A golf club is a club used to hit a golf ball in a game of golf. Each club is composed of a shaft with a club head. Woods are used for long-distance fairway or tee shots. A standard set consists of 14 golf clubs, while there are traditional combinations sold at retail as matched sets, players are free to use any combination of 14 or fewer legal clubs. An important variation in different clubs is loft, or the angle between the club's face and the vertical plane, it is loft, the primary determinant of the ascending trajectory of the golf ball, with the tangential angle of the club head's swing arc at impact being a secondary and minor consideration. The impact of the club compresses the ball. Together, the compression and backspin create lift; the majority of woods and irons are labeled with a number. The shafts of the woods were made of different types of wood before being replaced by hickory in the middle of the 19th century; the varieties of woods included ash, purpleheart and blue-mahoo. Despite the strength of hickory, the long-nose club of the mid nineteenth century was still prone to breaking at the top of the back swing.
The club heads were made from woods including apple, pear and beech in the early times until persimmon became the main material. Golf clubs have been improved and the shafts are now made of steel, other types of metals or carbon fiber; the shaft is a series of stepped steel tubes in telescopic fashion. This has improved the accuracy of golfers; the grips of the clubs are made from rubber. Woods are long-distance clubs, meant to drive the ball a great distance down the fairway towards the hole, they have a large head and a long shaft for maximum club speed. Woods were made from persimmon wood although some manufacturers—notably Ping—developed laminated woods. In 1979, TaylorMade Golf introduced the first metal wood made of steel. More manufacturers have started using materials such as carbon fiber, titanium, or scandium. Though most "woods" are made from different metals, they are still called "woods" to denote the general shape and their intended use on the golf course. Most woods made today have a graphite shaft and a mostly-hollow titanium, composite, or steel head, of light weight allowing faster club-head speeds.
Woods are the most powerful of all the golf clubs. There are three to four woods in a set which are used from the tee box and, if on a long hole for the second or third shot; the biggest wood, known as the driver or one wood, is made of hollowed out titanium with feather-light shafts. The length of the woods has been increasing in recent decades, a typical driver with a graphite shaft is now 45.5 inches long. The woods may have large heads, up to 460 cm3 in volume; the shafts range from senior to extra-stiff depending upon each player’s preference. Irons are clubs with a solid, all-metal head featuring a flat angled face, a shorter shaft and more upright lie angle than a wood, for ease of access. Irons are designed for a variety of shots from all over the course, from the tee box on short or dog-legged holes, to the fairway or rough on approach to the green, to tricky situations like punching through or lobbing over trees, getting out of hazards, or hitting from tight lies requiring a compact swing.
Most of the irons have a number from 1 to 9, corresponding to their relative loft angle within a matched set. Irons are grouped according to their intended distance; as with woods, "irons" get their name because they were made from forged iron. Modern irons are investment-cast out of steel alloys, which allows for better-engineered "cavity-back" designs that have lower centers of mass and higher moments of inertia, making the club easier to hit and giving better distance than older forged "muscle-back" designs. Forged irons with less perimeter weighting are still seen in sets targeting low-handicap and scratch golfers, because this less forgiving design allows a skilled golfer to intentionally hit a curved shot, to follow the contour of the fairway or "bend" a shot around an obstacle. Wedges are a subclass of irons with greater loft than the numbered irons, other features such as high-mass club heads and wide soles that allow for easier use in tricky lies. Wedges are used for a variety of short-distance, high-altitude, high-accuracy "utility" shots, such as hitting the ball onto the green, placing the ball on the fairway for a better shot at the green, or hitting the ball out of hazards or rough onto the green.
There are five types of
Johannes Peter "Honus" Wagner, sometimes referred to as "Hans" Wagner, was an American baseball shortstop who played 21 seasons in Major League Baseball from 1897 to 1917 entirely for the Pittsburgh Pirates. Wagner won his eighth batting title in 1911, a National League record that remains unbroken to this day, matched only once, in 1997, by Tony Gwynn, he led the league in slugging six times and stolen bases five times. Wagner was nicknamed "The Flying Dutchman" due to his superb speed and German heritage; this nickname was a nod to the popular folk-tale made into a famous opera by another Wagner. In 1936, the Baseball Hall of Fame inducted Wagner as one of the first five members, he tied with Babe Ruth. Although Cobb is cited as the greatest player of the dead-ball era, some contemporaries regarded Wagner as the better all-around player, most baseball historians consider Wagner to be the greatest shortstop ever. Cobb himself called Wagner "maybe the greatest star to take the diamond." Honus Wagner is the featured player of one of the rarest and most valuable baseball cards in existence.
Wagner was born to German immigrants Peter and Katheryn Wagner in the borough of Chartiers, in what is now Carnegie, Pennsylvania. Wagner was one of nine children; as a child, he was called Hans by his mother, which evolved into Honus. "Hans" was an alternate nickname during his major league career. Wagner dropped out of school at age 12 to help his father and brothers in the coal mines. In their free time, he and his brothers played sandlot baseball and developed their skills to such an extent that three of his brothers went on to become professionals as well. Wagner's older brother, Albert "Butts" Wagner, who had a brief major league career himself, is credited with getting Honus his first tryout. Butts persuaded his manager to take a look at his younger brother. Following his brother, Wagner trained to be a barber before becoming successful in baseball. In 1916, Wagner married Bessie Baine Smith, the couple would have three daughters, Elva Katrina, Betty Baine, Virginia Mae. Honus' brother Albert "Butts" Wagner was considered the ballplayer of the family.
Albert suggested Honus in 1895. Wagner would play for five teams in that first year, in three different leagues over the course of 80 games. In 1896 Edward Barrow, from the Wheeling, West Virginia, team that Wagner was playing on, decided to take Honus with him to his next team, the Paterson Silk Sox. Barrow proved to be a good talent scout, as Wagner could play wherever he was needed, including all three bases and the outfield. Wagner would hit.313 for Paterson in 1896 and.375 in 74 games in 1897. Recognizing that Wagner should be playing at the highest level, Barrow contacted the Louisville Colonels, who had finished last in the National League in 1896 with a record of 38-93, they were doing better in 1897 when Barrow persuaded club president Barney Dreyfuss, club secretary Harry Pulliam, outfielder-manager Fred Clarke to go to Paterson to see Wagner play. Dreyfuss and Clarke were not impressed with the awkward-looking man, not surprising, as Wagner was oddly built – 5-feet-11, 200 pounds, with a barrel chest, massive shoulders muscled arms, huge hands, bowed legs that deprived him of any grace and several inches of height.
Pulliam, persuaded Dreyfuss and Clarke to take a chance on him. Wagner debuted with Louisville on July 19, hit.338 in 61 games. By his second season, Wagner was one of the best hitters in the National League although he came up short a percentage point from finishing the season at.300. Following the 1899 season, the NL contracted from twelve to eight teams, with the Colonels one of four teams eliminated. Owner Barney Dreyfuss, who had purchased half ownership in the Pirates, took Wagner and many of his other top players with him to the Pittsburgh team. Tommy Leach recounted his impressions of joining the Louisville club in 1898 with hopes of winning the starting job at third base: I hardly had time to get settled before it hits me that this guy the Louisville club had at third base was doing the impossible. I'm sitting on the bench the first day I reported, along about the third inning an opposing batter smacks a line drive down the third-base line that looked like at least a sure double. Well, this big Louisville third baseman jumped over after it like he was on steel springs, slapped it down with his bare hand, scrambled after it at least ten feet, fired a bullet over to first base.
The runner was out by three steps. I'm sitting on the bench and my eyes are popping out. So I poked the guy sitting next to me, asked him who the devil that big fellow was on third base. "Why, that's Wagner," he says. "He's the best third baseman in the league." And it turned out that while Honus was the best third baseman in the league, he was the best first baseman, the best second baseman, the best shortstop, the best outfielder. That was in fielding, and since he led the league in batting eight times between 1900 and 1911, you know that he was the best hitter, too. As well as the best base runner; the move to the Pittsburgh Pirates signified Wagner's emergence as a premier hitter. In 1900, Wagner won his first batting championship with a.381 mark and led the league in doubles and slugging percentage, all of which were career highs. For the next nine seasons, Wagner's average did not fall below.330. In 1901, the American League began to sign National League players, creating a bidding war, which depleted the league of many ta
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
O. G. C. is a hip hop group consisting of Top Dog and Louieville Sluggah. The group is known through their membership in the Boot Camp Clik, along with Buckshot, Smif-N-Wessun and Heltah Skeltah. Duckdown Records
Henry Louis Gehrig, nicknamed "the Iron Horse", was an American baseball first baseman who played his entire professional career in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees, from 1923 until 1939. Gehrig was renowned for his prowess as a hitter and for his durability, which earned him his nickname "the Iron Horse." He was an All-Star seven consecutive times, a Triple Crown winner once, an American League Most Valuable Player twice, a member of six World Series champion teams. He had a career.340 batting average.632 slugging average, a.447 on base average. He hit 493 home had 1,995 runs batted in. In 1939, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame and was the first MLB player to have his uniform number retired by a team. A native of New York City and a student at Columbia University, Gehrig signed with the Yankees in 1923, he set several major-league records during his career, including the most career grand slams and most consecutive games played, a record that stood for 56 years and was long considered unbreakable until surpassed by Cal Ripken, Jr. in 1995.
Gehrig's consecutive game streak ended on May 2, 1939, when he voluntarily took himself out of the lineup, stunning both players and fans, after his performance on the field became hampered by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, an incurable neuromuscular illness now referred to in North America as "Lou Gehrig's disease." The disease forced him to retire at age 36, was the cause of his death two years later. The pathos of his farewell from baseball was capped off by his iconic 1939 "Luckiest Man on the Face of the Earth" speech at Yankee Stadium. In 1969, the Baseball Writers' Association voted Gehrig the greatest first baseman of all time, he was the leading vote-getter on the Major League Baseball All-Century Team chosen by fans in 1999. A monument in Gehrig's honor dedicated by the Yankees in 1941 resides in Monument Park at Yankee Stadium; the Lou Gehrig Memorial Award is given annually to the MLB player who best exhibits Gehrig's integrity and character. Gehrig was born in 1903 at 309 East 94th Street in the Yorkville neighborhood of Manhattan.
He was the second of four children of Christina Foch and Heinrich Gehrig. His father was a sheet-metal worker by trade, unemployed due to alcoholism, his mother, a maid, was the main breadwinner and disciplinarian in the family, his two sisters measles. From an early age, Gehrig helped his mother with work, doing tasks such as folding laundry and picking up supplies from the local stores. Gehrig spoke German during his childhood. In 1910, he lived with his parents at 2266 Amsterdam Avenue in Washington Heights. In 1920, the family resided on 8th Avenue in Manhattan, his name was anglicized to Henry Louis Gehrig and he was known as "Lou" so he would not be confused with his identically named father, known as Henry. Gehrig first garnered national attention for his baseball ability while playing in a game at Cubs Park on June 26, 1920, his New York School of Commerce team was playing a team from Chicago's Lane Tech High School in front of a crowd of more than 10,000 spectators. With his team leading 8–6 in the top of the ninth inning, Gehrig hit a grand slam out of the major league park, an unheard-of feat for a 17-year-old.
Gehrig attended PS 132 in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan went to Commerce High School, graduating in 1921. He studied at Columbia University for two years, before leaving to pursue a career in professional baseball, he went to Columbia on a football scholarship, where he was preparing to pursue a degree in engineering. Before his first semester began, New York Giants manager John McGraw advised him to play summer professional baseball under an assumed name, Henry Lewis, despite the fact that it could jeopardize his collegiate sports eligibility. After he played a dozen games for the Hartford Senators in the Eastern League, he was discovered and banned from collegiate sports his freshman year. In 1922, Gehrig returned to collegiate sports as a fullback for the Columbia Lions football program. In 1923, he played first base and pitched for the Columbia baseball team. At Columbia, he was a member of Phi Delta Theta fraternity. On April 18, 1923, the same day Yankee Stadium opened for the first time and Babe Ruth inaugurated the new stadium with a home run against the Boston Red Sox, Columbia pitcher Gehrig struck out 17 Williams College batters to set a team record, though Columbia lost the game.
Only a handful of collegians were at South Field that day, but more significant was the presence of Yankee scout Paul Krichell, trailing Gehrig for some time. Gehrig's pitching did not impress him. During the time Krichell observed him, Gehrig had hit some of the longest home runs seen on various eastern campuses, including a 450-foot home run on April 28 at Columbia's South Field, which landed at 116th Street and Broadway, he signed a contract with the Yankees on April 30. He returned to the minor-league Hartford Senators to play parts of two seasons, 1923 and 1924, batting.344 and hitting 61 home runs in 193 games, the only time Gehrig had played any level of baseball – sandlot, high school, collegiate or pro – for a team based outside New York City. Gehrig joined the New York Yankees midway through the 1923 season and made his major-league debut as a pinch hitter at age 19 on June 15, 1923. Gehrig wor
Hardwood is wood from dicot trees. These are found in broad-leaved temperate and tropical forests. In temperate and boreal latitudes they are deciduous, but in tropics and subtropics evergreen. Hardwood contrasts with softwood. Hardwoods are produced by angiosperm trees that reproduce by flowers, have broad leaves. Many species are deciduous; those of temperate regions lose their leaves every autumn as temperatures fall and are dormant in the winter, but those of tropical regions may shed their leaves in response to seasonal or sporadic periods of drought. Hardwood from deciduous species, such as oak shows annual growth rings, but these may be absent in some tropical hardwoods. Hardwoods have a more complex structure than softwoods and are much slower growing as a result; the dominant feature separating "hardwoods" from softwoods is vessels. The vessels may show considerable variation in size, shape of perforation plates, structure of cell wall, such as spiral thickenings; as the name suggests, the wood from these trees is harder than that of softwoods, but there are significant exceptions.
In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, with the range in density in hardwoods including that of softwoods. Hardwoods are employed in a large range of applications, including fuel, construction, boat building, furniture making, musical instruments, cooking and manufacture of charcoal. Solid hardwood joinery tends to be expensive compared to softwood. In the past, tropical hardwoods were available, but the supply of some species, such as Burma teak and mahogany, is now becoming scarce due to over-exploitation. Cheaper "hardwood" doors, for instance, now consist of a thin veneer bonded to a core of softwood, plywood or medium-density fibreboard. Hardwoods may be used in a variety of objects, but are most seen in furniture or musical instruments because of their density which adds to durability and performance. Different species of hardwood lend themselves to different end uses or construction processes; this is due to the variety of characteristics apparent in different timbers, including density, pore size and fibre pattern and ability to be steam bent.
For example, the interlocked grain of elm wood makes it suitable for the making of chair seats where the driving in of legs and other components can cause splitting in other woods. There is a correlation between calories/volume; this makes the denser hardwoods like oak and apple more suited for camp fires, cooking fires, smoking meat, as they tend to burn hotter and longer than softwoods like pine or cedar whose low-density construction and highly-flammable sap make them burn and without producing quite as much heat. List of woods Hardwood flooring Softwood Janka hardness test Brinell scale Schweingruber, F. H. Anatomie europäischer Hölzer—Anatomy of European woods. Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landscaft, Birmensdorf. Haupt, Bern und Stuttgart. Timonen, Tuuli. Introduction to Microscopic Wood Identification. Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki. Wilson, K. and D. J. B. White; the Anatomy of Wood: Its Diversity and variability. Stobart & Son Ltd, London. Center for Wood Anatomy Research