The Hill of Tara is a hill and ancient ceremonial and burial site near Skryne in County Meath, Ireland. According to tradition, it was the inauguration place and seat of the High Kings of Ireland, it appears in Irish mythology. Tara consists of numerous monuments and earthworks—from the Neolithic to the Iron Age—including a passage tomb, burial mounds, round enclosures, a standing stone, a ceremonial avenue. There is a church and graveyard on the hill. Tara is part of a larger ancient landscape and Tara itself is a protected national monument under the care of The Office of Public Works, an agency of the Irish Government; the name'Tara' is an anglicization of Cnoc na Teamhrach. It is known as Teamhair na Rí, also Liathdruim; the Old Irish form is Temair. It is believed this comes from Proto-Celtic *Temris and means a "sanctuary" or "sacred space" cut off for ceremony, cognate with the Greek temenos and Latin templum. Another suggestion is that it means "a height with a view"; the remains of twenty ancient monuments are visible, at least three times that many have been found through geophysical surveys and aerial photography.
The oldest visible monument is Dumha na nGiall, a Neolithic passage tomb built around 3,200 BC. It holds the remains of hundreds of people. In the Neolithic it was the communal tomb of a single community for about a century, during which there were 300 burials. A millennium in the Bronze Age, there were a further 33 burials – first in the passage and in the mound around it. During this time, only certain high-status individuals were buried there. At first it was the tomb of one community, but multiple communities came together to bury their elite there; the last burial was a full body burial of a young man of high status, with an ornate necklace and dagger. During the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age, a huge double timber circle or "woodhenge" was built on the hilltop, it was surrounded the Mound of the Hostages. At least six smaller burial mounds were built in an arc around this timber circle, including those known as Dall, Dumha na mBan-Amhus and Dumha na mBó; the timber circle was either removed or decayed, the burial mounds are visible today.
There are several large round enclosures on the hill. The biggest and most central of these is Ráth na Ríogh, which measures 1,000 metres in circumference, 318 metres north-south by 264 metres east-west, with an inner ditch and outer bank, it is dated to the 1st century BC and was marked out by a stakewall. Human burials, a high concentration of horse and dog bones, were found in the ditch. Within the Ráth na Ríogh is the Mound of the Hostages and two round, double-ditched enclosures which together make a figure-of-eight shape. One is Teach Chormaic and the other is the Forradh or Royal Seat, which incorporates earlier burial mounds. On top of the Forradh is a standing stone, believed to be the Lia Fáil at which the High Kings were crowned. According to legend, the stone would let out a roar, it is believed that the stone lay beside or on top of the Mound of the Hostages. Just to the north of Ráth na Ríogh, is Ráth na Seanadh, built in the middle of the former "woodhenge", it is a round enclosure with four rings of ditches and banks, incorporates earlier burial mounds.
It was re-modelled several times and once had a large timber building inside it, resembling the one at Navan. It was occupied between the 1st and 4th centuries AD, Roman artifacts were found there, it was badly mutilated in the early 20th century by British Israelites searching for the Ark of the Covenant. The other round enclosures are Ráth Laoghaire at the southern edge of the hill, the Claonfhearta at the northwestern edge, which includes Ráth Gráinne and Ráth Chaelchon; the Claonfhearta are burial mounds with ring ditches around them. At the northern end of the hill is Teach Miodhchuarta or Banqueting Hall; this was the ceremonial avenue leading to the hilltop and seems to have been one of the last monuments built. Half a mile south of the Hill of Tara is another large round enclosure known as Rath Meave, which refers to the legendary figure Medb or Medb Lethderg. A church, called Saint Patrick's, is on the eastern side of the hilltop; the "Rath of the Synods" has been destroyed by its churchyard.
The modern church was built in 1822–23 on the site of an earlier one. The earliest evidence of a church at Tara is a charter dating from the 1190s. In 1212, this church was "among the possessions confirmed to the Knights Hospitallers of Saint John of Kilmainham by Pope Innocent III". A 1791 illustration shows the church building internally divided into a nave and chancel, with a bell-tower over the western end. A stump of wall marks the site of the old church today, but some of its stonework was re-used in the current church; the building is now used as a visitor centre operated by the Office of Public Works, an agency of the Irish Government. The 11th-century Lebor Gabála Érenn says that Tara was the seat of the high kings of Ireland from the far past until the time of writing. However, there is no evid
In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that operates on a vector field, producing a scalar field giving the quantity of the vector field's source at each point. More technically, the divergence represents the volume density of the outward flux of a vector field from an infinitesimal volume around a given point; as an example, consider air as it is heated or cooled. The velocity of the air at each point defines a vector field. While air is heated in a region, it expands in all directions, thus the velocity field points outward from that region; the divergence of the velocity field in that region would thus have a positive value. While the air is cooled and thus contracting, the divergence of the velocity has a negative value. In physical terms, the divergence of a vector field is the extent to which the vector field flux behaves like a source at a given point, it is a local measure of its "outgoingness" – the extent to which there is more of the field vectors exiting an infinitesimal region of space than entering it.
A point at which the flux is outgoing has positive divergence, is called a "source" of the field. A point at which the flux is directed inward has negative divergence, is called a "sink" of the field; the greater the flux of field through a small surface enclosing a given point, the greater the value of divergence at that point. A point at which there is zero flux through an enclosing surface has zero divergence; the divergence of a vector field is illustrated using the example of the velocity field of a fluid, a liquid or gas. A moving gas has a velocity, a speed and direction, at each point which can be represented by a vector, so the velocity of the gas forms a vector field. If a gas is heated, it will expand; this will cause a net motion of gas particles outward in all directions. Any closed surface in the gas will enclose gas, expanding, so there will be an outward flux of gas through the surface. So the velocity field will have positive divergence everywhere. If the gas is cooled, it will contract.
There will be more room for gas particles in any volume, so the external pressure of the fluid will cause a net flow of gas volume inward through any closed surface. Therefore the velocity field has negative divergence everywhere. In contrast in an unheated gas with a constant density, the gas may be moving, but the volume rate of gas flowing into any closed surface must equal the volume rate flowing out, so the net flux of fluid through any closed surface is zero, thus the gas velocity has zero divergence everywhere. A field which has zero divergence everywhere is called solenoidal. If the fluid is heated only at one point or small region, or a small tube is introduced which supplies a source of additional fluid at one point, the fluid there will expand, pushing fluid particles around it outward in all directions; this will cause an outward velocity field throughout the fluid, centered on the heated point. Any closed surface enclosing the heated point will have a flux of fluid particles passing out of it, so there is positive divergence at that point.
However any closed surface not enclosing the point will have a constant density of fluid inside, so just as many fluid particles are entering as leaving the volume, thus the net flux out of the volume is zero. Therefore the divergence at any other point is zero; the divergence of a vector field F at a point x0 is defined as the limit of the ratio of the surface integral of F out of the surface of a closed volume V enclosing x0 to the volume of V, as V shrinks to zero div F | x 0 = lim V → 0 1 | V | S F ⋅ n ^ d S where |V| is the volume of V, S is the boundary of V, n̂ is the outward unit normal to that surface. It can be shown that the above limit always converges to the same value for any sequence of volumes that contain x0 and approach zero volume; the result, div F, is a scalar function of x. Since this definition is coordinate-free, it shows that the divergence is the same in any coordinate system; however it is not used to calculate divergence. A vector field with zero divergence everywhere is called solenoidal – in which case any closed surface has no net flux across it.
In three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates, the divergence of a continuously differentiable vector field F = F x i + F y j + F z k is defined as the scalar-valued function: div F = ∇ ⋅ F = ⋅ = ∂ F x ∂ x + ∂ F y ∂
SC Union 03 Altona is a German association football club based in the Altona district of the city of Hamburg. The football team is a department of a larger sports club which offers handball and tennis. During the inter-war period the club was a regular part of first division play and sent a number of players to north German representative teams. By the 1970s, Union was recognized for its handball players; the team was established by a group of students and young apprentices on 7 June 1903 and became part of the Hamburg-Altona Football Association two years later. Club tradition has it that they qualified for first division by way of a solid performance in a test match against a side made up of local English footballers. In early 1923, several members left Union to found SV West Eimsbuettel. Shortly after that, in 1925, what would become a successful handball department was added to the club. Following the adoption of the Greater Hamburg Act that expanded the city boundaries to include the town of Altona, the club was rechristened SC Union 03 Hamburg.
Union was again part of first division football in the aftermath of World War II from 1945 to 1947. They failed to qualify for the new Oberliga Nord and were part of second division competition until 1963. During the club's heyday in the 1920s, it had some 2,000 members and qualified for the North German championship round nine times. By the turn of the millennium it included only 400 members and they entered into merger talks with Altona FC 1893, which failed. After relegation to the tier nine Kreisklasse in 2012 the club won promotion back to the Kreisliga the season after where it plays today. Official team site
Euplagia quadripunctaria, the Jersey tiger, is a day-flying moth of the family Erebidae. The species was first described by Nikolaus Poda von Neuhaus in 1761; the adult wingspan is 52–65 millimetres, they fly from July to September, depending on the location. They tend to fly close to Eupatorium cannabinum, where they are hard to notice because of their camouflage; the larvae are polyphagous, feeding from September to May on nettles and raspberries, white deadnettle, ground ivy, plantain, borage and hemp-agrimony. The insect overwinters as a small larva. Large groups of adults of subspecies E. q. rhodosensis can be found on occasion aestivating in Petaloudes, on Rhodes, in a place that has become known as the Valley of the Butterflies. Euplagia quadripunctaria is distributed in Europe from Estonia and Latvia in the north to the Mediterranean coast and islands in the south, it is found in western Russia, the southern Urals, Asia Minor and nearby islands, the Near East, southern Turkmenistan, Iran.
Individuals are known to migrate northwards from their regular breeding grounds during the summer. Aside from being frequent in the Channel Islands, this species was seen in the British Isles in Victorian times, it was described by William Forsell Kirby as, "a great rarity in the South of England, except one locality in Devonshire." Since however it has spread more in Devon and Cornwall, has been seen more in southern England on the Isle of Wight, in northern Kent, south London. They have been seen and in numbers every year in London first discovered at Devonshire Road Nature Reserve in Forest Hill since 2004, so it is probable that they have established a breeding colony. Mothrecording.org shows a string of connected sightings on the South Kent coast from Dover to Rye in the first two decades of the twenty-first century. These are disconnected from the block of sightings in South-West England and so came from the Continent directly. Euplagia quadripunctaria quadripunctaria Euplagia quadripunctaria fulgida Euplagia quadripunctaria rhodosensis Dubatolov, V.
V.. "Tiger-moths of Eurasia ". Neue Entomologische Nachrichten. 65: 1-106. Roesler, U.. "Panaxia quadripunctaria ssp. ingridae ssp. nov.". Entomologische Zeitschrift. 78: 280-284, Stuttgart. Kimber, Ian. "72.030 BF2067 Jersey Tiger Euplagia quadripunctaria". UKMoths. Retrieved 23 August 2019. Butterfly Conservation: Saving butterflies and our environment Fauna Europaea Lepiforum e. V. De Vlinderstichting
Nord Stream is a system of offshore natural gas pipelines from Russia to Germany. It includes two lines running from Vyborg to Greifswald forming original Nord Stream, two lines running from Ust-Luga to Greifswald termed Nord Stream 2. Nord Stream is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG, whose majority shareholder is the Russian state company Gazprom, Nord Stream 2 is owned and will be operated by Nord Stream 2 AG, a wholly owned subsidiary of Gazprom; the first line of Nord Stream was laid by May 2011 and was inaugurated on 8 November 2011. The second line of Nord Stream was laid in 2011–2012 and was inaugurated on 8 October 2012. At 1,222 kilometres in length, Nord Stream is the longest sub-sea pipeline in the world, surpassing the Langeled pipeline. Laying Nord Stream 2 was carried out in 2018–2019, before the imposition of U. S. sanctions which halted the work, it was expected to become operational in mid-2020. Nord Stream has a total annual capacity of 55 billion m3 of gas, the addition of Nord Stream 2 is expected to double the capacity to a total of 110 billion m3.
Both projects have been opposed by the United States as well as several Central and Eastern European countries because of concerns that it would increase Russia's influence in the region. The U. S. resistance of Nord Stream 2 is influenced by the country's increased production of natural gas, which gives the U. S. Congress economic incentive to resist the Russian supply of gas to the EU, in favour of U. S. shale gas. The name "Nord Stream" refers to a wider pipeline network, including the feeding onshore pipeline in the Russian Federation, further connections in Western Europe; the original pipeline project started in 1997 when Gazprom and the Finnish oil company Neste formed the joint company North Transgas Oy for construction and operation of a gas pipeline from Russia to Northern Germany across the Baltic Sea. North Transgas cooperated with the German gas company Ruhrgas. A route survey in the Exclusive Economic Zones of Finland, Sweden and Germany, a feasibility study of the pipeline was conducted in 1998.
Several routes were considered including routes with onshore segments through Sweden. On 24 April 2001, Fortum and Wintershall adopted a statement regarding a joint feasibility study for construction of the pipeline. On 18 November 2002, the Management Committee of Gazprom approved a schedule of project implementation. In May 2005, Fortum sold its stake in North Transgas to Gazprom; as a result, Gazprom became the only shareholder of North Transgas Oy. On 8 September 2005, Gazprom, BASF and E. ON signed a basic agreement on the construction of a North European Gas Pipeline. On 30 November 2005, the North European Gas Pipeline Company was incorporated in Switzerland. On 9 December 2005, Gazprom started construction of the Russian onshore feeding pipeline in the town of Babayevo in Vologda Oblast; the feeding pipeline was completed in 2010. On 4 October 2006, the pipeline and the operating company were renamed Nord Stream AG. After establishment of Nord Stream AG, all information related to the pipeline project, including results of the seabed survey of 1998, were transferred from North Transgas to the new company, on 2 November 2006, North Transgas was dissolved.
The environmental impact assessment started on 16 November 2006 with notification sent to Russia, Sweden and Germany, as parties of origin, as well as to Poland, Latvia and Estonia as affected parties. The final report on transboundary environmental impact assessment was delivered on 9 March 2009. On 19 March 2007, Nord Stream AG mandated Italian company Snamprogetti, a subsidiary of Saipem, for detailed design engineering of the pipeline. A letter of intent for construction works was signed with Saipem on 17 September 2007 and the contract was concluded on 24 June 2008. On 25 September 2007, the pipe supply contracts were awarded to the pipe producers EUROPIPE and OMK, on 18 February 2008, the concrete weight coating and logistics services agreement was awarded to EUPEC PipeCoatings S. A; the supply contracts for the second line were awarded to OMK, Europipe and Sumitomo Heavy Industries on 22 January 2010. On 30 December 2008 Rolls-Royce plc was awarded a contract to supply gas turbines driving centrifugal compressors and on 8 January 2009, Royal Boskalis Westminster and Danish Dredging Contractor Rohde Nielsen A/S. were awarded a joint venture seabed dredging contract.
The agreement to take N. V. Nederlandse Gasunie to the consortium as the fourth partner, was signed on 6 November 2007. On 10 June 2008, Gasunie was included in the register of shareholders. On 1 March 2010, French energy company GDF Suez signed with Gazprom a memorandum of understanding to acquire 9% stake in the project; the transaction was closed in July 2010. In August 2008, Nord Stream AG hired former Finnish prime minister Paavo Lipponen as a consultant to help speed up the application process in Finland and to serve as a link between Nord Stream and Finnish authorities. On 21 December 2007, Nord Stream AG submitted application documents to the Swedish government for the pipeline construction in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. On 12 February 2008, the Swedish government rejected the consortium's applicati
Beata Margareta Kristina Söderbaum was a Swedish-born German film actress and photographer. She is most known for her roles in Nazi-era films. Söderbaum was born in Sweden. After both her parents died shortly after one another, Söderbaum moved to Berlin and enrolled in a theatre school. Beginning in 1935, Söderbaum starred in a number of films with director Veit Harlan, whom she married in 1939. Harlan and Söderbaum made ten films together for the state-controlled film production company UFA until 1945. According to film historian Antje Ascheid, Söderbaum is identified as "most singularly representative of the Nazi ideal, as the quintessential Nazi star"; as a beautiful Swedish blonde, Söderbaum had the baby-doll looks that epitomized the model Aryan woman. In fact, she had played the role of the innocent Aryan in a number of feature films and was well-known to German audiences, her youth and beauty made her a symbol of health and purity and thus an exemplary specimen of the Nazi ideal of womanhood.
In a number of her films, she had been imperiled by the threat of rassenschande. Two such roles were Dorothea Sturm, the doomed heroine of the antisemitic historical melodrama Jud Süß, who commits suicide by drowning after being raped by the villain and Anna in Die goldene Stadt, a Sudeten German whose desire for the city and whose seduction by a Czech result in her drowning suicide; as a result of her watery fate in these two films, as well as a similar end in her debut in Harlan's 1938 film Jugend, she was given the mock honorary title Reichswasserleiche. Other roles included Elske in Die Reise nach Tilsit, the wholesome German wife whose husband betrays her with a Polish woman, but returns, repentant. In the first few years after the war, Söderbaum was heckled off the stage and had rotten vegetables thrown at her. In subsequent years, she expressed regret for her roles in anti-semitic films. After her husband was again permitted to direct films, Söderbaum played leading roles in a number of his films.
These included Blue Hour, The Prisoner of the Maharaja, Betrayal of Germany, I Will Carry You on My Hands. Their last joint project was a 1963 theater production of August Strindberg's A Dream Play in Aachen. After Harlan's death in 1964, Söderbaum became a noted fashion photographer. In 1974 she took a role in Hans-Jürgen Syberberg's film Karl May. In 1983 she published her memoirs under the title Nichts bleibt immer so. In her years, Söderbaum faded into obscurity but still took roles in three movies and the television series The Bergdoktor, her last film was with Hugh Grant in the thriller Night Train to Venice in 1994. She died in 2001 in a nursing home in Lower Saxony, Germany. Uncle Bräsig as Minning Youth as Ännchen Covered Tracks as Séraphine Lawrence The Immortal Heart as Ev Henlein The Journey to Tilsit as Elske Settegast Jud Süß as Dorothea Sturm The Great King as Luise Treskow Die goldene Stadt as Anna Jobst Immensee Opfergang as Aels Flodéen Kolberg as Maria Immortal Beloved as Katharina von Hollstein Hanna Amon The Blue Hour Stars Over Colombo The Prisoner of the Maharaja Verrat an Deutschland Two Hearts in May I'll Carry You in My Arms Die blonde Frau des Maharadscha Karl May Let's Go Crazy Das bleibt das kommt nie wieder Night Train to Venice Der Bergdoktor: Series 1, Episode 11 "Der Sinn des Lebens" Kristina Söderbaum on IMDb Photographs and bibliography