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High commissioner

High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. The English term is used to render various equivalent titles in other languages. In the Commonwealth of Nations, a high commissioner is the senior diplomat in charge of the diplomatic mission of one Commonwealth government to another. In this usage, a Commonwealth nation's high commission is its embassy to another Commonwealth nation. In the British Empire high commissioners were envoys of the Imperial government appointed to manage protectorates or groups of territories not under the sovereignty of the British Crown, while Crown colonies would be administered by a Governor and the most significant possessions, large confederations and the independent Commonwealth Dominions would be headed by a Governor-General. An example was the island of Cyprus; until 12 July 1878 Cyprus was under Ottoman rule based in Istanbul. From that date it was under British administration, but Istanbul retained nominal sovereignty until Cyprus was annexed by Britain on 5 November 1914.

There were nine successive High Commissioners, all but one knighted, from 22 July 1878 until on 10 March 1925 Cyprus became a crown colony, the last incumbent stayed on as its first Governor. The High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan, who administered Mandatory Palestine, had a considerable effect on the history of Zionism and the early stages of what would become the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. A high commission could be charged with the last phase of a decolonisation, as in the crown colony of the Seychelles, granted autonomy on 12 November 1970: the last governor, Colin Hamilton Allen stayed on as the only colonial high commissioner from 1 October 1975, when self-rule under the Crown was granted, until 28 June 1976 when the Seychelles became an independent republic within the Commonwealth; as diplomatic residents were sometimes appointed to native rulers, high commissioners could be appointed as British agents of indirect rule upon native states. Thus high commissioners could be charged with managing diplomatic relations with native rulers and their states, might have under them several resident commissioners or similar agents attached to each state.

In present Nigeria: Northern Nigeria, three incumbents 1900–1907, the last of whom stayed on as first governor, Southern Nigeria, three incumbents 1900–1906, the last of whom stayed on as first governor. In certain regions of particular importance, a commissioner-general would be appointed, to have control over several high commissioners and governors, e.g. the commissioner-general for south-east Asia had responsibility for Malaya and British Borneo. The role of High Commissioner for Southern Africa was coupled with that of British Governor of the Cape Colony in the 19th century, giving the colonial administrator responsibility both for administering British possessions and relating to neighbouring Boer settlements; the best known of these high commissioners, Alfred Milner, appointed to both positions in the 1890s, is considered responsible by some for igniting the Second Boer War. In southern Africa, the protectorates of Bechuanaland and Swaziland were administered as High Commission Territories by the Governor-General of South Africa, the British High Commissioner for Bechuanaland and Swaziland, until the 1930s, with various local representatives, subsequently by the British High Commissioner to South Africa, represented locally in each territory by a resident commissioner.

The British Governor of the crown colony of the Straits Settlements, based in Singapore, doubled as High Commissioner of the Federated Malay States, had authority over the Resident-General in Kuala Lumpur, who in turn was responsible for the various Residents appointed to the native rulers of the Malay states under British protection. The British Western Pacific Territories were permanently governed as a group of minor insular colonial territories, under one single part-time Western Pacific High Commissioner, an office attached first to the governorship of Fiji, subsequently to that of the Solomon Islands, he was represented in each of the other islands units by a Resident Commissioner, Consul or other official. There is still one high commissioner who serves in an additional capacity as a governor: the British High Commissioner to New Zealand serves ex officio as British colonial Governor of the Pitcairn Islands. In the colonial sense, some other powers have or had high commissioners, or rather the exact equivalent in their language.

In the Kingdom of Denmark, High Commissioners represent the crown and the Kingdom Government in Greenland and the Faroe Islands and take part in negotiations on policies and decisions affecting their region (including negotiations with the devolved legislatures and the Kingdom Parliament. Greenland and the Faroe Islands have one Commissioner each; the French word Haut Commissaire, or in full Haut Commissaire de la république, was used for governatorial functions, rather gouverneur and va

Oroqen language

Oroqen is a Northern Tungusic language spoken in the People's Republic of China. Dialects are Heilongjiang. Gankui is the standard dialect, it is spoken by the Oroqen people of Inner Heilongjiang in Northeast China. Since the 1980s, Oroqen-language materials were produced by teachers in Oroqen-speaking areas, they based the language's orthography either on Pinyin. A majority of Oroqen speakers use Chinese as a literary language and some speak Daur. Oroqen is spoken in the following counties of China. Heilongjiang province Da Hinggan Ling: Huma County and Tahe County Heihe: Xunke County Yichun: Jiayin County and Heihe City Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Hulunbuir: Oroqen Autonomous Banner Birarchen Kumarchen Orochen Selpechen Gankui The Gankui dialect is used as the standard dialect for the Oroqen language. Allophones of /x/ are heard as. A bilabial /ɸ/ can be heard as a labio-dental. A rhotic trill / r / tends to sound as a tap. /ə, əː/ are heard as lower sounds. Short allophones of /o, u/ are heard as.

Oroqen Vocabulary List Oroqen Swadesh vocabulary list of basic words Oroqen alphabet from Omniglot

Celaenia excavata

Celaenia excavata, the bird dropping spider, derives its name from mimicking bird droppings to avoid predators birds. However, there are other species of spider that resemble bird droppings, for example species of Mastophora; the males are much smaller than the females, about 2.5 mm as opposed to 12 mm. The females have up to 13 egg sacs, with about 200 eggs each, strung together with strong threads, their toxicity may be able to cause mild illness in humans. The bird dropping spider stays motionless on its web during the day, it hangs down from a single silk thread and releases a pheromone which mimics the sex smells released by female moths. When a moth comes near, the spider will capture it with its powerful front legs, they can be found in Australia along the eastern and southern coasts. University of Southern Queensland: Bird dropping spider Bird dropping spider pictures and info

Charley Retzlaff

Charley Retzlaff, alias The Duluth Dynamiter was an American heavyweight professional boxer from Duluth, United States. Retzlaff was born in North Dakota. Retzlaff made his professional debut with a second-round knockout of Herman Raschke in March 1929. Retzlaff remained undefeated through his first 23 bouts, losing for the first time by disqualification against Antonio de la Mata in Chicago in November 1930. Retzlaff would avenge that loss with a first-round knockout in a rematch one month later. 11 more wins followed before Retzlaff suffered his next loss, to 41-23-5 Joe Sekyra in September 1931. More wins would follow, Retzlaff carried a record of 38-2-1 into a match with fellow Minnesotan Dick Daniels. Retzlaff scored three knockdowns and a first-round knockout en route to winning the vacant Minnesota State Heavyweight Title; this title would be defended in May 1933 and again in September 1935 against Art Lasky. Of Retzlaff, famed sportswriter Damon Runyon would say " the best-looking heavyweight prospect that has bobbed up in a long time," and " best of the new heavyweights.

He's got. I haven’t seen a fighter in a long time who has impressed me so favorably." At the end of 1935 Retzlaff was ranked by Ring Magazine among the top ten heavyweight boxers in the world. In January 1936 Retzlaff lost by first-round knockout to a young prospect named Joe Louis. In his final defense of the Minnesota heavyweight title Retzlaff could manage only a draw against 17-9 Arne Andersson. Retzlaff retired afterwards, he returned to the family farm near Leonard, ND in 1940. In 1950 he opened an automobile dealership in Detroit Lakes, MN and died in that town in 1970, he and his wife are buried in Leonard, ND. Charley Retzlaff was inducted into the Minnesota Boxing Hall of Fame in 2015. Charley Retzlaff -vs- Joe Louis


Kargaly is a copper mining-metallurgical district in the southern Urals of Russia. Prehistoric sites in Kargaly form a large and unique complex when compared to neighboring metal production centers or the more distant ancient centers that emerged on the vast territory of the northern half of the Eurasian continent or supercontinent during the 5th to 2nd millennia BCE. “Kargaly” is derived from the name of a small river known as Kargalka in the Ural "big" river basin. The Kargaly district is situated in the southern Ural Mountains, within the borders of the Orenburg Administrative Region of the Russian Federation. Kargaly is located in the northern zone of the Great Eurasian steppe; the Kargaly deposits are surrounded by typical steppe land cover, consisting of grasslands containing only an occasional small forest consisting of willow, alder and aspen trees near springs and deep ravines. More substantial forests occur 200–250 km northeast of Kargaly, where they form part of the mountainous-taiga zone of the southern Urals.

The Kargaly ore deposits cover a oval territory about 50 by 10 km in area. This group of deposits is oriented northwest to southeast; the two main outlying groups of mines in Kargaly both occur in the southeast corner of the ore field, at N 52' 16,186 / E 54' 36, 980 and N 52' 11, 114 / E 55' 14,848. Kargaly embraces an vast territory characterized by copper mineralization. In terms of geology, the center belongs to the category of extensive ore fields; the discovery and subsequent frequent extractions of ores at Kargaly occurred either near the end of the fourth millennium ВСЕ or at the turn of the third millennium ВСЕ. By the second millennium ВСЕ this production center had reached its peak in productivity. There are an large number of working mines at Kargaly, with a wide chronological range including from ancient times all the way up to the 18th to 19th centuries; the grounds contain up to 35,000 superficial manifestations, such as shafts, open casts, etc. The total length of underground headings was to have been several hundreds of kilometers.

During the Bronze Age, the sinkings and headings of mines were a maximum of 40–42 m deep. By the New Age they had reached as much as 80–90 m deep; the total amount of sandstone and marl, other wastes extracted from the surface measured nearly 100–120 million cubic meters, equivalent to a weight up to 250 million tons. Kargaly is exceptionally rich in archaeological remains from metal production. So far, more than twenty settlements dated to the second millennium ВСЕ and three grave cemeteries with Early and Late Bronze Age burials have been discovered. In addition, traces of the beginnings of the copper production industry in 18th-century Russia are widespread in Kargaly; the volume of extracted copper ores from the Bronze Age is amazingly large and can be quantified by a wide approximation ranging from two to five million tons. Within Kargaly alone, a large amount of copper ore was smelted during the Bronze Age, its total weight estimated at between 55,000 and 120,000 tons. Copper of Kargaly origin was distributed during Bronze Age over a vast territory within the steppe and forest-steppe of Eastern Europe.

The maximum territory of its distribution was nearly one million km2. During the New Age, the Kargaly complex had a significant impact on the industrial development of Russia. One quarter of all Russian Empire copper was smelted in the middle of the 18th century from Kargaly ores. Before the Crimean War Kargaly copper was exported as far west as England and France. Kargaly belongs to the class of deposits situated in slate; these large deposits and insignificant ore locations form a long and wide north-south strip of two thousand km. in width, stretching alongside the western outlying regions of the Ural Mountains. Kargaly is located in the southern part of this vast territory; the ore-bearing strata, consisting of crag and sandstone often contain the remains of trees of the Perm geological period. Kargaly's giant pocket is the richest load of copper minerals in the vast Ural zone adjacent to copper-bearing sandstone; the ores occur at different depths, beginning with outcroppings of surface deposits noticeable on the sides of ravines, ending with those situated 80–90 m deep.

The ore-bearing streams are scattered among the sandstone and clue rocks, sometimes appearing as short and broken veins. The size of the ore pockets and pods differs, from several centimeters to ten or more meters in length. Disordered and random distribution of these ore seats must have caused chaotic searches for these deposits by miners in the ancient Bronze Age, as it did for much miners in the 18th and 19th centuries; the first type of mining utilizes shafts or sinkings, spaces that stretch, either vertically or sloping, into the sandstone and crag rock, covered by a layer of argillaceous soil. These shafts lead directly to the ore and ventilate the underground shafts and facilitate the delivery of minerals and rocks to the surface. At present the majority of them are filled with collapsed clue rock and detritus, others have been destroyed by the dump from excavations; the second type drifts. This form of mining utilizes horizontal or nearly horizontal shafts for ore extraction from sandstone or crag.

Drifts and galleries are the most widespread type of mining form in Kargaly. The form and size of the galleries is not fixed, but flexible depending on the composition of the ore layers and the dif

Ancient Celtic women

The position of ancient Celtic women in their society cannot be determined with certainty due to the quality of the sources. On the one hand, great female Celts are known from history, yet Celtic women were somewhat better placed in inheritance and marriage law than their Greek and Roman contemporaries. Our knowledge of the situation of Celtic women on the European mainland is entirely obtained from contemporary Greek and Roman authors, who saw the Celts as barbarians and wrote about them accordingly. Information about Celtic women of the British Isles comes from ancient travel and war narratives, the orally transmitted myths reflected in Celtic literature of the Christian era. Written accounts and collections of these myths are only known from the early Middle Ages. Archaeology has revealed something of the Celtic woman through artefacts, which can provide clues about their position in society and material culture. Reliefs and sculptures of Celtic women are known from the Gallo-Roman culture.

A consistent matriarchy, attributed to Celtic women by Romantic authors of the 18th and 19th centuries and by 20th century feminist authors, is not attested in reliable sources. The Celts were tribes and tribal confederations of ancient Europe, who resided in west central Europe in the Late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. In the La Tène period they expanded, through migration and cultural transmission, to the British Isles, northern Iberia, the Balkan peninsula and Asia Minor; the Greeks and Romans referred to areas under Celtic rule as Κελτική or Celticum. They had a uniform material culture and non-material culture, which differed from neighbouring peoples like the Italians, Illyrians, Iberians, Germans and Scythians; the Celtic mainland was characterised by this culture from c. 800 BC at the earliest until about the fifth century AD. Claims made by some Celtic scholars, that traces of Celtic culture are visible in the second millennium BC, are controversial. In Post-Roman Britain, Celtic culture and rule continued, until pushed to the margins of the island after the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons.

In Ireland, Celtic culture remained dominant for longer. Linguistically, the Celts were united as speakers of Celtic languages, which were and are Indo-European languages related most to German and Latin, with clear common features. References to Celtic women are not only rare but are excluding medieval source material from the inhabitants of Brittany, Wales and Scotland, derived from the writings of the Celts' Greek and Roman neighbours. In addition, the overwhelming majority of these sources come from the first century BC and the first century AD; the main problem, however, is the fact that the term "Celtic" spans such an enormous area, from Ireland to Anatolia. Source material must, therefore, be clarified by archaeological evidence, however, can only answer certain kinds of questions. Archaeological finds are entirely burials; the grave goods of female inhumations indicate cultural exchange with southern Europe the North Italian Este and Villanovan cultures. Female burials are associated with specific grave goods, such as combs, toiletries, spinning whorls pottery vessels, earrings, cloak pins, finger rings and other jewellery.

A large majority of graves have no gender-specific grave goods, but where such goods are found, they always belong to female graves. The Vix Grave from modern France is the most famous rich female burial, but there are several other significant ones. In the Vix Grave a huge bronze krater or mixing bowl was found which indicates the high status of the woman buried there, it derives from a Greek workshop and is 1.6 m high, weighs over 200 kg and has a volume of 1100 litres, making it the largest metal vessel to survive from the ancient world. In eight cremation graves from Frankfurt Rhine-Main from the middle and late La Tène period, which contained young girls, statues of dogs were found, measuring 2.1 to 6.7 cm in length. They were made of jet, clay and bronze. There is evidence that in the earlier Celtic periods rich torcs of precious metal were worn by females. Another example of a richly furnished female grave is a grave chamber of the necropolis of Göblingen-Nospelt, containing an amphora of fish sauce, a bronze saucepan with strainer lid, a bronze cauldron, two bronze basins with a bronze bucket, a Terra sigillata plate, several clay cups and jugs, a mirror and eight fibulae.

Archaeological finds in the 19th century were interpreted in light of contemporary ideas about gender without consideration of differences between modern and ancient cultures. Gender roles were assumed to be unalterable and, grave goods were identified as "male" or "female" without ambiguity. Only when it became possible to determine the sex of huma