A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern and western; the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii, the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or the northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, a tropical cyclone occurs in the South Pacific or the Indian Ocean. Within the northwestern Pacific, there are no official typhoon seasons as tropical cyclones form throughout the year.
Like any tropical cyclone, there are a few main requirements for typhoon formation and development: sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis effect to develop a low pressure center, a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance, a low vertical wind shear. While the majority of storms form between June and November, a few storms do occur between December and May. On average, the northwestern Pacific features the most numerous and intense tropical cyclones globally. Like other basins, they are steered by the subtropical ridge towards the west or northwest, with some systems recurving near and east of Japan; the Philippines receive the brunt of the landfalls, with China and Japan being impacted less. Some of the deadliest typhoons in history have struck China. Southern China has the longest record of typhoon impacts for the region, with a thousand-year sample via documents within their archives.
Taiwan has received the wettest known typhoon on record for the northwest Pacific tropical cyclone basins. The term typhoon is the regional name in the northwest Pacific for a severe tropical cyclone, whereas hurricane is the regional term in the northeast Pacific and northern Atlantic. Elsewhere this is called severe tropical cyclone, or severe cyclonic storm; the Oxford English Dictionary cites Urdu ṭūfān and Chinese tai fung giving rise to several early forms in English. The earliest forms -- "touffon" "tufan", "tuffon", others—derive from Urdu ṭūfān, with citations as early as 1588. From 1699 appears "tuffoon" "tiffoon", derived from Chinese with spelling influenced by the older Urdu-derived forms; the modern spelling "typhoon" dates to 1820, preceded by "tay-fun" in 1771 and "ty-foong", all derived from the Chinese tai fung. The Urdu source word توفان ṭūfān comes from the Persian (Persian: توفان/طوفان tūfān meaning "storm" which comes from the verb (Persian: توفیدن/طوفیدن tūfīdan; the word طوفان is derived from Arabic as coming from ṭāfa, to turn round.
The Chinese source is the word tai taifeng. The modern Japanese word, 台風, is derived from Chinese; the first character is used to mean "pedestal" or "stand", but is a simplification of the older Chinese character 颱, which means "typhoon". The Ancient Greek Τυφῶν has secondarily contaminated the word; the Persian term may have been influenced by the Greek word. A tropical depression is the lowest category that the Japan Meteorological Agency uses and is the term used for a tropical system that has wind speeds not exceeding 33 knots. A tropical depression is upgraded to a tropical storm should its sustained wind speeds exceed 34 knots. Tropical storms receive official names from RSMC Tokyo. Should the storm intensify further and reach sustained wind speeds of 48 knots it will be classified as a severe tropical storm. Once the system's maximum sustained winds reach wind speeds of 64 knots, the JMA will designate the tropical cyclone as a typhoon—the highest category on its scale. From 2009 the Hong Kong Observatory started to further divide typhoons into three different classifications: typhoon, severe typhoon and super typhoon.
A typhoon has wind speed of 64-79 knots, a severe typhoon has winds of at least 80 knots, a super typhoon has winds of at least 100 knots. The United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center unofficially classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 130 knots —the equivalent of a strong Category 4 storm in the Saffir-Simpson scale—as super typhoons. However, the maximum sustained wind speed measurements that the JTWC uses are based on a 1-minute averaging period, akin to the U. S.' National Hurricane Center and Central Pacific Hurricane Center. As a result, the JTWC's wind reports are higher than JMA's measurements, as the latter is based on a 10-minute averaging interval. There are six main requirements for tropical cyclogenesis: sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriol
Himeji City Tegarayama Botanical Garden
The Himeji City Tegarayama Botanical Garden known as the Himeji Tegarayama Green House, is a botanical garden located within a greenhouse in Tegarayama Central Park at 93 Tegara, Hyogo, Japan. List of botanical gardens in Japan Tegarayama Botanical Garden Bekkoame article BGCI entry
1923 Great Kantō earthquake
The Great Kantō earthquake struck the Kantō Plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58:44 JST on Saturday, September 1, 1923. Varied accounts indicate the duration of the earthquake was between ten minutes; the earthquake had a magnitude of 7.9 on the moment magnitude scale, with its focus deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay. The cause was a rupture of part of the convergent boundary where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Okhotsk Plate along the line of the Sagami Trough; this earthquake devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, the surrounding prefectures of Chiba and Shizuoka, caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. The earthquake's force was so great that in Kamakura, over 60 km from the epicenter, it moved the Great Buddha statue, which weighs about 93 short tons two feet. Estimated casualties totaled about 142,800 deaths, including about 40,000 who went missing and were presumed dead. According to the Japanese construction company Kajima Kobori Research's conclusive report of September 2004, 105,385 deaths were confirmed in the 1923 quake.
The damage from this natural disaster was the greatest sustained by prewar Japan. In 1960, the government declared September 1, the anniversary of the quake, as an annual "Disaster Prevention Day"; because the earthquake struck at lunchtime when many people were cooking meals over fire, many people died as a result of the many large fires that broke out. Some fires developed into firestorms. Many people died; the single greatest loss of life was caused by a fire tornado that engulfed the Rikugun Honjo Hifukusho in downtown Tokyo, where about 38,000 people were incinerated after taking shelter there following the earthquake. The earthquake broke water mains all over the city, putting out the fires took nearly two full days until late in the morning of September 3. A strong typhoon centered off the coast of the Noto Peninsula in Ishikawa Prefecture brought high winds to Tokyo Bay at about the same time as the earthquake; these winds caused fires to spread rapidly. The Emperor and Empress were staying at Nikko when the earthquake struck Tokyo, were never in any danger.
Many homes were buried or swept away by landslides in the mountainous and hilly coastal areas in western Kanagawa Prefecture. A collapsing mountainside in the village of Nebukawa, west of Odawara, pushed the entire village and a passenger train carrying over 100 passengers, along with the railway station, into the sea. A tsunami with waves up to 10 m high struck the coast of Sagami Bay, Bōsō Peninsula, Izu Islands, the east coast of Izu Peninsula within minutes; the tsunami caused many deaths, including about 100 people along Yui-ga-hama Beach in Kamakura and an estimated 50 people on the Enoshima causeway. Over 570,000 homes were destroyed. Evacuees were transported by ship from Kantō to as far as Kobe in Kansai; the damage is estimated to have exceeded US$1 billion. There were 57 aftershocks. Ethnic Koreans were massacred after the earthquake; the Home Ministry declared martial law and ordered all sectional police chiefs to make maintenance of order and security a top priority. A false rumor was spread that Koreans were taking advantage of the disaster, committing arson and robbery, were in possession of bombs.
Anti-Korean sentiment was heightened by fear of the Korean independence movement. In the confusion after the quake, mass murder of Koreans by mobs occurred in urban Tokyo and Yokohama, fueled by rumors of rebellion and sabotage; the government reported 231 Koreans were killed by mobs in Tokyo and Yokohama in the first week of September. Independent reports said the number of dead was far higher, ranging from 6,000 to 10,000; some newspapers reported the rumors as fact, including the allegation that Koreans were poisoning wells. The numerous fires and cloudy well water, a little-known effect of a large quake, all seemed to confirm the rumors of the panic-stricken survivors who were living amidst the rubble. Vigilante groups set up roadblocks in cities, tested residents with a shibboleth for Korean-accented Japanese: deporting, beating, or killing those who failed. Army and police personnel colluded in the vigilante killings in some areas. Of the 3,000 Koreans taken into custody at the Army Cavalry Regiment base in Narashino, Chiba Prefecture, 10% were killed at the base, or after being released into nearby villages.
Moreover, anyone mistakenly identified as Korean, such as Chinese and Japanese speakers of some regional dialects, suffered the same fate. About 700 Chinese from Wenzhou, were killed. A monument commemorating this was built in 1993 in Wenzhou. In response, the government called upon the police to protect Koreans; the chief of police of Tsurumi is reported to have publicly drunk the well water to disprove the rumor that Koreans had been poisoning wells. In some towns police stations into which Korean people had escaped were attacked by mobs, whereas in other neighbourhoods, residents took steps to protect them; the Army distributed flyers denying the rumor and warning civilians against attacking Koreans, but in many cases vigilante activity only ceased as a result of Army operations against it. In several documented cases and policemen participated in the killings, in other cases authorities handed groups of Koreans over to local vigilantes, who proceeded to kill them. Amidst the mob violence against Korea
Koko-en Garden is a Japanese garden located next to Himeji Castle in Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. It was constructed in 1992 at the site of the lord's west residence, to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the Himeji municipality; the garden has nine different gardens. In 2017, Koko-en signed a sister garden agreement with Ro Ho En, the Japanese Friendship Garden, in its sister city, Arizona. Kokoen Garden, Traditional Japanese Garden in Himeji City
Battle of Sekigahara
The Battle of Sekigahara was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600, that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate. Tokugawa Ieyasu took three more years to consolidate his position of power over the Toyotomi clan and the various daimyō, but Sekigahara is considered to be the unofficial beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate, the last shogunate to control Japan. Oda Nobunaga had consolidated control over much of Japan and was in control of the Shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshiaki. Yoshiaki tried to escape this predicament in 1573 by attacking Nobunaga, but failed and was exiled, thus ending the Ashikaga shogunate. Nobunaga ruled unopposed until he was betrayed by his own retainer Akechi Mitsuhide and died at the Honnō-ji Incident of 1582. Toyotomi Hideyoshi avenged his master and consolidated control over Japan. Hideyoshi had risen from humble roots – his father was an ashigaru – to become the ruler of Japan, his death created a power vacuum, resolved by the outcome at Sekigahara. Though Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified Japan and consolidated his power following the Siege of Odawara in 1590, his failures in his invasions of Korea weakened the Toyotomi clan's power as well as the support of the loyalists and bureaucrats who continued to serve and support the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death during the second invasion.
The presence of Hideyoshi and his brother Hidenaga kept the two main factions of the time, which rallied behind Ishida Mitsunari and Tokugawa Ieyasu from anything more than quarrelling, but when both of them died, the conflicts were exacerbated and developed into open hostilities. With no appointed shōgun over the armies, this left a power vacuum in the Japanese government. Most notably, Katō Kiyomasa and Fukushima Masanori were publicly critical of the bureaucrats Ishida Mitsunari and Konishi Yukinaga. Tokugawa Ieyasu took advantage of this situation, recruited them, redirecting the animosity to weaken the Toyotomi clan. Tokugawa Ieyasu was unrivalled in terms of seniority, rank and overall influence within the regency of the Toyotomi clan after the death of regent Maeda Toshiie. Rumours started to spread stating that Ieyasu, at that point the only surviving contemporary ally of Oda Nobunaga, would take over Hideyoshi's legacy just as Nobunaga's was taken; this was evident amongst the loyalist bureaucrats, who suspected Ieyasu of agitating unrest amongst Toyotomi's former vassals.
A supposed conspiracy to assassinate Ieyasu surfaced, many Toyotomi loyalists, including Maeda Toshiie's son, were accused of taking part and forced to submit to Ieyasu's authority. However, Uesugi Kagekatsu, one of Hideyoshi's appointed regents, defied Ieyasu by building up his military; when Ieyasu condemned him and demanded that he come to Kyoto to explain himself, Kagekatsu's chief advisor, Naoe Kanetsugu responded with a counter-condemnation that mocked Ieyasu's abuses and violations of Hideyoshi's rules, Ieyasu was infuriated. Afterwards, Ieyasu summoned the help of various supporters and led them northward to attack the Uesugi clan. Many of them were at that moment besieging Hasedō though. Ishida Mitsunari, grasping the opportunity created by the chaos, rose up in response and created an alliance to challenge Ieyasu's supporters. Ishida, in his home Sawayama Castle, met with Ōtani Yoshitsugu, Mashita Nagamori, Ankokuji Ekei. Here, they forged the alliance, invited Mōri Terumoto to be its head.
Thus formed what came to be referred to as the Western Army. Mōri seized Osaka Castle for their base of operations, since most of Tokugawa’s forces had vacated the area to attack Uesugi. Ishida wanted to reinforce Mōri at the impregnable Osaka Castle; this would let Ishida challenge the Tokugawa. To this end, Ishida’s forces headed for Gifu Castle in order to use it as a staging area to move on Kyoto, since it was controlled by his ally Oda Hidenobu. Back in Edo, Tokugawa Ieyasu received news of the situation in the Kansai region and decided to deploy his forces. Ieyasu himself commanded his subordinates led another 40,000 men; this made up the bulk of what would be called the Eastern Army. He had some former Toyotomi daimyō engage with the Western Army, while he split his troops and marched west on the Tōkaidō towards Osaka. Since the Tokugawa army departed from Edo, it could only take two roads, both of which converged on Gifu Castle. Ieyasu marched on Gifu; this fortress was a halfway point between Osaka and Kyoto and was controlled by the Tokugawa ally Torii Mototada.
Ishida could not risk leaving a force that could attack his rear, so he marched on it. It took him ten days to capture Fushimi, in that time Gifu Castle had fallen; this forced Ishida Mitsunari to retreat southward in the rain. Tired from a day's march and their gunpowder wet from the rain and his forces stopped at Sekigahara. "Ishida deployed his troops in a strong defensive position, flanked by two streams with high ground on the opposite banks." His right flank was reinforced by daimyō Kobayakawa Hideaki on Mount Matsuo. On October 20, 1600, Ieyasu learned that Ishida Mitsunari had deployed his troops at Sekigahara in a defensive position, they had been following the Western Army, benefited from better weather. At dawn of the next day, the Tokugawa advance guard stumbled into Ishida's army. Neither side saw each other due to the dense fog caused by the earlier rain. Both sides panicked and withdrew, but this resulted in both sides being aware of their adversary's presence. Ishida held his current defensi
The Himeji Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period, located in Harima Province. Ikeda clan Terumasa Toshitaka MitsumasaHonda clan Tadamasa Masatomo MasakatsuMatsudaira clan Tadaaki TadahiroMatsudaira clan Naomoto NaonoriSakakibara clan Tadatsugu Masafusa MasatomoMatsudaira clan NaonoriHonda clan Tadakuni TadatakaSakakibara clan Masakuni Masasuke Masamine MasanagaMatsudaira clan Akinori TomonoriSakai clan Tadazumi Tadazane Tadahiro Tadamitsu Tadanori Tadatomi Tadateru Tadashige Tadatō Tadakuni Himeji Domain on "Edo 300 HTML"
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a