Highland Light Infantry

The Highland Light Infantry was a light infantry regiment of the British Army formed in 1881. It took part in the First and Second World Wars, until it was amalgamated with the Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1959 to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers which merged with the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch, the Highlanders and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland, becoming the 2nd Battalion of the new regiment; the regiment was formed as part of the Childers Reforms on 1 July 1881 by the amalgamation of the 71st Light Infantry and the 74th Regiment of Foot as the city regiment of Glasgow, absorbing local Militia and Rifle Volunteer units. Its exact status was ambiguous: although the regiment insisted on being classified as a non-kilted Highland regiment it recruited from Glasgow in Lowland Scotland; the 1st battalion was posted to South Africa in October 1899, after the outbreak of the Second Boer War. They were stationed in Egypt in 1902; the 2nd Battalion saw action at the Battle of Tell El Kebir in September 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War: Lieutenant William Edwards was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions during the battle.

The battalion moved to India the following year. In February 1900 the battalion departed from Colombo to return home, in October 1902 they were posted to Jersey. Following heavy British losses in the early part of the Second Boer War in 1899, many of the militia battalions were embodied for active service, including the 3rd battalion Highland Light, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel William Story; the battalion served throughout the war, 890 officers and men were reported to return home on the SS Doune Castle in September 1902, after the war had ended earlier that year. In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; the 1st Battalion landed at Marseille as part of the Sirhind Brigade in the 3rd Division in December 1914 for service on the Western Front and saw action at the Defence of Festubert in November 1914, the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March 1915, the Battle of St Julien in May 1915 and the Second Battle of Ypres in May 1915.

It moved to Mesopotamia in December 1915 and saw action at the Siege of Kut in Spring 1916 and the Battle of Sharqat in October 1918. The 2nd Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 5th Brigade in the 2nd Division in August 1914 for service on the Western Front, it saw action at the Battle of Aisne in September 1914, the Battle of Ypres in November 1914, the Battle of Loos in October 1915, the Battle of the Somme in Summer 1916, the Battle of Arras in April 1917, the Battle of Cambrai in December 1917 and the advance to the Hindenburg Line in September 1918. The 1/5th Battalion, the 1/6th Battalion and the 1/7th Battalion landed at Cape Helles in Gallipoli as part of the 157th Brigade in the 52nd Division in July 1915; the 1/9th Battalion landed in France as part of the 5th Brigade in the 2nd Division in November 1914 for service on the Western Front. The 10th and 11th Battalions landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 28th Brigade in the 9th Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front.

The 12th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 46th Brigade in the 15th Division in July 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 14th Battalion landed in France as part of the 120th Brigade in the 40th Division in June 1916 for service on the Western Front; the 15th Battalion, the 16th Battalion and the 17th Battalion landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 97th Brigade in the 32nd Division in November 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 16th Battalion, formed from former members of the Glasgow Battalion of the Boys' Brigade and was known as the Glasgow Boys' Brigade Battalion is remembered for an incident at the Frankfurt trench at the Battle of the Ancre, the last offensive of the battle of the Somme, where around 60 men of D company were surrounded and cut off behind enemy lines. Relief attempts failed. After refusing to surrender, the Germans stormed the trench and found only 15 wounded men alive, three of whom died soon afterwards. General Sir Hubert Gough praised their stand under Army Order 193.

Members of the 17th Battalion were painted by the war artist Frederick Farrell in Flanders in 1917. The 18th Battalion landed in France as part of the 106th Brigade in the 35th Division in February 1916 for service on the Western Front. In 1923, the regiment's title was expanded to the Highland Light Infantry. David Niven was served with the 2nd Battalion; the 1st Battalion landed in France in September 1939 as part of the 127th Brigade in the 42nd Division for service with the British Expeditionary Force and took part in the Dunkirk evacuation in June 1940. As part of the 71st Infantry Brigade in the 53rd Division, it took part in the Normandy landings in June 1944 and saw action at the Battle of the Bulge in January 1945

Caroline Stuart, Countess of Seafield

Caroline Stuart, Countess of Seafield, styled The Countess Dowager from 1884 to 1911, was a member of the Scottish aristocracy. She was proprietor of the Seafield Estates following the death of her son in 1884 and has been described as'The last of the great feudal chiefs'; the Honourable Caroline Henrietta Stuart was the youngest child of Robert Walter, 11th Lord Blantyre, of the family of the Stuarts of Minto. Aged 20, on 12 August 1850 she married John Charles Ogilvy-Grant who styled Lord Reidhaven and Master of Grant, was heir to the Seafield and Findlater estates, their only child, Ian Charles was born 7 October 1851. On 30 July 1853 John Charles succeeded his father as Earl of Chief of the Clan Grant, her husband and son were to die within a few years of each other: Lord Seafield on 18 February 1881 and Ian Charles on 31 March 1884. As he was unmarried and had no children, by a will made c.1882 Ian Charles left his mother as the heir to his estates. Taking the style of The Countess Dowager, Lady Seafield was proprietor of the Seafield and Grant Estates until her death.

Meanwhile the 8th Earl's titles of honour were inherited by his uncle, James Ogilvy-Grant, 9th Earl of Seafield, otherwise the nearest male heir. The Seafield title was thus for some generations separated from the lands and properties that had maintained it; this situation had been made possible because the 7th Earl, John Charles, had completed the legal procedure of disentailing the estate. Lady Seafield died on 6 October 1911, her funeral was held on 12 October. Her coffin rests, with those of her husband and son, in the Seafield Mausoleum in the Duthil Old Parish Church and Churchyard. In the section'Public and Social Work' in the tribute volume published after her death, the editors highlighted Lady Seafield's support for her husband's direction of his estates. Mention was made of her interest in his patronage of individuals via appointments in the established church and through educational bursaries, for his programme of afforestation and:'in general improvements effected throughout the estate, his lordship had always the affectionate advice and warm interest of the Countess'.

She was, though a social hostess:The Earl and Countess spent a portion of every spring in London, but the rest of the year was passed between Cullen House, Castle Grant, Balmacaan. For Balmacaan they had an especial affection It was the place where they had spent the early years of their married life and every time they returned to it with renewed pleasure. At each of their residences they entertained select parties of guests, in no sphere did the Countess of Seafield more winningly display her gracious gifts of manner than as the bright and vivacious hostess of guests who were under the roof-tree of the Chieftain of the Clan Grant. After the deaths of John Charles and Ian Charles, Lady Seafield's priorities as Countess Dowager, besides overseeing the management of her estates, were to'take steps for the perpetuation of memory and that of her husband in schemes of enduring utility'; the first of these was a public hospital for Strathspey, named the Ian Charles Hospital in his memory: Thus, fifteen months after his death, in May 1885 there was opened at Grantown-on-Spey the Ian Charles Hospital.

The erection and endowment of such a hospital had been arranged by her son. It had been little more than founded when the Earl died, his sorrowing mother brought the undertaking to a completion. All who know the capital of Strathspey know the place well.... The hospital was and is fitted with all necessary conveniences and comforts for the treatment and care of the sick, has been of untold benefit to the Speyside district of the Seafield estates. In addition the Dowager Countess had the Church of Scotland parish church of Inverallan, located in Grantown-on-Spey, rebuilt by her architect: she laid the memorial stone on 1 May 1886 on the occasion of the dedication of the building for worship. Memorial tablets to her husband and son were presented to this and all the other parishes churches within the estate. Other biographical headings from the memorial Tribute are: Head of a Great Estate Lady Seafield and Fishing Interests Religious and Philanthropic Work A Gracious Hostess Lady Seafield and the Services Chieftainess of Clan Grant Some Public Activities James Cameron, the Duthil author, writing in 1899:Lady Seafield has the credit of being one of the most exemplary, the most liberal, the most charitable and generous, both as an individual and as a proprietrix north side of the Grampians, if not in a wider circle.

In this respect she stands in the first rank of women. Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, remembering his childhood holidays in Strathspey in My Scottish Youth: She settled down at Castle Grant and Cullen to devote the rest of her life to good works, she carried out her duties as a great landowner and as chieftain of Clan Grant with scrupulous attention to detail. She visited all her tenants and, by patting their children on the head and listening to their troubles, identified herself with their lives.... Undoubtedly she was imperious. By the vast majority of tenants she was loved with much the same veneration and pride that the British public lavished on Queen Victoria, she was the last of the great feudal chiefs. Lord Strathspey, in his A History of Clan Grant wrote that, while'She had enormous power in her lifetime', by the time she died'very few of the inhabitants knew her at all, since she did not go round much.' He did give credit, however, to her management of the estates:'During her life she kept the estates intact and tried to pay off the debt, which, in fact, she nearly succeeding

Robert Tillmanns

Robert Tillmanns was a German politician. After the Abitur in 1914, Tillmanns took part as a soldier in the First World War, he studied political science from 1919 to 1921. From 1922 to 1930 he served as head of economics at the German National Association for Student Services and in 1925 operated under the umbrella of the German National Academic Foundation. From 1931 he worked as a council member in the Prussian Ministry of Culture, from which he was dismissed for political reasons in 1933, he worked until 1945 in mining industry management in central Germany. After the war he was Secretary General of the Agency of the Evangelical Church in Germany until 1949. Tillmanns had three daughters. After the Second World War Tillmanns, together with Jakob Kaiser and Ernst Lemmer, founded the CDU in Berlin and the Soviet occupation zone. From 1949 to 1952 he was first the deputy chairman and from 26 April 1952 until his death chairman of the CDU in Berlin. From 1950 he was a member of the National board of the CDU and the deputy national chairman from 1955.

In 1952 he help found the Evangelical Working Group of the CDU/CSU, was its National Chairman since 1954. From 1946 to 1947 he was member of the state parliament of Saxony. From 1949 until his death he was Berlin's deputy member of the German Bundestag. After the elections in 1953, Tillmanns was appointed on 20 October the Federal Minister for Special Affairs in the Federal Government led by the Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, during his tenure was a member of the "Cabinet of Elders" in the Bundestag, he is one of the few federal ministers who have died in office