Czech Gothic architecture
Czech Gothic architecture refers to the architectural period primarily of the Late Middle Ages in the area of the present-day Czech Republic. The Gothic style first appeared in the Czech lands in the first half of the 13th century and was there until the early 16th century. The Gothic style penetrated the Czech lands in the first half of the 13th century – in the time when the Romanesque style flourished in Bohemia and the High Gothic in France. In the 13th century the Kingdom of Bohemia became a stable country, until that time the cultural development of the Czech lands was obviously delayed in comparison with Western Europe. In the 13th century many monasteries, cities, towns and it was the time of colonization of the still uninhabited areas of the Kingdom. The Czech nobility accepted the culture of knights, so they listened to the German Minnesingers, participated in tournaments, got their coat of arms, thanks to the newly found silver mines the Kingdom was becoming richer. In the 1240s last purely Romanesque churches were built, in the 1230s first Early Gothic buildings were built in the transitional style brought to Bohemia and Moravia by the Order of Cistercians.
Their building were not very fancy and they often used leaf and berry motifs, the Cistercians were the most important builder of the very Early Gothic style architecture in the Czech lands. The Church of the Teplá Abbey consecrated in 1232 is one of the oldest Gothic churches in Bohemia, other important Early Gothic building is the Osek Monastery in Bohemia with its unique Chapter hall. There are the oldest traceries of the windows in the Czech lands. The St. Procopius Basilica in Třebíč is considered to be the most bizarre work of the European architecture of the third of the 13th century. The architecture of this former Benedictine abbey church in Třebíč is a mixture of Romanesque. Therefore, it is listed in the UNESCO World Heritage List, the oldest Gothic building in Prague is the Convent of St. Agnes founded in 1231 by the Bohemian Princess Agnes of Bohemia. It was the first convent of the Poor Clares outside Italy, the first church of this convent was completed in 1234 and it is said to be the oldest vaulted mendicant order church north of the Alps.
The Church of Christ the Saviour built in 1261–1265 as the mausoleum of Přemyslid dynasty by King Ottokar II of Bohemia was directly influenced by the French Gothic architecture. In the new-founded rich mining town Jihlava there were built three Early Gothic churches in the 1240s which belong to the oldest preserved Gothic churches in the Czech lands. After the 1260s the influence of the Cistercian style diminished and the Czech architecture was inspired by the French High Gothic architecture. In southern Bohemia there worked the royal builders employed by the King Ottokar II of Bohemia, in the Royal Town of Písek there they built some important buildings
Brabantine Gothic, occasionally called Brabantian Gothic, is a significant variant of Gothic architecture that is typical for the Low Countries. It surfaced in the first half of the 14th century at Saint Rumbolds Cathedral in the City of Mechelen, for churches and other major buildings, the tenor prevailed and lasted throughout the Renaissance. Mosan Gothic refers to the river Maas, mainly in the parts of the Low Countries, the modern provinces of Limburg in the Netherlands, Limburg in Flanders. Though of a origin than Scheldt Gothic, it still showed more Romanesque features. Marlstone was used, and around the capitals on limestone columns are sculptured leaves of irises, surface conditions and available materials varied. Larger churches could take centuries of building during which expertise and fashions caused successive architects to evolve further from the original plans, though few buildings are of an entirely consistent style, the ingenuity and craftsmanship of architects could realize a harmonious blend.
The ultimate concepts were drawn centuries after the earliest designs and it follows that Brabantine Gothic style is neither homogeneous, nor strictly defined. The Brabantine Gothic style originated with the advent of the Duchy of Brabant, the slender tallness of the French naves however, was never surpassed, and the size tended to be slightly more modest. It is characterized by using light-coloured sandstone or limestone, which allowed rich detailing but is erosion-prone, the churches typically have round columns with cabbage foliage sculpted capitals. From there half-pillar buttresses continue often without interruption into the vault ribs, the triforium and the windows of the clerestory generally continue into one another, with the windows taking the entire space of the pointed arch. An ambulatory with radiating chapels is part of the design, whereas the cathedrals in Brussels and Antwerp are notable exceptions, the main porch is straight under the single west tower, in French called clocher-porche.
In addition, the arches between nave and aisles are exceptionally wide, and the triforium is omitted. Instead, a transom of tracery is placed above the pier arches and this type was followed by other major churches in Antwerp city, St. Martin Church in Aalst, and St. Michaels Church in Ghent. Demer Gothic in the Hageland and Campine Gothic are regional variants of Brabantine Gothic in the part of the former duchy. Those styles can be distinguished merely by the use of local rust-brown bricks, Brabantine Gothic city halls are built in the shape of gigantic box reliquaries with corner turrets and usually a belfry. The exterior is profusely decorated. Many churches in the former Counties of Holland and of Zeeland are built in a style sometimes inaccurately separated as Hollandic and these are in fact Brabantine Gothic style buildings with concessions necessitated by local conditions. Thus, because of the ground, weight was saved by wooden barrel vaults instead of stone vaults
Red brick university
The term is now used more broadly to refer to British universities founded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in major cities. Six of the original institutions, or their predecessor institutes. Eight of the nine institutions are members of the Russell Group, the term red brick or redbrick was first coined by Edgar Allison Peers, a professor of Spanish at the University of Liverpool, to describe the civic universities. Although Peers used red brick in the title of the book, he used redbrick adjectivally in the text. He is said to have regretted his use of red brick in the title. Peers reference was inspired by the fact that The Victoria Building at the University of Liverpool is built from a distinctive red pressed brick, with terracotta decorative dressings. On this basis the University of Liverpool claims to be the red brick institution, although the titular. The University of Birmingham grew from the Mason Science College, a red brick. In this sense they owed their structural heritage to the Humboldt University of Berlin, scotlands ancient universities were founded on a different basis between 1400 and 1600.
These universities developed out of various 19th-century private research and education institutes in industrial cities, the 1824 Manchester Mechanics Institute formed the basis of the Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, and thus led towards the current University of Manchester formed in 2004. The University of Birmingham has origins dating back to the 1825 Birmingham Medical School, the University of Leeds owes its foundations to a medical school, the 1831 Leeds School of Medicine. Reading was established as a college by Oxford University in 1892, incorporating pre-existing schools of art and science. All of the redbricks, with the exception of Reading, were non-residential, in contrast to Oxford, graduates of Oxford and London had already been enfranchised and graduates of the University of Wales were enfranchised at the same time. Reading University was added to the Combined English Universities constituency in 1928, the constituency was abolished in 1950. Various other civic institutions with origins dating from the 19th and early to mid-20th centuries have described as Red Brick.
According to historian William Whyte of the University of Oxford, Truscotts original definition includes the University of Dundee, Newcastle University, Whyte does not include Reading or Nottingham, which Truscot lists in his second edition. The Robbins Report lists Reading, Southampton, Hull and Leicester, as a result it meets the dictionary definition of a red brick university, and is sometimes named as such. The term red brick is used more widely to mean any of the non-ancient universities
Venetian Gothic architecture
Venetian Gothic is an architectural style combining use of the Gothic lancet arch with Byzantine and Moorish architecture influences. The style originated in 14th century Venice with the confluence of Byzantine styles from Constantinople, Arab influences from Moorish Spain, chief examples of the style are the Doges Palace and the Ca dOro in Venice. In the 19th Century, the works of John Ruskin and others drew from the style in a revival, part of the broader Gothic Revival movement in Victorian architecture. The Gothic Period erupted in Venice during a time of great affluence, at the same time, monks were beginning to bring the Gothic style to Venices churches from mainland Italy. The most striking examples of new architectural fashion can be seen in Santi Giovanni e Paolo. However, these churches were very similar to those found in the rest of Italy. It was not until the increase in construction, that Venetian Gothic became a distinct style in itself. Influenced by the Doges Palace, the creators of new style meshed Gothic, Byzantine.
This Venetian Gothic style lasted well into the 15th century because of the love of ornate decoration. In Northern Europe, traceries only supported stained glass, in contrast, traceries in Venetian Gothic supported the weight of the entire building. Therefore, the relative weight sustained by the traceries alludes to the weightlessness of the buildings as a whole. This gives the Venetian Gothic architectural style lightness and grace in structure, the Venetian Gothic, while far more intricate in style and design than previous construction types in Venice, never allowed more weight or size than necessary to support the building. Venice had always held the concern that every inch of land is valuable, one major aspect of the Venetian Gothic style change that came about during the 14th and 15th centuries was the proportion of the central hall in secular buildings. This hall, known as the portego, evolved into a passageway that was often opened by a loggia with Gothic arches. Architects favored using intricate traceries, similar to found on the Doges Palace.
The most iconic Venetian Gothic structure, the Doges Palace, is a luxuriously decorated building that includes traits of Gothic, Moorish, in the 14th Century, following two fires that destroyed the previous structure, the palace was rebuilt in its present, recognizably Gothic form. Yet another important example of Venetian Gothic architecture is Santa Maria dei Frari, first constructed in the 15th century, this Franciscan church was rebuilt in its current Gothic style in the 15th Century. The style was revived in the 19th century, largely through the influence of British architectural critic John Ruskin and his treatise The Stones of Venice
Portuguese Gothic architecture
Portuguese Gothic architecture is the architectural style prevalent in Portugal in the Late Middle Ages. As in other parts of Europe, Gothic style slowly replaced Romanesque architecture in the period between the late 12th and the 13th century, between the late 15th and early 16th century, Gothic was replaced by Renaissance architecture through an intermediate style called Manueline. Gothic architecture was brought to Portugal by the Cistercian Order, the first fully Gothic building in Portugal is the church of the Monastery of Alcobaça, a magnificent example of the clear and simple architectural forms favoured by the Cistercians. The church was built between 1178 and 1252 in three phases, and seems inspired by the Abbey of Clairvaux, in the Champagne and its three aisles are very tall and slender, giving an exceptional impression of height. The whole church is covered by rib vaulting and the chapel has an ambulatory. The vault of the ambulatory is externally supported by flying buttresses, typical features of Gothic architecture, after the foundation of Alcobaça, the Gothic style was chiefly disseminated by mendicant orders.
Mendicant Gothic churches usually had a nave covered with wooden roof. These churches lacked towers and were devoid of architectural decoration. Mendicant Gothic was adopted in several churches built all over the country, for instance in Sintra, Lourinhã. Many of the Romanesque cathedrals were modernised with Gothic elements, the Romanesque nave of Oporto Cathedral is supported by flying buttresses, one of the first built in Portugal. The apse of Lisbon Cathedral was totally remodelled in the first half of the 14th century, the ambulatory has a series of radiant chapels illuminated with large windows, contrasting with the dark Romanesque nave of the cathedral. An important transitional building is Évora Cathedral, built during the 13th century, even though its floorplan, façade and elevation are inspired by Lisbon Cathedral, its forms are already Gothic. Several Gothic cloisters were built and can still be found in the Cathedrals of Oporto, Lisbon and Évora as well as in monasteries like Alcobaça, Santo Tirso and the Convent of the Order of Christ.
In the early 15th century, the building of the Monastery of Batalha, sponsored by King John I, after 1402, the works were trusted to Master Huguet, of unknown origin, who introduced the Flamboyant Gothic style to the project. The whole building is decorated with Gothic pinnacles, large windows with intrincate tracery, the main portal has a series of archivolts decorated with a multitude of statues, while the tympanum has a relief showing Christ and the Evangelists. The Founders Chapel and the Chapter House have elaborate star-ribbed vaulting, Batalha influenced 15th-century workshops like those of Guarda Cathedral, Silves Cathedral and monasteries in Beja and Santarém. Another Gothic variant was the so-called Mudéjar-Gothic, which developed in Portugal towards the end of the 15th century, the name Mudéjar refers to the influence of Islamic art in the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, specially in the Middle Ages. as well as tile decoration. Examples include the portico of St Francis Church of Évora, the courtyard of the Sintra Royal Palace and several churches and palaces in Évora, Arraiolos, Beja, múdejar eventually intermingled with the Manueline style in the early 16th century
St James the Less, Pimlico
St James the Less is an Anglican church in Pimlico, built in 1858–61 by George Edmund Street in the Gothic Revival style. A grade I listed building, it has described as one of the finest Gothic Revival churches anywhere. The church was constructed predominately in brick with embellishments from other types of stone and its most prominent external feature is its free-standing Italian-style tower, while its interior incorporates design themes which Street observed in medieval Gothic buildings in continental Europe. He had published in 1855, to acclaim, his book Brick. The parish was inhabited by around 31,000 people at the time, the church, which stands on land formerly owned by Westminster Abbey, was consecrated in 1861. The church originally favoured the church, Anglo-Catholic style of worship. By the time of its centenary, however, it faced closure due to dwindling numbers of worshippers, a campaign was mounted by Sir John Betjeman and others which resulted in the church gaining a reprieve.
It was eventually united with the church of St Saviours. In the 21st Century, it falls within the Charismatic Evangelical tradition, St James the Less is now embedded in the centre of the Lillington Gardens estate, which was built around the church in three phases between 1964–72. He declared the design of the estate to be admirable in itself, the church stands back from Vauxhall Bridge Road and lies parallel to the road. It is constructed primarily from red bricks with an exterior embellished with black bricks, bands of Morpeth stone, voussoirs of coloured bricks and marble shafts. The steeply sloping roof is covered with slate, with a gable at one end, the building is surrounded by cast-iron railings of Streets design, topped with wrought-iron crestings representing lilies. These were an addition inspired by the design of railings which closed-off the chapels within Barcelona Cathedrals cloister. They were made by James Leaver of Maidenhead in 1866, a columned porch and passage leads out towards the street.
Above the porch is a tower reminiscent of an Italian campanile. The tower is topped by a spire whose bulk is emphasised by being corbeled out, the spire is of an unconventional design, starting as a pyramid before splitting into a central spike flanked by four spirelets. The overall effect was quite unlike that of the traditional English church tower, detached as a campanile and there must be one bounding line from base to coping. Street wrote that this breadth of effect was the point which northern architects were most careless to succeed
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, scalloping, lancet windows, hood mouldings, the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 19th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism, the Anglo-Catholicism tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. The Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by medievalism, which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals, as industrialisation progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values that had been supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation, poems such as Idylls of the King by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast specifically modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance.
In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions, guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active primarily in Turin, recognized the Gothic order as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Some of the earliest evidence of a revival in Gothic architecture is from Scotland, inveraray Castle, constructed from 1746, with design input from William Adam, displays the incorporation of turrets. These were largely conventional Palladian style houses that incorporated some features of the Scots baronial style. The eccentric landscape designer Batty Langley even attempted to improve Gothic forms by giving them classical proportions, a younger generation, taking Gothic architecture more seriously, provided the readership for J. Brittens series of Cathedral Antiquities, which began appearing in 1814. In 1817, Thomas Rickman wrote an Attempt. to name and define the sequence of Gothic styles in English ecclesiastical architecture, the categories he used were Norman, Early English and Perpendicular.
It went through numerous editions and was still being republished by 1881. The largest and most famous Gothic cathedrals in the U. S. A. are St. Patricks Cathedral in New York City and Washington National Cathedral on Mount St. Alban in northwest Washington, D. C. One of the biggest churches in Gothic Revival style in Canada is Basilica of Our Lady Immaculate in Ontario, Gothic Revival architecture was to remain one of the most popular and long-lived of the Gothic Revival styles of architecture. The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture, classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace ant lattice work were applied to a range of Gothic Revival objects. Sir Walter Scotts Abbotsford exemplifies in its furnishings the Regency Gothic style, parties in medieval historical dress and entertainment were popular among the wealthy in the 1800s but has spread in the late 20th century to the well-educated middle class as well.
By the mid-19th century, Gothic traceries and niches could be inexpensively re-created in wallpaper, the illustrated catalogue for the Great Exhibition of 1851 is replete with Gothic detail, from lacemaking and carpet designs to heavy machinery
St Pancras railway station
St Pancras railway station, known as London St Pancras and since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus located on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden. It was opened in 1868 by the Midland Railway as the terminus of its main line. When inaugurated, the train shed by William Henry Barlow was the largest single-span roof in the world. The restored station has 15 platforms, a centre. St Pancras is owned by London and Continental Railways and is managed by Network Rail, high-speed domestic services to Kent, run by Southeastern, began in December 2009. St Pancras is often termed the cathedral of the railways, the train shed, completed in 1868 by the engineer William Henry Barlow, was the largest single-span structure built up to that time. The terminal is one of relatively few stations in England to feature multilingual signage, all notices are written in English. Ashford International station has similar bilingual signs, other stations with foreign-language signs include Southall, which has signs in Punjabi, Wallsend Metro station, and Moreton-in-Marsh.
In March 2014, the public relations team commissioned a study of mispronounced words. St Pancras occupies a site orientated north/south, deeper than it is wide, the south is bounded by the busy Euston Road, with the frontage provided by the former Midland Grand Hotel. Behind the hotel, the Barlow train shed is elevated 5 m above street level, to the west, the original station is bounded by Midland Road with the British Library on the other side of the road. To the east, it is bounded by Pancras Road and is opposite Kings Cross station, the new northern half of the station is mainly bounded to the east by Camley Street, with Camley Street Natural Park across the road. To the north-east is Kings Cross Central, formerly known as the Railway Lands, a complex of intersecting railway lines crossed by several roads, St Pancras contains four groups of platforms on two levels, accessed via the main concourse at ground level. The below-surface group contains through platforms A and B, and the level has three groups of terminal platforms, domestic platforms 1–4 and 11–13 on each side of international platforms 5–10.
The international platforms do not occupy the width of the Barlow train shed. The southern end of The Arcade links to the ticket hall of Kings Cross St Pancras tube station. The main pedestrian entrance is at the end of this concourse, where a subway enables pedestrians to reach Kings Cross station. There are several items of art on display to the public at St Pancras, at the south end of the upper level, a 9-metre high 20-tonne bronze statue named The Meeting Place stands beneath the station clock
Charles Herbert Reilly
Sir Charles Herbert Reilly, was an English architect and teacher. He was largely responsible for establishing university training of architects as an alternative to the old system of apprenticeship, Reilly was a strong and effective opponent of the Victorian Neo-Gothic style, which had dominated British architecture for decades. His dominance ended the popularity of the Arts and Crafts and Jugendstil movements in Britain, earning him the enmity of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. For many years Reilly favoured a form of Neo-Classicism strongly influenced by developments in American architecture, in his career, he embraced the principles of the modernist movement, and of town planning for social and aesthetic improvement. As a practising architect, Reilly was responsible for few well-known buildings and his influence on British architecture came through the work of his pupils, who included Herbert Rowse, Lionel Budden, William Holford and Maxwell Fry. Reilly was born on the Seven Sisters Road in Manor House, whilst Reilly was still very young, the family moved to a large Regency period house, just nearby on Woodberry Down.
As an undergraduate he helped to found the Cambridge branch of the Fabian Society, after graduating with a first class degree in mechanical science, he worked for two years as an unpaid draughtsman at his fathers office, and joined the office of John Belcher as an improver. In 1898, Reilly became an Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects, in 1900 he applied for the chair of architecture at Kings College, London, he had not seriously expected to be successful and was surprised and pleased to reach the final shortlist of three. The successful candidate, Ravenscroft Elsey Smith, appointed him to a lectureship and introduced him to Stanley Peach. Peach and Reilly entered into a joint practice, according to Reilly, Peach was a good constructor, but diffident about his own powers of design. The result was that he tried far too hard to dress up his buildings, with their fine roofs and great chimneys. Reilly, on the hand, was more interested in design than in the mechanics of construction.
In 1902, Reilly applied unsuccessfully for the chair of architecture at University College, in the same year he entered the open competition for the design of the proposed new Liverpool Cathedral. He detested the Victorian Neo-Gothic style, describing the work of a proponent, Alfred Waterhouse, as having the colours of mud. His proposed design was in the English Neo-Classical style, with a central dome in the tradition of Wrens St Pauls. The assessors of the competition were G F Bodley, a exponent of the Gothic style. Reillys design was one of eight highly commended entries that failed to gain inclusion in the final shortlist of five, giles Gilbert Scotts Gothic design was the eventual winner, but Reilly had made influential contacts in Liverpool, where much of his career came to be centred. In the years before and after the turn of the century, aspiring architects who could afford to buy an articled pupillage in one of the leading firms had an enormous advantage
William Butterfield was a Gothic Revival architect and associated with the Oxford Movement. He is noted for his use of polychromy, william Butterfield was born in London in 1814. His parents were strict non-conformists who ran a shop in the Strand. He was one of nine children and was educated at a local school, at the age of 16, he was apprenticed to Thomas Arber, a builder in Pimlico, who became bankrupt. He studied architecture under E. L. Blackburne, from 1838 to 1839, he was an assistant to Harvey Eginton, an architect in Worcester, where he became articled. He established his own practice at Lincolns Inn Fields in 1840. From 1842 Butterfield was involved with the Cambridge Camden Society, The Ecclesiological Society and he contributed designs to the Societys journal, The Ecclesiologist. His involvement influenced his architectural style and he drew religious inspiration from the Oxford Movement and as such, he was very high church despite his non-conformist upbringing. He was a Gothic revival architect, and as such he reinterpreted the original Gothic style in Victorian terms, many of his buildings were for religious use, although he designed for colleges and schools.
Butterfields church of All Saints, Margaret Street, was, in the view of Henry-Russell Hitchcock and it was designed in 1850, completed externally by 1853 and consecrated in 1859. Flanked by a house and school, it was intended as a model church by its sponsors. The church was built of red-brick, a long out of use in London, patterned with bands of black brick. The interior was more richly decorated, with marble and tile marquetry. In 1849, just before Butterfield designed the church, John Ruskin had published his Seven Lamps of Architecture, in which he had urged the study of Italian Gothic and the use of polychromy. Many contemporaries perceived All Saints as Italian in character, though in fact it combines fourteenth century English details, in 1850 he designed, without polychromy, St Matthias in Stoke Newington, with a bold gable-roofed tower. At St Bartholomews, Yealmpton in the year, Butterfield used a considerable amount of marquetry work for the interior. At Oxford, Butterfield designed Keble College, in a radically divergent from the Universitys existing traditions of Gothic architecture.
Intended for clerical students, it was built in 1868–70, on a fairly domestic scale
George Edmund Street
George Edmund Street RA, known as G. E. Street, was an English architect, born at Woodford in Essex. Stylistically, Street was a practitioner of the Victorian Gothic revival. Though mainly an ecclesiastical architect, he is perhaps best known as the designer of the Royal Courts of Justice, Street was the third son of Thomas Street, a solicitor, by his second wife, Mary Anne Millington. He went to school at Mitcham in about 1830, and to the Camberwell Collegiate School, for a few months he worked in his fathers business in Philpot Lane, but on his fathers death he went to live with his mother and sister at Exeter. There his thoughts first turned to architecture, and in 1841 his mother obtained a place for him as pupil in the office of Owen Browne Carter at Winchester, afterwards he worked for five years as an improver with George Gilbert Scott in London. His first commission – undertaken while still working for Scott – was for the design of Biscovey Church, in 1849 he set up in practice in an office of his own.
Much of his earliest work, which included many church restorations, was in Cornwall. In November 1850, having been appointed architect to the diocese of Oxford he left London, and moved to Wantage, where he had designed a vicarage. In May 1852 he went to live in Beaumont Street, during this period he developed his use of constructional polychromy, in churches such as All Saints, Boyne Hill. Early in his career, he advocated the idea that architects should have an involvement with the decoration of their buildings. However, with his increasing amount of business, he realised the difficulties of such an approach. He remained in Oxford until late in 1855, when he moved back to London, taking a house in Montagu Place, Bloomsbury. At around this time he entered the competition to design the new cathedral at Lille, winning prize, behind a design by Henry Clutton. He came second to Burges in another competition, to design the Crimea Memorial Church in Constantinople and he submitted, Gothic schemes for the new Foreign Office in Whitehall, and for a projected rebuilding of the National Gallery.
Street was an member of the Ecclesiological Society. From an early age he had interested in the principles of Gothic architecture. These works inspired the use of constructional polychromy by British architects. Even the materials used in its construction and the mode by which it is lighted were novelties, Street could satisfy without danger, but which betrayed many of his contemporaries into intemperance
This innovative style synthesizes aspects of Late Gothic architecture with influences of the Spanish Plateresque style, Mudéjar, Italian urban architecture, and Flemish elements. It marks the transition from Late Gothic to Renaissance, the construction of churches and monasteries in Manueline was largely financed by proceeds of the lucrative spice trade with Africa and India. Varnhagen named the style after King Manuel I, whose reign coincided with its development, although the period of this style did not last long, it played an important part in the development of Portuguese art. The influence of the style outlived the king, celebrating the newly maritime power, it manifested itself in architecture and extended into other arts such as sculpture, works of art made of precious metals and furniture. This decorative style is characterized by virtuoso complex ornamentation in portals, columns, in its end period it tended to become excessively exuberant as in Tomar. Several elements appear regularly in these intricately carved stoneworks, elements used on ships, elements from the sea, such as shells and strings of seaweed.
Botanical motifs such as branches, oak leaves, poppy capsules, corncobs. Symbols of Christianity such as the cross of the Order of Christ, the cross of this order decorated the sails of the Portuguese ships. When King Manuel I died in 1521, he had funded 62 construction projects, much original Manueline architecture in Portugal was lost or damaged beyond restoration in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and subsequent tsunami. In Lisbon, the Ribeira Palace, residence of King Manuel I, the city, still has outstanding examples of the style in the Jerónimos Monastery and in the small fortress of the Belém Tower. Both are located close to other in the Belém neighbourhood. The portal of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha, outside Lisbon, the church and chapter house of the Convent of the Order of Christ at Tomar is a major Manueline monument. In particular, the window of the chapter house, with its fantastic sculptured organic. Other major Manueline monuments include the arcade screens of the Royal Cloister and the Unfinished Chapels at the Monastery of Batalha, civil buildings in Manueline style exist in Évora and the Castle of Évoramonte of 1531), Viana do Castelo, Guimarães and some other towns.
Its influence is apparent in southern Spain, the Canary Islands, North Africa, turner, J. Grove Dictionary of Art, MacMillan Publishers Ltd. 1996, ISBN 0-19-517068-7 The Rough Guide to Portugal, March 2005, 11th edition, ISBN 1-84353-438-X Smith, the Art of Portugal 1500-1800, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London,1968 ISBN 0-297-76096-3