Cameron Highlands District
The Cameron Highlands is a district in Pahang, Malaysia occupying an area of 712.18 square kilometres. To the north, its boundary touches that of Kelantan. Situated at the northwestern tip of Pahang, the “Camerons” is 90 kilometres from Ipoh 200 kilometres from Kuala Lumpur or about 355 kilometres from Kuantan, the capital of Pahang, it is the smallest municipality in the state. Surveyed by geologist William Cameron in 1885, the outpost consists of three mukims, namely Ringlet, Tanah Rata and Ulu Telom, its eight settlements are Ringlet, Tanah Rata, the Bertam Valley, Kea Farm, Kuala Terla, Kampung Raja and Blue Valley. All are nestled at elevations ranging from 800 metres to 1,603 metres above sea level. Developed in the 1930s, the tableland is one of the oldest tourist spots in Malaysia. Apart from its tea estates, the plateau is noted for its cool weather, nurseries, waterfalls, lakes, mossy forest, golf course, places of worship, Land Rovers and its aborigines; the Cameron Highlands were named after William Cameron, a British explorer and geologist, commissioned by the colonial government to map out the Pahang-Perak border area in 1885.
In a statement concerning his mapping expedition, Cameron mentioned he saw “a sort of vortex on the mountains, while for a wide area we have gentle slopes and plateau land.” When approached, Sir Hugh Low, the Resident of Perak, expressed the wish of developing the region into a "sanatorium, health resort and open farmland”. A narrow path to “Cameron’s Land” was carved through the jungle. Nothing much happened after that. Forty years the tableland was given another review when Sir George Maxwell visited the locale to see if it could be turned into a resort, he spent about nine days surveying the territory. On his return from the highlands, Maxwell described the terrain as being “somewhat oval in shape.” After comparing it with Nuwara Eliya in Sri Lanka and Baguio in the Philippines, he decreed that the site should be developed into a hill station. In mid-1925, an Agricultural Experiment Station was set up to confirm if cinchona, coffee and vegetables could be grown at the district. In December 1925, a superintendent was appointed to supervise the 200-acre plantation on Mount Beremban.
While research at the station was being carried out, the colonial office assigned Captain C. C. Best, a surveyor from the Federated Malay States to trace the Telom River; the Annual Report of the Survey Department states he explored “the Ulu of the Telom, the actual area traversed by Cameron” and “he went first to what is known as Cameron Highlands to obtain a basis of comparison and from there crossed over into the Telom Valley. He made a reconnaissance map of the head waters of the Telom and his exploration has established that the area at the Ulu of the Bertang is incomparably the most suitable for development.” This report, coupled with the confirmation that tea could be grown, gave the British the motivation to develop the place. In 1926, a development committee was formed to zone off the moorlands for agriculture, administration and recreation. A three-million-dollar road was constructed from Tapah to the highlands, it started from the 19th mile Tapah-Pahang Road and ended at Ginting “B”.
The three-year contract was awarded to Messrs. Fogden and Company; the first installment of $250,000 was made in 1926. The project commenced on 1 January 1928; the building of the road was a challenge: the crew not only had to deal with the weather. During the construction stage, the manning level varied from 500 to 3,000 workers. Throughout the contract, 375 employees were hospitalised for fever; the biggest problem faced by the contractor was the haulage of heavy equipment from the lowlands to the upper reaches. This setback was overcome with the use of steam-driven locomotives which were designed for work on steep gradients; when the road was opened in 1931, the British and the locals moved in to settle on the slopes of the mountain. They were soon followed by tea planters and vegetable growers who found the climate to be suitable for the growing of their crops. On 1 July 1931, Cameron Highlands was made an autonomous sub-district under Kuala Lipis, with its own Deputy District Officer subordinate to the Lipis District Officer.
By the mid-1930s, there was a notable improvement in the constituency: it now had a six-hole golf course, several cottages, three inns, a police post, two boarding schools, a military camp, a dairy, a horse spelling ranch, vegetable farms, tea plantations, a Government Rest House and an Agricultural Experiment Station. The domain continued to grow until the outbreak of the Second World War. During the Japanese Occupation of the Malay Peninsula, there was hardly any development in the area; when the Japanese withdrew in August 1945, the place underwent a transformation. This, came to a halt during the Malayan Emergency; when the conflict ended, “Cameron’s Land” experienced a constant change in its landscape. Today, the haven is not only the best known of Malaysia's hill stations; the climate of the Cameron Highlands is on the border between a tropical rain
Blue Mountains (New South Wales)
The Blue Mountains are a mountainous region and a mountain range located in New South Wales, Australia. The region borders on Sydney's metropolitan area, its foothills starting about 50 kilometres west of centre of the state capital; the public's understanding of the extent of the Blue Mountains is varied, as it forms only part of an extensive mountainous area associated with the Great Dividing Range. The Blue Mountains region is bounded by the Nepean and Hawkesbury rivers in the east, the Coxs River and Lake Burragorang to the west and south, the Wolgan and Colo rivers to the north. Geologically, it is situated in the central parts of the Sydney Basin; the Blue Mountains Range comprises a range of mountains, plateau escarpments extending off the Great Dividing Range about 4.8 kilometres northwest of Wolgan Gap in a southeasterly direction for about 96 kilometres, terminating at Emu Plains. For about two-thirds of its length it is traversed by the Great Western Highway and the Main Western railway line.
Several established towns are situated on its heights, including Katoomba, Mount Victoria, Springwood. The range forms the watershed between Coxs River to the south and the Grose and Wolgan rivers to the north; the range contains the Bell Range. The Blue Mountains area includes the local government area of the City of Blue Mountains. Following European settlement of the Sydney area, the area was named the Carmarthen and Lansdowne Hills by Arthur Phillip in 1788; the Carmarthen Hills were in the north of the region and the Lansdowne Hills were in the south. The name Blue Mountains, was preferred and is derived from the blue tinge the range takes on when viewed from a distance; the tinge is believed to be caused by Mie scattering which occurs when incoming light with shorter wavelengths is preferentially scattered by particles within the atmosphere imparting a blue-greyish colour to any distant objects, including mountains and clouds. Volatile terpenoids emitted in large quantities by the abundant eucalyptus trees in the Blue Mountains may cause Mie scattering and thus the blue haze for which the mountains were named.
When Europeans arrived in Australia, the Blue Mountains had been inhabited for several millennia by the Gundungurra people, now represented by the Gundungurra Tribal Council Aboriginal Corporation based in Katoomba, and, in the lower Blue Mountains, by the Darug people, now represented by the Darug Tribal Aboriginal Corporation. The Gundungurra creation story of the Blue Mountains tells that Dreamtime creatures Mirigan and Garangatch, half fish and half reptile, fought an epic battle which scarred the landscape into the Jamison Valley; the Gundungurra Tribal Council is a nonprofit organisation representing the Gundungurra traditional owners, promoting heritage and culture and providing a support for Gundungurra people connecting back to Country. Gundungurra Tribal Council Aboriginal Corporation has a registered Native Title Claim since 1995 over their traditional lands, which include the Blue Mountains and surrounding areas. Examples of Aboriginal habitation can be found in many places. In the Red Hands Cave, a rock shelter near Glenbrook, the walls contain hand stencils from adults and children.
On the southern side of Queen Elizabeth Drive, at Wentworth Falls, a rocky knoll has a large number of grinding grooves created by rubbing stone implements on the rock to shape and sharpen them. There are carved images of animal tracks and an occupation cave; the site dates back 22,000 years. Arthur Phillip, the first governor of New South Wales, first glimpsed the extent of the Blue Mountains from a ridge at the site of today's Oakhill College, Castle Hill, he named them the Carmarthen Hills, "some forty to sixty miles distant..." and he reckoned that the ground was "most suitable for government stock". This is the location where Gidley King in 1799 established a prison town for political prisoners from Ireland and Scotland; the first documented use of the name Blue Mountains appears in Captain John Hunter’s account of Phillip’s 1789 expedition up the Hawkesbury River. Describing the events of about 5 July, Hunter wrote: "We in some of the reaches which we passed through this day, saw near us the hills, which we suppose as seen from Port Jackson, called by the governor the Blue Mountains."
During the nineteenth century the name was applied to the portion of the Great Dividing Range from about Goulburn in the south to the Hunter Valley in the north, but in time it came to be associated with a more limited area. The native Aborigines knew two routes across the mountains: Bilpin Ridge, now the location of Bells Line of Road between Richmond and Bell, the Coxs River, a tributary of the Nepean River, it could be followed upstream to the open plains of the Kanimbla Valley, the type of country that farmers prize. European settlers considered that fertile lands lay beyond the mountains, as was China in the belief of many convicts, but that this didn't matter much, since the mountains were impassable; this idea was, to some extent, convenient for local authorities. An "insurmountable" barrier would deter convicts from trying to escape in that direction. A former convict, John Wilson, may have been the first European to cross the Blue Mountains, it is believed that Mathew Everingham, 1795, may have been successful based on letters he wrote at the time which came to light in the late 1980s.
Wilson arrived with the First Fleet in 1788 and was freed in 1792. He settled in the bush, living with the Aborigines and functioning as an intermediary between them and the settlers. In 1797 he returned to Sydney, claiming to have explored up to a hundred miles in all directions a
A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It has a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of flat terrain without a massive summit; the distinction between a hill and a mountain is unclear and subjective, but a hill is universally considered to be less tall and less steep than a mountain. In the United Kingdom, geographers regarded mountains as hills greater than 1,000 feet above sea level, which formed the basis of the plot of the 1995 film The Englishman Who Went Up a Hill But Came Down a Mountain. In contrast, hillwalkers have tended to regard mountains as peaks 2,000 feet above sea level: the Oxford English Dictionary suggests a limit of 2,000 feet and Whittow states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 m as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." Today, a mountain is defined in the UK and Ireland as any summit at least 2,000 feet or 610 meters high, while the official UK government's definition of a mountain is a summit of 600 meters or higher.
Some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 feet or 500 feet. In practice, mountains in Scotland are referred to as "hills" no matter what their height, as reflected in names such as the Cuillin Hills and the Torridon Hills. In Wales, the distinction is more a term of land use and appearance and has nothing to do with height. For a while, the U. S. defined a mountain as being more tall. Any similar landform lower; the United States Geological Survey, has concluded that these terms do not in fact have technical definitions in the U. S; the Great Soviet Encyclopedia defined "hill" as an upland with a relative height up to 200 m. A hillock is a small hill. Other words include its variant, knowe. Artificial hills may be referred to including mound and tumulus. Hills may form through geomorphic phenomena: faulting, erosion of larger landforms such as mountains, movement and deposition of sediment by glaciers The rounded peaks of hills results from the diffusive movement of soil and regolith covering the hill, a process known as downhill creep.
Various names used to describe types of hill, based on method of formation. Many such names originated in one geographical region to describe a type of hill formation peculiar to that region, though the names are adopted by geologists and used in a wider geographical context; these include: Brae -- Scottish term for a brow of a hill. Drumlin – an elongated whale-shaped hill formed by glacial action. Butte – an isolated hill with steep sides and a small flat top, formed by weathering. Kuppe – a rounded hill or low mountain, typical of central Europe Tor – a rock formation found on a hilltop. Puy – used in the Auvergne, France, to describe a conical volcanic hill. Pingo – a mound of earth-covered ice found in the Arctic and Antarctica. Many settlements were built on hills, either to avoid floods, or for defense, or to avoid densely forested areas. For example, Ancient Rome was built on seven hills; some settlements in the Middle East, are located on artificial hills consisting of debris that has accumulated over many generations.
Such a location is known as a "tell". In northern Europe, many ancient monuments are sited in heaps; some of these are defensive structures. In Britain, many churches at the tops of hills are thought to have been built on the sites of earlier pagan holy places; the National Cathedral in Washington, DC has followed this tradition and was built on the highest hill in that city. Hills provide a major advantage to an army, giving them an elevated firing position and forcing an opposing army to charge uphill to attack them, they may conceal forces behind them, allowing a force to lie in wait on the crest of a hill, using that crest for cover, firing on unsuspecting attackers as they broach the hilltop. As a result, conventional military strategies demand possession of high ground. Hills have been the sites of many noted battles, such as the first recorded military conflict in Scotland known as the battle of Mons Graupius. Modern conflicts include the Battle of Bunker Hill in the American War of Independence and Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill in the Battle of Gettysburg, the turning point of the American Civil War.
The Battle of San Juan Hill in the Spanish–American War won Americans control of Santiago. The Battle of Alesia was fought from a hilltop fort. Fighting on Mamayev Kurgan during the Battle of Stalingrad and the Umurbrogol Pocket in the Battle of Peleliu were examples of bloody fighting for high ground. Another recent example is the Kargil War between Pakistan; the Great Wall of China is an example of an advantage provider. It is built on mountain tops, was meant to defend against invaders from the north, among others, Mongolians. Hillwalking is a British English term for a form of hiking; the activity is distinguished from mountaineering as it does no
Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait; the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2, it is promoted as a natural state, protected areas of Tasmania cover about 42% of its land area, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites. Tasmania was the founding place of the first environmental political party in the world; the island is believed to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for 30,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Aboriginal Tasmanians were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait.
The Aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 3,000 and 7,000 at the time of colonisation, but was wiped out within 30 years by a combination of violent guerrilla conflict with settlers known as the "Black War", intertribal conflict, from the late 1820s, the spread of infectious diseases to which they had no immunity. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831, led to more than three years of martial law, cost the lives of 1,100 Aboriginals and settlers; the island was permanently settled by Europeans in 1803 as a penal settlement of the British Empire to prevent claims to the land by the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales but became a separate, self-governing colony under the name Van Diemen's Land in 1825. 75,000 convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land before transportation ceased in 1853. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed, the following year the colony received permission to change its name to Tasmania.
In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia. The state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemen's Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies; the name was shortened to Van Diemen's Land by the British. It was renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856. Tasmania was sometimes referred to as "Dervon," as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879; the colloquial expression for the state is "Tassie". Tasmania is colloquially shortened to "Tas," when used in business names and website addresses. TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state; the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago.
Much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the world's largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains and cliffs formed from this rock type; the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are dolerites. Mount Wellington above Hobart is a good example. In the southern midlands as far south as Hobart, the dolerite is underlaid by sandstone and similar sedimentary stones. In the southwest, Precambrian quartzites were formed from ancient sea sediments and form strikingly sharp ridges and ranges, such as Federation Peak or Frenchmans Cap. In the northeast and east, continental granites can be seen, such as at Freycinet, similar to coastal granites on mainland Australia. In the northwest and west, mineral-rich volcanic rock can be seen at Mount Read near Rosebery, or at Mount Lyell near Queenstown. Present in the south and northwest is limestone with caves; the quartzite and dolerite areas in the higher mountains show evidence of glaciation, much of Australia's glaciated landscape is found on the Central Plateau and the Southwest.
Cradle Mountain, another dolerite peak, for example, was a nunatak. The combination of these different rock types contributes to scenery, distinct from any other region of the world. In the far southwest corner of the state, the geology is wholly quartzite, which gives the mountains the false impression of having snow-capped peaks year round. Evidence indicates the presence of Aborigines in Tasmania about 42,000 years ago. Rising sea levels cut Tasmania off from mainland Australia about 10,000 years ago and by the time of European contact, the Aboriginal people in Tasmania had nine major nations or ethnic groups. At the time of the British occupation and colonisation in 1803, the indigenous population was estimated at between 3,000 and 10,000. Historian Lyndall Ryan's analysis of population studies led her to conclude that there were about 7,000 spread throughout the island's nine nations. J. B. Plomley and Rhys Jones, settled on a figure of 3,000 to 4,000, they engaged in fire-stick farming, hunted game including kangaroo and wallabies, caught seals, mutton-birds and fish and lived as nine separate "nations" on the island, which they knew as "Trouwunna".
The first reported sighting of Tasmania by a European was on 24 November 1642 by Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who landed at today's Blackman Bay. More than a century in 1772, a French expedition le
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
Western North Carolina
Western North Carolina is the region of North Carolina which includes the Appalachian Mountains, thus it is known geographically as the state's Mountain Region. It contains the highest mountains in the Eastern United States. Western North Carolina is sometimes included with upstate South Carolina as the "Western Carolinas", counted as a single media market; the region covers an area of about 11,000 square miles, is the size of the state of Massachusetts. The population of the region, as measured by the 2010 U. S. Census, is 1,473,241, 15% of North Carolina's total population; the term Land of the Sky is a common nickname for this mountainous region and has been more adopted to refer to the Asheville area. The term is derived from the title of the book, Land of the Sky, written by Mrs. Frances Tiernan, under the pseudonym Christian Reid; the book mentions the Great Smoky Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the two main ranges that are found in Western North Carolina. The Asheville area regional government body, the Land-of-Sky Regional Council, utilizes the nickname.
Located east of the Tennessee state line and west of the Piedmont, Western North Carolina contains few major urban centers. Asheville, North Carolina, located in the region's center, is the area's largest city and most prominent commercial hub; the Foothills region of the state is loosely defined as the area along Western North Carolina's eastern boundary. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians have a reservation situated in the Western North Carolina region, adjacent to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the northern counties in Western North Carolina are known as the state's High Country. Centered on Boone, the High Country boasts the area's most popular ski resorts, including Ski Beech, Appalachian Ski Mountain, Sugar Mountain; the area features many attractions, historical sites, geological formations such as Linville Caverns, Grandfather Mountain, Blowing Rock, Tweetsie Railroad, Shatley Springs, Mystery Hill. Education, skiing and Christmas tree farming are among this area's most prominent industries, although agriculture and raising livestock remain important.
The counties that make up the High Country are: Alleghany, Avery, Watauga and Yancey. The westernmost part of Western North Carolina is part of the Tennessee Valley. Asheville is the major hub of far western North Carolina. In this area, there are a few hydroelectric projects managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, including Fontana Dam. Tourism outdoor ventures such as canoeing, whitewater rafting and fishing are important to local economies in the area; the Foothills is a region of transitional terrain between the Piedmont Plateau and the Appalachian Mountains, extending from the lower edge of the Blue Ridge escarpment into the upper Catawba, Broad and Savannah River valleys. The eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge drop to the foothills section, going from 3500–4000 feet at the top to only 1000–1500 feet at the base; the foothills region contains numerous lower peaks and isolated mountain ranges such as the South Mountains, Brushy Mountains, Stone Mountain State Park. The foothills are divided into many small river and creek valleys that contain much of the region's population.
Although no large cities are located in the foothills, the region does contain many small towns. As these industries moved to low-wage markets in Asia and Latin America since 1990, the foothills towns that depended upon them have suffered from job and population loss. Many farmers in the northern foothills are poultry farmers as well, winemaking and vineyards are growing in popularity. Among the towns of the foothills region in North Carolina are Tryon, Chimney Rock, Lake Lure, Forest City, Spindale, Mount Airy and Marion and the cities of North Wilkesboro, Hickory, Lenoir and Morganton; the region has three major public universities: Appalachian State University is located in Boone, Western Carolina University is located in Cullowhee, UNC Asheville is located in Asheville. All three are part of the University of North Carolina system. Several small, private colleges and universities are located in the region. Mars Hill University is located 15 miles north of Asheville. Founded in 1856, it is university in western North Carolina.
Montreat College, affiliated with the Presbyterian Church, is located 15 miles east of Asheville. Lees-McRae College, located in Banner Elk, is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church. Warren Wilson College, located in Swannanoa, is noted for its strong pro-environment policies and social liberalism. Brevard College, located in Brevard, is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Lenoir-Rhyne University, located in Hickory, is a private liberal arts university affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Three major Interstate highways cross the region: Interstate 40, which traverses east-west, Interstate 77, which runs north-south through the northeastern section of Western North Carolina, Interstate 26, which traverses north-south (altho