Bathurst, New South Wales
Bathurst is a regional city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. It is about 200 kilometres west-northwest of Sydney and is the seat of the Bathurst Regional Council. Bathurst is the oldest inland settlement in Australia and had a population of 35,000 as at the 2016 Census. Bathurst is referred to as the Gold Country as it was the site of the first gold discovery and where the first gold rush occurred in Australia. Today education and manufacturing drive the economy; the internationally known racetrack Mount Panorama is a landmark of the city. Bathurst has a historic city centre with many ornate buildings remaining from the gold rush period of the mid to late 19th century; the median age of the city's population is 35 years. Population growth has reached 1.6% per annum over the five years until 2010, making Bathurst the seventh fastest growing regional city in New South Wales. This growth over recent years has resulted in increased urban development including retail precincts, sporting facilities, housing estates and expanding industrial areas.
Bathurst is located on the western edge of the Great Dividing Range in the Macquarie River plain. The city is located adjacent to the Macquarie River, part of the Murray-Darling basin, the largest river system in Australia; the city is protected by a levee bank to protect the city from occasional flood events. Mount Panorama is located 3 kilometres from the CBD and within the city limits; the Great Western Highway which begins in the centre of the city of Sydney, ends at Bathurst. Two main state highways start at Bathurst: the Mitchell Highway to Bourke and the Mid-Western Highway to Hay. Bathurst is about mid-way along a regional road route from Canberra and Goulburn to Mudgee and the Hunter Region. Bathurst is on the Main Western railway line that starts at Sydney Central and proceeds for 242 kilometres by rail to Bathurst; the Macquarie River divides Bathurst with the CBD located on the western side of the river. Four road bridges and two rail bridges span the river within the city area. From the upstream side they are: Macquarie River Railway Bridge closed in 2011.
Two physical components comprise the Bathurst region. They are drained by the Macquarie, Turon and Campbells Rivers to the north and Abercrombie and Isabella Rivers to the south; the central basin area of the Bathurst area is granite soils while in the north area sandstone, greywacke, siltstones and minor volcanos predominate. The south is more complex geology with siltstones, greywacke and chert, basalt and granite intrusions and embedded volcanic and limestones. Underlying Bathurst is the dominant feature of Bathurst granite and at Mount Panorama and Mount Stewart basalt occurs. Topography of the region ranges from undulating to rough and steep country, about 30 km to the east of Bathurst is the folded and faulted sedimentary and metamorphosed formations of the Great Dividing Range which runs north-south. Due to its elevation, Bathurst has a subtropical highland climate, according to Köppen climate classification. Bathurst is in Australia's cool temperate climate zone, defined as having mild to warm summers and cool to cold winters.
Regular summer thunderstorms are common, resulting from the flat plains country to the west, leading into the mountainous nature of the country around Bathurst and assisting the development of storm cells. Bathurst gets 106.9 clear days annually. In winter, light to moderate snowfalls occur each year on the higher peaks around Bathurst, whilst snow is uncommon in the city itself—despite falling every year. On 11 February 2017, Bathurst recorded a new record high temperature of 41.5 °C, although temperatures of 40 °C are exceedingly rare for Bathurst. Bathurst's central business district is located on William, Howick and Durham Streets; the CBD covers two city blocks. Banking, government services, shopping centres, retail shops, a park and monuments are in this area. Bathurst has retained a mix of main street shopping along with enclosed shopping centres within the CBD, unlike other towns where the CBD focus has split between main street and new shopping centre developments located in the suburbs.
Within the CBD lies Kings Parade. It is a popular location for locals to meet. Keppel Street is Bathurst's second commercial shopping area, removed from the CBD by two blocks to the south; this area developed once the railway arrived in 1876. The main suburbs of Bathurst are: Kelso, West Bathurst, South Bathurst, Gormans Hill, Windradyne Heights and Abercrombie Estate. One of the newer suburbs is Marsden Estate, in Kelso. Bathurst's place in Australia's history is evidenced by the large number of landmark monuments and parks. In the centre of the city is a square known as Kings Parade. A market area from 1849 to 1906, it was redesign
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Mudgee Guardian and Gulgong Advertiser
The Mudgee Guardian and Gulgong Advertiser is an English language newspaper published in Mudgee, New South Wales, Australia. It was established in 1890 under the name Mudgee North-Western Representative; the Mudgee Guardian and Gulgong Advertiser is a semi weekly publication. The publication began as Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Advertiser in 1890 and was published by Charles Knight, it changed title to Mudgee Guardian and Gulgong Advertiser in July 1963. The original paper consisted of advertising and community news; the various versions of the paper have been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program project hosted by the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in New South Wales Official website Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Advertiser at Trove Holden, W Sprague 1961, Australia goes to press, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. Mayer, Henry 1964, The press in Australia, Lansdowne Press, Melbourne. Walker, R B 1976, The newspaper press in New South Wales 1803-1920, Sydney University Press, Sydney
Sir George Russell Drysdale, AC known as "Tass Drysdale", was an Australian artist. He won the prestigious Wynne Prize for Sofala in 1947, represented Australia at the Venice Biennale in 1954, he was influenced by abstract and surrealist art, "created a new vision of the Australian scene as revolutionary and influential as that of Tom Roberts". George Russell Drysdale was born in Bognor Regis, England, to an Anglo-Australian pastoralist family, which settled in Melbourne, Australia in 1923. Drysdale was educated at Geelong Grammar School, he had poor eyesight all his life, was blind in his left eye from age 17 due to a detached retina. Drysdale worked on his uncle's estate in Queensland, as a jackaroo in Victoria. A chance encounter in 1932 with artist and critic Daryl Lindsay awakened him to the possibility of a career as an artist. Supported by a fellow artist, Drysdale studied with the modernist artist and teacher George Bell in Melbourne from 1935 to 1938, he made several trips to Europe. By the time of his return from the third of these trips in June 1939 Drysdale was recognised within Australia as an important emerging talent, but had yet to find a personal vision.
His decision to leave Melbourne for Albury and Sydney in 1940 was instrumental in his discovery of his lifelong subject matter, the Australian outback and its inhabitants. Important was the influence of fellow artist Peter Purves Smith in guiding him towards his characteristic mature style with its use of desolate landscapes inhabited by sparse figures under ominous skies. Drysdale's 1942 solo exhibition in Sydney was a critical success, established him as one of the leading Sydney modernists of the time, together with William Dobell, Elaine Haxton, Donald Friend. In 1944, The Sydney Morning Herald sent him into far western New South Wales "to illustrate the effects of the then-devastating drought". With his series of paintings of drought-ravaged western New South Wales and a series based on the derelict gold-mining town of Hill End, his reputation continued to grow during the 1940s. Sofala, a painting of the nearby town of Sofala, won the Wynne Prize for landscape in 1947, his 1948 work, The cricketers has been described by the National Gallery of Australia as "one of the most original and haunting images in all Australian art."
His 1950 exhibition at London's Leicester Galleries, at the invitation of Sir Kenneth Clark, was a significant milestone in the history of Australian art. Until this time, Australian art had been regarded as a provincial sub-species of British art; the exhibition initiated the international recognition of Australian art that came to include Dobell, Sidney Nolan, Arthur Boyd, Clifton Pugh, others who came to national and international prominence in the 1950s. Drysdale's reputation continued to grow throughout the 1950s and 1960s as he explored remote Australia and its inhabitants. In 1954, together with Nolan and Dobell, he was chosen to represent Australia at the Venice Biennale, in 1960, at Bouddi near Gosford, New South Wales. In 1960, he was the first Australian artist to be given a retrospective by the Art Gallery of New South Wales. In 1962 he co-wrote a travel book, Journey Among Men, with Jock Marshall, they dedicated it to their wives, "who were good enough to stay at home". In 1963 the Reserve Bank of Australia led by H. C.
Coombs, appointed him to a small committee supervising the note designs for the new Australian decimal currency. In 1969, Drysdale was knighted for his services to art, in 1980, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia, his years saw a marked falling off in the quantity of his output, which had never been large. Drysdale died in Sydney on 29 June 1981. At his request, Sir Russell's cremated remains were placed in the shade of a tree by the church in the burial ground beside historic St Paul's Anglican Church, Kincumber, he was married twice, had a son, a daughter, Lynne. Tim took his own life in 1962, aged twenty one, the following year, Drysdale's wife Bon committed suicide. In 1964 Drysdale married an old friend. Soon after Tim's suicide, Drysdale made the acquaintance of the composer Peter Sculthorpe, who had lost his father; the two spent a working holiday together in a house on the Tamar River in Tasmania, became lifelong friends. Sculthorpe came to regard Drysdale as a role model, admiring the way he reworked familiar material in new ways.
He said: "In years he was accused of painting the same picture over and over again. But his answer was that he was no different to a Renaissance artist, striving again and again to paint the perfect Madonna-and-Child. Since I've never had a problem about the idea of reusing and reworking my material. Like Tass, I've come to look on my whole output as one emerging work", he dedicated works to the memory of Bonnie Drysdale. Drysdale's second wife Maisie was the sister-in-law of the Canadian novelist Robertson Davies, with whom Peter Sculthorpe discussed collaborating on an opera based on the Australian adventures of the Irish actor Gustavus Vaughan Brooke. Australian art scholar and gallery director Ron Radford argues that, towards the end of World War II, Drysdale triggered "'a general redd
New South Wales State Heritage Register
The New South Wales State Heritage Register known as NSW State Heritage Register, is a heritage list of places in the state of New South Wales, that are protected by New South Wales legislation covered by the Heritage Act, 1977 and its 2010 amendments. The register is administered by the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, a division of the Government of New South Wales Department of Planning and Environment; the register was created in 1999 and includes items protected by heritage schedules that relate to the State, to regional and to local environmental plans. As a result, the register contains over 20,000 statutory-listed items in either public or private ownership of historical and architectural value. Of those items listed 1,785 items are listed as significant items for the whole of New South Wales; the items include buildings, monuments, Aboriginal places, bridges, archaeological sites, relics, streets, industrial structures and conservation precincts. An item will first attract local listing regional or State listing.
If the item is of significance to the nation, the State will advocate for listing on the Australian National Heritage List or the Commonwealth Heritage List. If the item is of global significance, the Australian Government will advocate for the item to be listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List; the Heritage Council of New South Wales, a statutory body appointed by the NSW Government and comprising members of the community, the government, the conservation profession and representatives of organisations such as the National Trust of Australia, makes decisions about the care and protection of heritage places and items that have been identified as being significant to the people of NSW. The Council provides advice on heritage matters to the Minister for Heritage, presently Gabrielle Upton MP; the Council recommends to the Minister places and objects for listing on the State Heritage Register. The work of the Council and the State Heritage Register is covered by the Heritage Act, 1977 and its 2010 amendments.
Under section 170 of the Act, government agencies in New South Wales are required to compile a register of heritage assets and look after their assets on behalf of the community. Other legislation preserves Aboriginal heritage. Items nominated for listing on the register are assessed against the State Heritage Register criteria to determine the level of significance. To be assessed for listing on the State Heritage Register an item will, in the opinion of the Heritage Council of NSW, meet one or more of the following criteria: a) an item is important in the course, or pattern, of NSW’s cultural or natural history. An item is not to be excluded from the Register on the ground that items with similar characteristics have been listed on the Register. Australian Heritage Database Media related to New South Wales State Heritage Register at Wikimedia Commons Search the Heritage Register
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining. It is impossible to know the exact date that humans first began to mine gold, but some of the oldest known gold artifacts were found in the Varna Necropolis in Bulgaria; the graves of the necropolis were built between 4700 and 4200 BC, indicating that gold mining could be at least 7000 years old. A group of German and Georgian archaeologists claims the Sakdrisi site in southern Georgia, dating to the 3rd or 4th millennium BC, may be the world's oldest known gold mine. Bronze age gold objects are plentiful in Ireland and Spain, there are several well known possible sources. Romans used hydraulic mining methods, such as hushing and ground sluicing on a large scale to extract gold from extensive alluvial deposits, such as those at Las Medulas. Mining was under the control of the state but the mines may have been leased to civilian contractors some time later; the gold served as the primary medium of exchange within the empire, was an important motive in the Roman invasion of Britain by Claudius in the first century AD, although there is only one known Roman gold mine at Dolaucothi in west Wales.
Gold was a prime motivation for the campaign in Dacia when the Romans invaded Transylvania in what is now modern Romania in the second century AD. The legions were led by the emperor Trajan, their exploits are shown on Trajan's Column in Rome and the several reproductions of the column elsewhere. Under the Eastern Roman Empire Emperor Justinian's rule, gold was mined in the Balkans, Armenia and Nubia. In the area of the Kolar Gold Fields in Bangarpet Taluk, Kolar District of Karnataka state, gold was first mined prior to the 2nd and 3rd century AD by digging small pits; the Champion reef at the Kolar gold fields was mined to a depth of 50 metres during the Gupta period in the fifth century AD. During the Chola period in the 9th and 10th century AD, the scale of the operation grew; the metal continued to be mined by the eleventh century kings of South India, the Vijayanagara Empire from 1336 to 1560, by Tipu Sultan, the king of Mysore state and the British. It is estimated; the mining of the Hungarian deposit around Kremnica was the largest of the Medieval period in Europe.
During the 19th century, numerous gold rushes in remote regions around the globe caused large migrations of miners, such as the California Gold Rush of 1849, the Victorian Gold Rush, the Klondike Gold Rush. The discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand led to the Second Boer War and the founding of South Africa; the Carlin Trend of Nevada, U. S. was discovered in 1961. Official estimates indicate that total world gold production since the beginning of civilization has been around 6,109,928,000 troy ounces and total gold production in Nevada is 2.5% of that, ranking Nevada as one of the Earth's primary gold producing regions. As of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 429.4 tonnes in that year. The second-largest producer, mined 289.0 tonnes in the same year, followed by Russia with 273 tonnes. Despite the decreasing gold content of ores, the production is increasing; this can be achieved with industrial installations, new process, like hydrometallurgy. Placer mining is the technique.
Placer deposits are composed of loose material that makes tunneling difficult, so most means of extracting it involve the use of water or dredging. Gold panning is a manual technique of separating gold from other materials. Wide, shallow pans are filled with gravel that may contain gold; the pan is shaken, sorting the gold from the gravel and other material. As gold is much denser than rock, it settles to the bottom of the pan; the panning material is removed from stream beds at the inside turn in the stream, or from the bedrock shelf of the stream, where the density of gold allows it to concentrate, a type called placer deposits. Gold panning is the easiest and quickest technique for searching for gold, but is not commercially viable for extracting gold from large deposits, except where labor costs are low or gold traces are substantial. Panning is marketed as a tourist attraction on former gold fields. Before large production methods are used, a new source must be identified and panning is useful to identify placer gold deposits to be evaluated for commercial viability.
Using a sluice box to extract gold from placer deposits has long been a common practice in prospecting and small-scale mining. A sluice box is a man made channel with riffles set in the bottom; the riffles are designed to create dead zones in the current to allow gold to drop out of suspension. The box is placed in the stream to channel water flow. Gold-bearing material is placed at the top of the box; the material is carried by the current through the volt where gold and other dense material settles out behind the riffles. Less dense material flows out of the box as tailings. Larger commercial placer mining operations employ screening plants, or trommels, to remove the larger alluvial materials such as boulders and gravel, before concentrating the remainder in a sluice box or jig plant; these operations include diesel powered, earth moving equipment, including excavators, wheel loaders, rock trucks. Although this method has been replaced by modern m
Selina Sarah Elizabeth Siggins was an Australian political activist who became the first woman to stand for the Australian House of Representatives. She ran as an independent at the 1903 federal election, the first at which women were eligible to be candidates. Although she spent most of her life in New South Wales, in 1918 she became one of the first two women to stand for the Parliament of South Australia. Siggins was introduced to politics through her involvement in the labour movement, supported the Labor Party, she fell out with the party over its refusal to endorse her as a candidate. Her final run for parliament came at the 1922 federal election, where she became the first woman to stand for the Country Party. Siggins was born on 12 May 1878 near the small mining town of New South Wales, she was the only child of James Charters. Her father, "an elderly, illiterate labourer" born in Ireland, died the year after her birth, her English-born mother remarried in 1880 to Jerome Anderson, her daughter took his surname.
Siggins attended the Tambaroora Public School, in 1893 won a prize for an essay about the local district. Little else is known about her childhood, but by 1903 she was living in a boardinghouse in Elizabeth Street and working as an artist and photographic retoucher. After moving to Sydney, Siggins became involved in the local labour movement, she served as the president of the Pyrmont branch of the Women's Political Labor League, was one of the founders of the Cardboard Box Makers' Union, serving as its inaugural secretary. She was chosen by the Shop Assistants' Union as one of its delegates to the Sydney Labor Council, where she served on the organising committee and the anti-sweating committee. In May 1904, Siggins became the secretary of the Anti-Chinese and Asiatic League, which opposed "Chinese immigration and industry". At a January 1906 meeting of the Labor Council, she moved that the council petition the government to oppose any relaxation of the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, she stated that Chinese immigration constituted "a standing menace to the status of Australian citizenhood" and was to spread leprosy.
In June 1904, Siggins launched a defamation suit against Henry Beech, a storekeeper in her home town of Hill End. She sought damages of ₤1,000, claiming he had made statements implying she was "a woman of libidinous and licentious nature and disposition", her suit was unsuccessful. By 1906, Siggins had been elected to the state executive of the Australian Labor Party, she campaigned for Labor candidates at the 1907 state election, but distanced herself from the party. The Daily Telegraph speculated in July 1909 that she had "deserted" the Labor Party, she subsequently told the paper that she had felt she had been treated unfairly by the central executive. In December 1909, Siggins and her husband moved to New Zealand, she lived in Wellington for a period, working as an organiser for the Amalgamated Society of Merchant Assistants, was interviewed by the Maoriland Worker about the differences between the labour movements in Australia and New Zealand. In 1911, Siggins was recruited by the Grey Industrial and Political Council to work as an organiser in the Grey District, on the West Coast of the South Island.
She campaigned for the Socialist candidate in Grey, at the 1911 general election. Siggins returned to Australia, living in Adelaide for several years before settling in Wellington, New South Wales. In 1922, she became the first woman delegate at the annual conference of the Farmers' and Settlers' Association of New South Wales. Women were given the right to stand for federal parliament by the Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902. Four female candidates subsequently nominated for the 1903 federal election, three of whom – Vida Goldstein, Nellie Martel, Mary Moore-Bentley – stood for the Senate. Siggins announced that she too would stand for the Senate, but decided to run for the House of Representatives. In an interview with The Daily Telegraph, she said she could be described as a "moderate protectionist" and "independent labour" candidate. Running in the Division of Dalley, in Sydney's eastern suburbs, Siggins won 17.7 percent of the vote to finish runner-up to William Wilks of the Free Trade Party.
She thereby saved her ₤25 deposit. Libby Stewart of the Museum of Australian Democracy has observed that "although the efforts of Goldstein to be elected to Federal Parliament a further four times are well documented the lives of the other three women, who were without doubt female leaders of their time, are unknown to most Australians". Prior to the 1906 federal election, Siggins announced that she would stand for the Division of East Sydney, opposing former prime minister and Anti-Socialist leader George Reid, she was unsuccessful. Siggins instead ran as an independent, describing herself as "the progressive and democratic candidate". However, she never formally nominated for the election. According to The Sydney Morning Herald, she failed to lodge her deposit by the deadline, although she told the Evening News that her withdrawal was due to ill health. In 1909, Siggins announced her intention to stand for the Division of Robertson at the next election, she again hoped to secure the endorsement of the Labor Party, but the party had preselected a candidate, William Johnson.
She requested that a second ballot be held, but the party refused and she announced that she would run as an independent. In the end, no election was called until early the following year, by which point she was living in New Zealand. At the 1918 South Australian state el