Hillsborough Stadium

Hillsborough Stadium, is a 39,732-capacity association football stadium located in Owlerton, a north-western suburb of Sheffield, England. It has been the home of Sheffield Wednesday since its opening in 1899; the ground has received major investment since it was first occupied in 1899 with new stands all round and the original South stand having been re-built in time for the Euro 96 cup finals. However, it is still regarded as "a beautiful ground oozing character." It has two large two-tiered stands and two large single-tiered stands, all of them covered. All four stands are of a similar capacity with the South Stand being the largest and the West Stand housing the away supporters, the smallest. On 15 April 1989, the ground was the scene of the Hillsborough disaster in which 96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death at an FA Cup semi-final; the subsequent Taylor Report into the disaster led to a series of safety improvements at the ground and other stadiums around the country, including the requirement for clubs in the top two divisions in England to have all-seater stadiums, the withdrawal of perimeter fencing around the pitch.

Plans by the club to renovate the stadium and expand the capacity to 44,825 have been approved by Sheffield City Council with the aim of hosting World Cup matches. The playing surface was upgraded in 2015 to the Desso GrassMaster system including a complete replacement of the under-soil heating and drainage systems, while the scoreboard was replaced by a modern'big screen' prior to the 2015–16 season; the stadium played host to World Cup and European Championship football in 1966 and 1996 respectively. The stadium's capacity has been temporarily reduced to 34,854 on safety grounds, although work is continuing to restore its maximum capacity. During the 1898–99 season Sheffield Wednesday were told that the land rented at Olive Grove would be needed for railway expansions, they were allowed to remain there for the rest of that season but had to find a new ground for the next season. Several locations fell through for various reasons. An alternative was offered by the Midland Railway Company but it did not meet the requirements of the club.

James Willis Dixon of Hillsborough House, owner of the Silversmiths James Dixon & Sons, offered a 10-acre site at Owlerton, a sparsely populated area of land to the northwest of the city. The land was part of the Hillsborough House estate, being sold off by the Dixons, it was bought for £5,000 plus costs. Soil was dumped at both ends of the ground to level out the ground, meadowland covered with dandelions; the 2,000 capacity stand at Olive Grove was transported to the new site and was joined by a newly-built 3,000 capacity stand for the start of the next season. The first match to be played was on 2 September 1899 against Chesterfield; the match was kicked off by the Lord Mayor of Sheffield William Clegg, himself a former Wednesday player. It was a Chesterfield player, Herbert Munday, who scored the first goal at the new stadium but Wednesday came back to win the game 5–1. Despite the location of the ground several miles outside the city boundaries and a poor public transport service the new ground averaged 3,000 supporters for the first three months.

The ground was known as the Owlerton Stadium until 1914, when it was renamed Hillsborough to coincide with a series of ground improvements. The ground took its new name from the newly created parliamentary constituency; the ground proved to be lucky for Wednesday with the first 8 years proving to be their most successful so far. They included their first league wins in the 1902–03 and 1903–04; this was followed by a second FA Cup in 1907. The first FA Cup semi-final to be held at the stadium was a replay between West Bromwich Albion and Blackburn Rovers on 3 April 1912. A crowd of 20,050 saw; this was followed by its first international on 10 April 1920. A match between England and Scotland was watched by 25,536; the game ended with England winning 5–4. The following two seasons saw Hillsborough host two more FA Cup semi-finals, both between Preston North End and Tottenham Hotspur; the crowds for these matches were 49,282 respectively. The highest attendance was 72,841 on 17 February 1934 for an FA Cup 5th-round game against Manchester City.

After the end of the 1912–13 season a record profit was announced by the club. The money was invested in a replacement for the Olive Grove stand on the south side of the stadium; the banking on the Spion Kop was increased in size. The new south stand was completed in time for the first round of the FA Cup on 1 October 1913 against Notts County, it included 5,600 seats plus terracing at the front. New offices, dressing rooms, refreshment rooms and a billiard room were part of the new stand; the second round tie went to a replay on 4 February 1914, held in front of a record home crowd of 43,000. However the match was remembered for the collapse of the new retaining wall at the Penistone Road end, it caused 70 injuries and caused the match to be suspended while the casualties were taken to the infirmary. During the post war era Hillsborough rose to be one of the top stadia in the country, it hosted a total of 27 FA Cup semi-finals. In 1966, the stadium was selected as one of the venues for the Football World Cup, hosting first round matches involving West Germany, Argentina and Spain, as well as a quarterfinal in which West Germany beat Uruguay 4–0.

Demolition of the North Stand began in 1960 and work began on a new £150,000 stand. The new stand, designed by local firm Husband & Co, was 360 feet in length, it was only the second stand in the country, after one at Scunthorpe United's Old Showground

Atlantic Airways Flight 670

Atlantic Airways Flight 670 was a crash following a runway overrun of a British Aerospace 146-200A at 07:32 on 10 October 2006 at Stord Airport, Sørstokken, Norway. The aircraft's spoilers failed causing inefficient braking; the Atlantic Airways aircraft fell down the steep cliff at the end of the runway at slow speed and burst into flames, killing four of sixteen people on board. The flight was chartered by Aker Kværner from Stavanger Airport, Sola via Sørstokken to transport its employees from there and Stord to Molde Airport, Årø. An investigation was carried out by the Accident Investigation Board Norway, it was not able to find the underlying cause of the spoiler malfunction. However, it found that, when the captain selected the emergency braking, the anti-lock braking system was disabled; this selection caused the brakes to lock, resulting in reverted rubber hydroplaning, a condition in which the tires became hot due to frictional forces, the damp runway surface evaporated to steam causing the tires to float on a cushion of steam over the runway surface reducing braking action.

This situation was made worse with a minimal runway end safety area and lack of grooves in the runway surface. Flight 670 was a regular, chartered morning return flight for Aker Kværner to transport its employees from Stavanger Airport and Stord Airport, Sørstokken to Molde Airport, Årø on 10 October 2006; the aircraft had landed at Sola at 23:30 the day before and a 48 flying hour scheduled inspection was carried out during the night and completed at 05:00. The flight departed Sola at 07:15, just after schedule, with twelve passengers and a flight crew of four; the pilot in command, 34-year-old Niklas Djurhuus, was pilot flying, while the first officer, 38-year-old Jakob Evald, was pilot monitoring. The pilots had flown in as passengers on an Atlantic Airways flight to Stavanger the evening before; the commander had carried out twenty-one landings at Sørstokken previously. The weather was reported as wind speed of 3 meters per second, a few clouds at 750 meters altitude, visibility exceeding 10 kilometers and air pressure of 1,021 hectopascals.

The aircraft was a British Aerospace 146-200, serial number E2075, registered OY-CRG, first flown in 1987 and sold to Pacific Southwest Airlines, in the United States. Six months it was sold to Atlantic Airways as the first of this type in its fleet; the last inspection was carried out on 25 September 2006, 2 weeks before the accident. At the time of the accident the aircraft had flown about 22,000 cycles; the BAe 146 is a jetliner designed for short runway operations. Equipped with four Avco Lycoming ALF502R-5 geared turbofan engines, the aircraft is designed for flat landings, where the main and nose landing gears hit the runway nearly simultaneously, it has powerful wheel-brakes and airbrakes, with large spoilers to dump lift on touchdown, but lacks thrust reversers. Stord Airport, Sørstokken is a municipal, regional airport located on the peninsula of Sørstokken on the island of Stord at an elevation of 49 meters; the runway, aligned 15/33 is 30 meters wide. It has thresholds 130 meters on a landing distance available of 1,200 meters.

At both ends of the runway the ground slopes steeply downwards. This was sufficient safety area according to requirements at the time of the airport's construction, but the requirements had been changed by the time of the accident; the runway was presumed to be damp at the time of the accident, although such information was not relayed to the pilots. Atlantic Airways is the national airline of the Faroe Islands and was at the time owned by the Government of the Faroe Islands. OY-CRG was one of five BAe 146s in Atlantic Airways' fleet at the time of the accident; the airline was flying a long-term charter contract with for Aker Kværner, participating in the construction of the gas field Ormen Lange in the vicinity of Molde. The contract involved regular flights between Stavanger Airport, Sola via Stord Airport, Sørstokken to Molde Airport, Årø and return five times each week; the company flew to Alta Airport from Stavanger and Stord in relation to the construction of Snøhvit. To allow full take-off weight for the latter service, Atlantic Airways applied the Civil Aviation Authority of Norway on 18 February 2005 for permission to use a longer take-off distance at Sørstokken.

This was rejected because the airport's limits were below international minimum recommendations. Flight 670 contacted Flesland Approach at 07:23, stating that they would land on runway 15 and that they would carry out a visual approach. Flesland approach cleared the aircraft for a descent to 1,200 meters at 07:24; the aircraft left controlled airspace at 07:27, at which time the aerodrome flight information service at Sørstokken had visual sight of the aircraft. The pilots decided to land at runway 33; the flaps were extended to 33 degrees at 07:31:12. The pilots aimed for a ground speed of 112 knots at touchdown and were guided by the precision approach path indicator. Upon passing the threshold the aircraft had a high speed, at 120 knots; the aircraft touched down at 07:32:14, a few meters in a soft landing. The first officer called for the arming of the spoilers one second after touchdown, the commander armed them half a second later. Two seconds the first officer called "no spoilers" as the spoi

Hope Mills Lake

Hope Mills Lake referred to as Hope Mills Lake #1, by long-time citizens as The Pond, was a lake in Hope Mills in Cumberland County, North Carolina. Before it was a lake, it was a mill pond, fed by Little Rockfish Creek; the mill pond was created in 1839 near the Hope Mills Dam for the first cotton mill in the area. At the time, the area was called Little Rockfish Village. In 2003, heavy rains caused the earthen dam to fail and the lake was unintentionally drained. By 2006, the lake had not been restored so the Friends of Hope Mills Lake was incorporated as a North Carolina non-profit organization to promote and raise funds for the timely restoration and preservation of the dam. In 2008 the new dam was full for the first time in 5 years. In June 2010, the Lake was intentionally drained for safety reasons, after an inspection discovered a sinkhole, leaking water under the dam's structure. Town of Hope Mills The Friends of the Hope Mills Lake USGS GNIS Detail