To the West, Tisvildeleje is bordered by the protected plantation of Tisvilde Hegn, which is Denmark’s fifth largest forest. The beaches of Tisvildeleje, are known for their white sands, the name Tisvilde is derived from Tis vælde, meaning a place dedicated to the God Tyr. Where the church of Tibirke Kirke is situated nowadays, there was once a prehistoric “vi” meaning a place or place of sacrifice. In prehistoric times, humans were sacrificed here, at the foot of the church, is a spring which may have been a place of pilgrimage in days of old. Leje roughly translates as plain and used to be a fishermans village, now most of the fishermens houses, are used as summer residences. Helene Spring in Tisvildeleje is located close to the sea and is among Denmark’s most famous springs, legend has it, that anyone whose illness has not responded successfully to other forms of treatment, must come to the spring on 23 June, Sankt Hans or Midsummers Eve. Helenes Tomb is now a rectangular, grazed area surrounded by low stone fences, the two boulders leaning against each other indicate Helenes Tomb.
It is located at Sankt Helenevej,3220 Tisvildeleje, domino Helena Old writings about Tisvilde accessdate = 2012-01-16
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Fredensborg Palace is a palace located on the eastern shore of Lake Esrum in Fredensborg on the island of Zealand in Denmark. It is the Danish Royal Family’s spring and autumn residence, and is often the site of important state visits and events in the Royal Family and it is the most used of the Royal Family’s residences. Krieger built the French-inspired baroque palace 1720–1726, and the King himself took a part in the planning of the building and grounds. The man responsible for the construction was General Building Master Johan Conrad Ernst. To commemorate the signing of the peace accord the palace was named Fredens Borg, the palace complex consisted of a small, almost square, 1 1⁄2-storey-high main palace with dome and lanterns. It is positioned exactly at the centre of what is known as a hunting star, during a hunt it was permissible to shoot freely straight down the long paths, which radiated out from the centre. The dome hall measured 15 x 15 m, and had a height of 27 m, the sumptuous room featured stucco by C. E.
Brenno and a plafond by Hendrick Krock. In front of the building was placed an octagonal courtyard encircled by the single-storey servants wings. It is the red building at Fredensborg Palace, and it has open half-timbers under a red tile roof. East of the octagon were the ring and the long stables building, To the east and adjacent to the main palace was an Orangery. On the other side of the church was the Courtiers Wing, residences for the court’s clerks and this section of the palace was built from 1724–1726, and introduces elements of the Dutch Baroque style and Rococo. The palace was extended throughout the early 18th century, however the structure of the palace has remained unchanged since its inauguration on October 11,1722. Krieger completed his work on the palace with the erection of the “new Court Chancery building” in 1731, the black-glazed tile, half-hipped roof building is now known as The Chancellery House. It butted up to the riding-ring on the southern edge, until her death, the late Queen Mother, Queen Ingrid used this house as her private residence.
The part of palace Chancellery House is the spring and autumn home of Crown Prince Frederik, a major alteration of Krieger’s original building was made in 1741–1744 when Lauritz de Thurah, the King’s favorite architect, elevated the roof of the palace’s main building. The slanted roof was replaced by a one, and a characteristically de Thurah sandstone balustrade was erected. In 1751 he transformed the Orangery into a building for the ladies-in-waiting. In 1753 Nicolai Eigtved extended the palace by adding four symmetrically-positioned corner pavilions with copper pyramid-shaped roofs to the main building, the palace gardens are among Denmarks largest historical gardens, and are Denmark’s finest example of a baroque garden
Store Dyrehave is a forest immediately south of Hillerød, on both sides of Københavnsvej, in North Zealand, Denmark. Consisting of conifers and beech, it was enclosed with walls in 1619–28 as a royal deer park for hunting. In 1680, Christian V introduced a system of roads forming a star with eight branches for par force hunting. Although par force hunting was discontinued in 1777, the road system, Store Dyrehave is one of the three forests forming the Par force hunting landscape in North Zealand, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Store Dyrehave has an almost quadratic shape, Præstevang, an area on the northwestern side of the forest, is bounded by the town of Hillerød on three sides. The small town of Ny Hammersholt and Hillerød Golf Club are located on the southwest side while the margin of the forest is bounded by the Istedrødvej motorway. To the southeast is the village of Kirkelte in Allerød Municipality. Its open surroundings, which were protected in 1972, partly separate Store Dyrehave from Tokkekøb Hegn, the first enclosed deer park for hunting at Christian IVs new Frederiksborg Castle was Lille Dyrehave immediately to the north of the castle.
Store Dyrehave, south of the castle, was enclosed with walls in 1619–28. In 1680, Christian V introduced a French-inspired geometrical system of forming a star with eight branches for par force hunting. Par force hunting took place in the forest until 1777, in the 18th century, the forest was used for breeding Frederiksborg horses by the Royal Frederiksborg Stud. The horses were separated in groups according to colour, each group consisted of 15-20 mares and one stallion. The blue-couloured horses were kept in Store Dyrehave while the grey ones grazed in Præstevang, in 1859, Frederick VII created a small Romantic garden complex in Præstevangen in the northwestern part of the forest, which he named Fantasiens Ø. It is located on an island created by digging a canal across a peninsula, in the Brededam Lake and originally included a small pavilion. The garden fell into neglect after Frederick VIIs death, the kitchen was pulled down in 1905 and the pavilion removed in 1969, but a few ruins remain.
As a part of the Par force hunting landscape in North Zealand, Store Dyrehave was inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Site on 4 July 2015. Store Dyrehave comprises 1,230 hectares of forest,18.8 hectares of lakes and ponds,40.8 hectares of marshland,21.6 hectares of plains and 9.8 hectares of meadows. Deciduous trees dominate the periphery of the forest, with beech as the most common species, covering 414.8 hectares, while oak trees cover 132 hectares and other deciduous trees cover 120 hectares
Frederick II of Denmark
Frederick II was King of Denmark and Norway and duke of Schleswig from 1559 until his death. Frederick II was the son of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway and he was hailed as successor to the Throne of Denmark in 1542 and of Norway in 1548. As king, he visited Norway in 1585, when he came to Båhus, unlike his father, he was strongly affected by military ideals. Already as a man he made friendship with German war princes. Shortly after his succession he won his first victory with the conquest of Dithmarschen in Schleswig-Holstein by Johan Rantzau during the summer of 1559, from his predecessor, he inherited the Livonian War. In 1560, he installed his younger brother Magnus of Holstein in the Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek, Frederick largely tried to avoid conflict in Livonia and consolidated amicable relations to Ivan IV in the 1562 Treaty of Mozhaysk. As a vassal of Ivan IV of Russia, Magnus was the titular King of Livonia from 1570 to 1578. His competition with Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic broke out into open warfare in 1563, the start of the Seven Years War and he tried in vain to conquer Sweden, which was ruled by his cousin, King Eric XIV.
It developed into an expensive war of attrition in which the areas of Scania were ravaged by the Swedes. During this war the king led his army personally on the battlefield, the conflict damaged his relationship to his noble councillors, however the Sture Murders of 24 May 1567 by the insane King Eric XIV in Sweden helped stabilize the situation in Denmark. After the war Frederick kept the peace without giving up his attempt of trying to expand his prestige as a naval ruler and his foreign politics were marked by a moral support of the Protestant powers – but at the same time by a strict neutrality. In 1552, Steward of the Realm Peder Oxe had been raised to Councillor of State, during the spring of 1557, Oxe and the King had quarreled over a mutual property exchange. Failing to compromise matters with the king, Oxe had fled to Germany in 1558, financial difficulties arose during the stress of the Northern Seven Years War. After state finances collapsed during the years 1566 to 1567, Frederik called Peder Oxe home to address the kingdoms economy, the taking over of Danish administration and finances by the able councillor, provided a marked improvement for the national treasury.
Councillors of experience including Niels Kaas, Arild Huitfeldt and Christoffer Valkendorff took care of the domestic administration, subsequently government finances were put in order and Denmarks economy improved. One of the chief expedients of the state of affairs was the raising of the Sound Dues. Oxe, as treasurer, reduced the national debt considerably. This was a period of affluence and growth in Danish history, Frederick II rebuilt Kronborg castle in Elsinore between 1574 and 1585
The style began around 1600 in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, baroque has a resonance and application that extend beyond a reduction to either a style or period. It is yields the Italian barocco and modern Spanish barroco, German Barock, Dutch Barok, others derive it from the mnemonic term Baroco, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca, in informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is elaborate, with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries. The word Baroque, like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th, the term Baroque was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis.
In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and he did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Long despised, Baroque art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, and has remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste, William Watson describes a late phase of Shang-dynasty Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as baroque. The term Baroque may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, the appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th-century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses.
It employed an iconography that was direct, obvious, germinal ideas of the Baroque can be found in the work of Michelangelo. Even more generalised parallels perceived by some experts in philosophy, prose style, see the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace whose construction began in 1752. In paintings Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures, less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, Baroque poses depend on contrapposto, the tension within the figures that move the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail, Baroque style featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism. There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona, the most prominent Spanish painter of the Baroque was Diego Velázquez. The Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, while the Baroque nature of Rembrandts art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists.
Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while continuing to produce the traditional categories
Regions of Denmark
Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Scandinavian country in Europe and a sovereign state. The southernmost and smallest of the Nordic countries, it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway, Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark has an area of 42,924 square kilometres. The country consists of a peninsula, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea, Denmark and Norway were ruled together under the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the monarch until outside forces dissolved the union in 1814. The union with Norway made it possible for Denmark to inherit the Faroe Islands, beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory to Sweden.
In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945, the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy, the government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nations capital, largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs, Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948, in Greenland home rule was established in 1979 and further autonomy in 2009. Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs, it retains its own currency, the krone. It is among the members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE.
The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centred primarily on the prefix Dan and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -mark ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning land, related to German Tenne threshing floor. The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth
Novo Nordisk is a Danish multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bagsværd, with production facilities in eight countries, and affiliates or offices in 75 countries. Novo Nordisk is controlled by majority shareholder, Novo A/S, which holds approximately 25% of its shares, Novo Nordisk manufactures and markets pharmaceutical products and services. Key products include diabetes care medications and devices, Novo Nordisk is involved with hemostasis management, growth hormone therapy and hormone replacement therapy. The company makes several drugs under various names, including Levemir, NovoLog, Novolin R, NovoSeven, NovoEight. Novo Nordisk employs more than 40,000 people globally, the corporation was created in 1989 through a merger of two Danish companies which date back to the 1920s. The Novo Nordisk logo is the Apis bull, one of the animals of ancient Egypt. Novo Nordisk is a member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries. The company was ranked 25th among 100 best companies to work for in 2010 by Fortune, in January 2012, Novo Nordisk was named as the most sustainable company in the world by the business magazine Corporate Knights while spin-off company Novozymes was named fourth.
Novo Nordisk was ranked 72nd on “Fortune’s 100 Best Companies to Work For®” list within the U. S. state of New Jersey as of January 2014, behind Novo Nordisk lies a story about two Danish firms - Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium and Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium. Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium was founded by Hans Christian Hagedorn, August Krogh, in 1922, August Krogh and his wife Marie Krogh travelled to the US. The couple had heard reports of people with diabetes being treated with insulin – a hormone discovered in 1921 by two Canadians, Frederick Banting and Charles Best, Marie Krogh was a doctor herself and had type 2 diabetes. The couple returned to Denmark with permission to manufacture and sell insulin in Scandinavia, with the economic help from August Kongsted – the owner of Leo Pharmaceutical Products - Insulin Leo was marketed in 1923. When Krogh and Hagedorn started manufacturing insulin, they hired Thorvald Pedersen, Thorvald Pedersen was fired from Nordisk and the two brothers decided to try to manufacture insulin themselves.
Thorvald and Harald Pedersen managed to produce a stable liquid insulin, the brothers named their firm Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium. Over the next decades the products were further improved, e. g, in 1982, Novo succeeded and launched the world’s first insulin preparation identical to human insulin. In 1989, Novo Industri A/S and Nordisk Gentofte A/S merged to become Novo Nordisk A/S, in 2000 the company demerged into NovoZymes A/S and Novo Nordisk A/S. In 2015, the company announced it would collaborate with Ablynx, jesper Brandgaard is the Executive Vice President and CFO of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk A/S. Brandgaard has been the Vice Chairman of the board of directors in the Danish company SimCorp since 2007, Tresiba - is a Diabetes mellitus type 1 and Type 2 diabetes drug
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Gribskov is Denmarks fourth largest forest, comprising c.5,600 ha of woodland situated in northern Zealand and south of Lake Esrum. The forest is owned and administered by the State of Denmark, in July 2015, it was one of three forests included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site, The par force hunting landscape in North Zealand. Only a thin strip of Hillerød town in the south separates Gribskov from many larger woodlands such as Store Dyrehave at 1,100 ha, Tokkekøb Hegn at 631 ha, the Danish name Gribskov translates literally as Grib forest in English. The first part, grib, is the form of the verb for catch or grab. Grib refers to the Old Danish word for something without any specific owner and Lake Esrum are designated as EU habitat directive and Natura 2000 areas, as part of an even larger preserve. On top of that, Gribskov is designated as an Important Bird Area. Around 20% or c.1,200 ha of the forest has been reserved as forest to be untouched, in an effort to some of the few spots of semi-natural woodland in Denmark.
The birdlife in Gribskov is varied and of international importance, the forest is home to the largest populations of common goldeneye, green sandpiper and red-backed shrike in Denmark and near Nødebo at Lake Esrum, a noisy colony of great cormorants has found a home. Cormorants can be a bird to administer locally, but is protected in Denmark and is on list III in the Berne convention. The forest grows in a terrain, with lower lying areas in the east and west. The low-lying areas are dominated by beech and oak, but with several forest types mixed in, such as pastures or old coppice woodland with alder. There are small ponds, bogs and springs, some enshrouded by myths. Former wetlands were drained and many new species were introduced. These practises have now stopped in Gribskov, artificial ditches are being filled to allow a more natural waterflow and the spruce plantations are cut down, to be naturally and quickly replaced by alder and willow in coming years. It is expected that Gribskov will comprise more semi-natural woodland of trees in the future.
Roe deer have lived here for as long as the forest itself, the fallow deer population in Gribskov is the largest free roaming fallow deer population in Denmark, at 600-800 animals. This already has enhanced biological diversity and has had a positive influence on the living conditions for birds in Gribskov. It is a so-called dystrophic lake and it is impossible to see the bottom in its dark waters, the lake has no outflows and it can be ice cold just beneath the surface, so care should be taken when bathing