne polyurethanes, MCU materials offered both lower levels of volatile organic compounds and elimination of hazardous air pollutants. 2) Two-component, high-performance, water-reducible polyurethane: Waterbased CARCs, most used by the military, were composed of water-reducible polyurethane resins, marking the first time a water-based two-component CARC was commercially available. This formulation eliminated several solvents, including methyl isobutyl ketone and xylene. Citation

Rocky Fund

Rocky Fund was a Republican member of the Kansas House of Representatives, representing the 50th district. He served from 2007 until his death in 2011; the Americans for Prosperity - Kansas Chapter gave him an 85% rating on conservative issues. Fund worked as a District Manager for the Water District. Energy and Utilities Federal and State Affairs Agriculture and Natural Resources Joint Committee on Special Claims Against the State The top 5 donors to Fund's 2008 campaign: 1. Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation $1,000 2. Kansas Contractors Assoc $1,000 3. Kansas Optometric Assoc $750 4. AT&T $750 5. Kansas Medical Society $500 "Representative Rocky Fund was born August 5, 1950 in Sabetha, the 5th of 7 children, his parents and Aleck Fund lived on a farm near Goff, Kansas. He graduated from Wetmore High School. After graduation, he joined the air force, married Linda McKee, was stationed at McConnell Air Force Base in Wichita, KS and served in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, he returned home to Kansas, worked at Learjet and earned his bachelor's degree at Wichita State University.

He earned a Farrier's license from Oklahoma Farrier's College. Rocky was a horseshoer, in Wichita and northeast Kansas, a teacher and coach at Royal Valley and Jackson Heights for 21 years, served on the Rural Water District #3 Jackson County Water Board for 16 years before becoming its District Manager for 10 years, he was serving his third term. Rocky was an Optimist, a member of the American Legion and Veterans of Foreign Wars." Published in Topeka Capital-Journal on April 30, 2011 Kansas Legislature - Rocky Fund Project Vote Smart profile Kansas Votes profile Follow the Money campaign contributions: 2006, 2008

Yanqing District

Yanqing District known as Yanqing County before 2015, is a subdivision of the municipality of Beijing located northwest of the city proper of Beijing. The district consists of 11 towns and 4 rural townships, borders the Beijing districts of Huairou to the east and Changping to the south as well as the Hebei counties of Huailai to the west and Chicheng to the north; the district will host alpine skiing, bobsled and skeleton during the 2022 Winter Olympics. There are 3 subdistricts, 11 towns, 1 township in the district; the urban area of Yanqing is composed of Baiquan Subdistrict, Rulin Subdistrict, Xiangshuiyuan Subdistrict and Yanqing Town, with a population that exceeds 100,000. The urban area has a central business exhibition center; the district is rich in outdoor attractions. The most visited attraction of Yanqing is Badaling, a restored section of the Great Wall, popular with tourists. Badaling Remnant and Shuiguan sections of the Great Wall in Yanqing are to the west and east of the popular Badaling and receive spillover visitors during peak periods.

One of the most popular day-trips for residents of Beijing is the Longqing Gorge located in the village of Gucheng in the district. The scenic area features a canyon filled at the bottom with a reservoir from a nearby man made dam, providing short boat cruises along the dramatic landscape of narrow peaks; the remnants of a 1,000 year old cliff dwelling community date back to the Tang Dynasty are found at Guyaju Ruins near the village of Dongmenying. Archaeologists are uncertain about the origins of Guyaju. One theory holds that the Kumo Xi, a steppe tribe, carved from the rocks the halls and hundreds of dwellings that form a fortress community in the caves. Another historical attraction is the town of Yongning; the town square tower was restored in the 2000s and there is a Gothic Revival Catholic church from the 19th century. The Jingbao Railway, Daqin Railway, China National Highway 110 pass through the district. Yanqing is served by one commuter railway line operated by Beijing Suburban Railway.

Line S2 starts from Huangtudian railway station in Changping District and stops at the following stations in Yanqing: Line S2 - Badaling, Yanqing Line S2 - Badaling, Kangzhuang Media related to Yanqing District at Wikimedia Commons