Hillsboro, Oregon

Hillsboro is the fifth-largest city in the U. S. is the county seat of Washington County. Lying in the Tualatin Valley on the west side of the Portland metropolitan area, the city hosts many high-technology companies, such as Intel, that comprise what has become known as the Silicon Forest. At the 2010 Census, the city's population was 91,611. For thousands of years before the arrival of European-American settlers, the Atfalati tribe of the Kalapuya lived in the Tualatin Valley near the site of Hillsboro; the climate, moderated by the Pacific Ocean, helped make the region suitable for fishing, food gathering, agriculture. Settlers founded a community here in 1842 named after David Hill, an Oregon politician. Transportation by riverboat on the Tualatin River was part of Hillsboro's settler economy. A railroad reached the area in the early 1870s and an interurban electric railway about four decades later; these railways, as well as highways, aided the slow growth of the city to about 2,000 people by 1910 and about 5,000 by 1950, before the arrival of high-tech companies in the 1980s.

Hillsboro has a council–manager government consisting of a city manager and a city council headed by a mayor. In addition to high-tech industry, sectors important to Hillsboro's economy are health care, retail sales, agriculture, including grapes and wineries; the city operates more than twenty parks and the mixed-use Hillsboro Stadium, ten sites in the city are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Modes of transportation include private vehicles, public buses and light rail, aircraft using the Hillsboro Airport; the city is home to Pacific University's Health Professions Campus. Notable residents include two Oregon governors; the first people of the Tualatin Valley were the Atfalati or Tualaty tribe of the Kalapuya, who inhabited the region for up to 10,000 years before white settlers arrived. The valley consisted of open grassland maintained through annual burning by the Atfalati, with scattered groves of trees along the streams; the Kalapuya moved from place to place in good weather to fish and hunt and to gather nuts, seeds and berries.

Important foods included camas and wapato, the Atfalati traded for salmon from Chinookan tribes near Willamette Falls on the Willamette River. During the winter, they lived in longhouses in settled villages, some near what became Hillsboro and Beaverton, their population was reduced after contact in the late 18th century with Europeans, who carried smallpox and malaria. Of the original population of 1,000 to 2,000 Atfalati reported in 1780, only 65 remained in 1851. In 1855, the U. S. government sent the survivors to the Grande Ronde reservation further west. The European-American community was founded by David Hill, Isaiah Kelsey, Richard Williams, who arrived in the Tualatin Valley in 1841, followed by six more pioneers in 1842; the locality went by two other names—East Tualatin Plains and Columbia—before it was named "Hillsborough" in February 1850 in honor of Hill, when he sold part of his land claim to the county. On February 5, 1850, commissioners chosen by the territorial legislature selected the community to be the seat of the county government.

Hill was to be paid $200 for his land after plots had been sold for the town site, but he died before this occurred, his widow Lucinda received the funds. The town's name was simplified to Hillsboro. A log cabin was built in 1853 to serve as the community's first school, which opened in October 1854. Riverboats provided transportation to Hillsboro as early as 1867 when the side-wheel steamer Yamhill worked on the Tualatin River. In 1871, the Oregon and California Railroad line was extended to the area, but it ran just south of town because the city did not want to give the railroad land in exchange for the rail connection. Hillsboro was incorporated as the Town of Hillsboro on October 1876, by the Oregon Legislature; the first mayor was A. Luelling, who took office on December 8, 1876, served a one-year term. Notable mayors included Congressman Thomas H. Tongue and state senator William D. Hare. In 1923, the city altered its charter and adopted a council-manager government with a six-person city council, a part-time mayor who determined major policies, a city manager who ran day-to-day operations.

On September 30, 1908, 5,000 people gathered as the Oregon Electric Railway opened a connection between the city and Portland with an interurban electric rail line, the first to reach the community. In January 1914, the Southern Pacific Railroad introduced its own interurban service, known as the Red Electric, on a separate line and serving different communities between Hillsboro and Portland. SP discontinued its Hillsboro service on July 28, 1929, while the Oregon Electric Railway's passenger service to Hillsboro lasted until July 1932. A brick building was constructed in 1852 to house the county government, followed by a brick courthouse in 1873. In 1891, the courthouse was remodeled and a clock tower was added, the building was expanded with an annex in 1912. A new courthouse replaced the brick structure in 1928; the last major remodel of the 1928 structure occurred in 1972, when the Justice Services Building was built and incorporated into the existing building. The city's first fire department was a hook and ladder company organized in 1880 by the board of trustees.

A drinking water and electricity distribution system added in 1892–93 gave the town three fire hydrants and minimal street lighting. Hillsboro built its first sewer system in 1911, but sewage treatment was not added until 1936. In 1913, the city built its own water system, the first library, Carnegie City Library, opened in December 1914. From 1921 to 1952, the world's second

Therapy dog

A therapy dog is a dog, trained to provide affection and support to people in hospitals, retirement homes, nursing homes, libraries, hospices and/or disaster areas. In the United States, these dogs are defined but not covered or protected under the Federal Housing Act or Americans with Disabilities Act, they do not have public access rights with exception to the specific places they are visiting and working. The dog would be granted rights by individual facilities only. Therapy dogs are subjected to several tests to ensure; these tests look at their ability to block out distractions, comfort level around a variety of people with many different disabilities, if they are comfortably able to walk through many different terrains. The use of dogs for therapeutic reasons has been demonstrated by many people over the last few centuries, including Florence Nightingale, Sigmund Freud, Elaine Smith. Many organizations provide evaluation and registration for therapy dogs, sometimes with focus on a particular therapeutic practice such as reading to dogs.

Therapy dogs have several benefits ranging from therapeutic and psychological benefits to academic and cognitive benefits. In order for a dog to be a good candidate to become a therapy dog and receive certification, they should be calm and social with strangers, they should be able to adjust to loud noises and fast movements. There are certain steps that are needed for a dog to become certified by a national organization such as The Alliance of Therapy Dogs, e.g. to socialize the dog around other animals and people. They are tested on behaviors such as being able to walk on a loose leash. Exact testing/certification requirements differs based on the organization's requirements. Once the dog becomes certified, they can begin their volunteer careers; some organizations offer classes such as "distraction-proofing," which strengthens the dog's ability to focus and therapy training to help prepare the dog and the dog's owner for therapy visits.. Although therapy dogs are not limited to a certain size or breed, common breeds used in therapy dog application and research includes golden retrievers and labradors.

Therapy dogs offer many benefits to patients. For example, therapy dogs help patients participate in physical activities, they help encourage them to have cognitive and communication goals. Florence Nightingale pioneered the idea of Animal Assisted Therapy, she discovered that patients of different ages living in a psychiatric institution were relieved from anxiety when they were able to spend time with small animals. Freud believed. Freud used his dog to communicate with his patients, he felt as if his patients were more comfortable talking to his dog at first and this opened up doors for them to feel more comfortable talking to him. The use of therapy can be attributed to Elaine Smith, a registered nurse. While a chaplain and his dog visited, Smith noticed the comfort that this visit seemed to bring the patients. In 1976, Smith started a program for training dogs to visit institutions, the demand for therapy dogs continued to grow. Through the AKC, certified Therapy dogs can earn five titles from Novice to Distinguished Therapy Dogs based on their log of volunteer visits.

"The AKC does not certify therapy dogs. The certification organizations are the experts in this area and their efforts should be acknowledged and appreciated." Therapy dogs are not assistance or service dogs, but can be one or both with some organizations. Therapy dogs are not trained to assist specific individuals and do not qualify as service dogs under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Many organizations provide registration for therapy dogs. Typical tests might ensure that a dog can handle sudden strange noises. Institutions may limit, or prohibit access by therapy dogs. If allowed, many institutions have requirements for therapy dogs. United States-based Therapy Dogs International bans the use of service dogs in their therapy dog program. Service dogs perform tasks for persons with disabilities and have a legal right to accompany their owners in most areas. In Canada, St John Ambulance provides therapy dog certification. In the UK, Pets As Therapy provides visiting dogs and cats to establishments where pets are otherwise not available.

In the UK Therapy Dogs Nationwide provide visiting dogs to establishments. There are three classifications for therapy dogs; the most common type of therapy dogs are therapeutic visitation dogs. These dogs are household pets; these dogs are used to improve the mental health of patients through socialization and encouragement. Another type of therapy dog is animal-assisted therapy dogs. Dogs who fall under this category have the duty of providing assistance to patients to reach certain goals towards their recovery, they work to help patients gain skills such as use of limbs and hand-eye coordination. They do this by walking patients through certain activities and games to help them practice these skills; these dogs are based in rehabilitation facilities. The last type of therapy dog is a facility therapy dog; these dogs work in nursing homes along wi


Blauenstein is a castle fort on a rocky outcrop north of Kleinlützel, Switzerland. The castle was built in the thirteenth century and destroyed in 1411 by the forces of Basel during the Neuenstein War. There are only a few walls remaining today; the castle suffered further damage during the 1356 Basel earthquake. As it was at the junction of important Roman pass on Blauenbergkette, the city of Kleinlützel proposes Roman origins for the castle. One description of the castle was given as follows, from a book published in 1841: "...the three castles of Blauenstein and Falkenstein. In ancient times they were inhabited by three powerful barons, who were all warriors, combined together to keep the passes, that here lead in different directions into Switzerland in their own hands, they would not suffer any persons, whatever might be their station, to pass without paying a toll, which they chose to levy on travellers and their goods, according to their own pleasure. They were, in fact, no better than leaders of banditti.

If any one offered remonstrance or resistance, he was imprisoned without hope of escape.