"Himnusz" is the national anthem of Hungary. The words were written by Ferenc Kölcsey, a nationally renowned poet, in 1823, its official musical setting was composed by the romantic composer Ferenc Erkel in 1844, although other less-known musical versions exist; the poem bore the subtitle "A magyar nép zivataros századaiból". The full meaning of the poem's text is evident only to those well acquainted with Hungarian history; the first stanza is sung at official ceremonies and as well in common. It was de facto used as hymn of the Kingdom of Hungary from its composition in 1844, was adopted as national anthem of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989; the lyrics of "Himnusz" are a prayer beginning with áldd meg a magyart. The title in the original manuscript is "Hymnus"—a Latin word meaning "song of praise", one, used in languages other than English to mean "anthem"; the phonetic transcription "Himnusz" replaced the original Latin spelling over time, as the poem gained widespread acceptance as the de facto anthem of Hungary, so too the word "himnusz" took on the meaning "national anthem" for other countries as well.
Although Kölcsey completed the poem on 22 January 1823, it was only published first in 1829 in Károly Kisfaludy's Aurora, without the subtitle, despite it being part of the manuscript. It subsequently appeared in a collection of Kölcsey's works in this time with the subtitle. A competition for composers to make the poem suitable to be sung by the public was staged in 1844 and won by Erkel's entry, his version was first performed in the National Theatre in July 1844 in front of a larger audience on 10 August 1844, at the inaugural voyage of the steamship Széchenyi. By the end of the 1850s it became customary to sing Himnusz at special occasions either alongside Vörösmarty's Szózat or on its own. In the early 1900s, various members of the Hungarian Parliament proposed making the status of Himnusz as the national anthem of Hungary within Austria-Hungary official, but their efforts never got enough traction for such a law to be passed. In the 1950s, Rákosi made plans to have the anthem replaced by one more suited to the Communist ideology, but the poet and composer he had in mind for the task, Illyés and Kodály, both refused.
It wasn't until 1989 that Erkel's musical adaptation of Himnusz gained official recognition as Hungary's national anthem, by being mentioned as such in the Constitution of Hungary. The public radio station Kossuth Rádió plays Himnusz at ten minutes past midnight each day at the close of transmissions in the AM band, as do the state TV channels at the end of the day's broadcasts. Himnusz is traditionally played on Hungarian television at the stroke of midnight on New Year's Eve. "Szózat", which starts with the words Hazádnak rendületlenül légy híve, óh magyar enjoys a social status nearly equal to that of "Himnusz" though only "Himnusz" is mentioned in the Constitution of Hungary. Traditionally, Himnusz is sung at the beginning of ceremonies, Szózat at the end. Recognition is given to the "Rákóczi March", a short wordless piece, used on state military occasions. Another popular song is the "Székely Himnusz", an unofficial ethnic anthem of the Hungarian-speaking Szekler living in Eastern Transylvania, the Székely Land and in the rest of the world.
Two English versions are given below. As Hungarian is a genderless language, masculine pronouns in the English translations are in fact addressed to all Hungarians regardless of gender. On May 7, 2006, a sculpture was inaugurated for Himnusz at Szarvas Square, Budakeszi, a small town close to Budapest, it was created by Mária V. Majzik, an artist with the Hungarian Heritage Award, depicting the full text of the poem in a circle, centered around a two metres high bronze figure of God, with 21 bronze bells in seven arches between eight pieces of stone, each four and a half metres high; the musical form of the poem can be played on the bells. The cost of its construction, 40 million forints, was collected through public subscription. Hungarian anthem Hungary: Himnusz - Audio of the national anthem of Hungary, with information and lyrics National and historical symbols of Hungary has a page about the anthem, featuring a vocal sound file. Sheet Music is available at the Hungarian Electronic Library website.
Hungarian Anthem on Music Keyboard 2.4
The following is a list of notable judgements by the European Court of Human Rights. In December 1977, in the case of Ireland v United Kingdom, the Court ruled that the government of the United Kingdom was guilty of "inhuman and degrading treatment", of men interned without trial, following a case brought by Ireland; the Court found that while their internment was an interference of the convention rights, it was justifiable in the circumstances. This is considered this a "key decision" by the court. On 19 February 2009, in the case of A. and Others v. the United Kingdom, the Grand Chamber of the Court held unanimously that there had been a violation of right to liberty and security, a violation of right to have lawfulness of detention decided by a court, violation of right to be compensated for such violations. The case concerned the applicants' complaints that they were detained in high security conditions under a statutory scheme that permitted the indefinite detention of non-nationals certified by the Secretary of State as suspected of involvement in terrorism.
The applicants were six of Algerian nationality. The Court made awards under Article 41 of the European Convention on Human Rights that were lower than those it made in past cases of unlawful detention, in view of the fact that the detention scheme was devised in the face of a public emergency and as an attempt to reconcile the need to protect the United Kingdom public against terrorism with the obligation not to send the applicants back to countries where they faced a real risk of ill-treatment; the Court therefore awarded, to the six Algerian applicants EUR 3,400, EUR 3,900, EUR 3,800, EUR 3,400, EUR 2,500 and EUR 1,700, respectively. The applicants were jointly awarded EUR 60,000 for legal costs. In Loizidou v. Turkey the property rights of Greek-Cypriot refugees displaced by an invading Turkish army were addressed. In 2003 Turkey paid Ms Loizidou the compensation amounts ruled by the European Court of Human Rights. In June 2009, the Court supported the illegalization of the Basque party Batasuna on the basis that its activity was part of the strategy of the terrorist group ETA, stating that its illegalization by Spain could be justified as necessary in a democratic society in the pursuit of the legitimate aim of preventing terrorism.
In the case M. S. S. V Belgium and Greece the Court judged on 21 January 2011 that both the Greek and the Belgian governments violated the European Convention on Human Rights when applying the EU law on asylum seekers and were given fines to the tune of some €6,000 and €30,000, respectively. Since the Russian military invaded Chechnya for the second time in 1999, the Court agreed to hear cases of human rights abuse brought forward by Chechen civilians against Russia in the course of the Second Chechen War, with 104 rulings to date as of April 2009. In 2007, the Court ruled that Russia was responsible for the killings of a human rights activist Zura Bitiyeva and her family. Bitiyeva herself had filed a complaint against Moscow with the Court in 2000 for abuse while in detention, in then-second case from Chechnya, but she was murdered in 2003 before the ruling was issued. Other cases ruled against Russia included the deaths of Ruslan Alikhadzhyev, Shakhid Baysayev, Nura Luluyeva and Khadzhi-Murat Yandiyev, the case of the indiscriminate bombing of Katyr-Yurt, some of the deaths during the Novye Aldi massacre.
As of 2008, the Court has been flooded by complaints from Chechnya, what the Human Rights Watch called "the last hope for the victims". A European court case that received unprecedented level of attention in Russia and in the countries of former USSR was Kononov vs Latvia, in which the Grand Chamber ruled against USSR WWII veteran, partisan fighter Vassili Kononov, accused of war crimes in now independent Latvia; the ruling not only made into numerous talk shows on TV, but invoked sharp criticism and threats to pull out of the court among some high-ranking Russian politicians and caused the State Duma to adopt a condemning resolution This 2003 case involved balancing the right of freedom of speech against the rights of private property owners. The issue was whether shopping centers in new towns, by assuming the functions of traditional high streets, must assume the responsibility of serving as a public forum; the Court considered but declined to follow the decision of the Supreme Court of California in the landmark case of Robins v. Pruneyard Shopping Center.
In upholding the Turkish Constitutional Court's dissolution of The Welfare Party for violating Turkey's principle of secularism the court held "that sharia is incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy." The Court justified the breach of the appellants' rights by reasoning that a legal regime based on sharia would diverge from the Convention's values, "particularly with regard to its criminal law and criminal procedure, its rules on the status of women and the way it intervenes in all spheres of private and public life in accordance with religious
Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi is a diplectanid monogenean parasitic on the gills of the gag, Mycteroperca microlepis. The species has been described by Dyer and Bunkley-Williams in 1995 and redescribed successively by Yang and Zeng in 2005 and by Kritsky and Adams in 2015; the name of the species honours the American parasitologist Delane C. Kritsky. Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi is a small monogenean, less than 1 mm long; the species has the general characteristics of other species of Pseudorhabdosynochus, with a flat body and a posterior haptor, the organ by which the monogenean attaches itself to the gill of is host. The haptor bears one ventral and one dorsal; the sclerotized male copulatory organ, or "quadriloculate organ", has the shape of a bean with four internal chambers, as in other species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The vagina includes a sclerotized part, a complex structure; the redescription by Kritsky, Bakenhaster & Adams in 2015 includes the following: Body dorsoventrally flattened.
Tegument smooth, scales absent. Cephalic region broad, with two terminal and two bilateral poorly developed lobes, three bilateral pairs of head organs, pair of bilateral groups of cephalic-gland cells at level of pharynx. Four eyespots anterior to pharynx, lacking lenses. Pharynx ovate, muscular. Peduncle broad. Haptor subtriangular, with dorsal and ventral anteromedial lobes containing respective squamodiscs and lateral lobes having hook pairs 2–4, 6, 7. Squamodiscs subequal, with 15 U-shaped rows of rodlets. Ventral anchor with elongate superficial root, long deep root having lateral swelling curved shaft, short recurved point extending just short of level of tip of superficial root. Dorsal anchor with subtriangular base, superficial root short to lacking, moderately long deep root arcing shaft, recurved point extending past level of tip of superficial root. Ventral bar with medial constriction, tapered ends, longitudinal medioventral groove. Paired dorsal bar with enlarged medial end. Hook with elongate depressed thumb, delicate point, uniform shank.
Testis subspherical with indentation of posterior margin suggesting two posterior lobes. Male copulatory organ reniform, with short tapered cone, elongate distal tube, variable retractile filament. Germarium pyriform. Common genital pore ventral, dextral to MCO. Vaginal pore sinistroventral at level of seminal vesicle. Seminal receptacle near body midline. Bilateral vitelline ducts at level of origin of uterus. Measurements: Body 733 μm long. Haptor 187 μm wide. Ventral anchor 40 μm long. Ventral bar 78 μm long. Hook 12 μm long. Pharynx 54 μm wide. Male copulatory organ 114 μm long. Testis 91 μm long, 137 μm wide. Germarial bulb 60 μm wide. According to Kritsky, Bakenhaster & Adams, Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi differs from P. vascellum and P. hyphessometochus by having a large cavity within the chamber of the vaginal sclerite and from P. vascellum and P. contubernalis by having a short heavy cone of the male copulatory organ. It is distinguished from P. mycteropercae by having comparatively short dorsal and ventral anchor shafts and a dorsal bar with an enlarged medial end.
It differs further from these species by having more rows of rodlets in the haptoral squamodiscs. The type-host and only host of Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi is the gag, Mycteroperca microlepis and the type-locality is the Gulf of Mexico. Other records include Florida Middle Grounds in the Gulf of Mexico, near Mobile Bay and Tampa Bay, Florida
Børge Brende is a Norwegian politician and diplomat of the Conservative Party serving as President of the World Economic Forum since 2017. He was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2013 to 2017, Minister of the Environment from 2001 to 2004 and Minister of Trade and Industry from 2004 to 2005, he was a member of the Norwegian Parliament from 1997 to 2009. Brende served as Chairman of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development from 2003 to 2004. In 2005, he took up the appointment of international vice chairman of the China Council for the International Cooperation on Environment and Development. In 2006, Brende was one of the candidates shortlisted to succeed Klaus Töpfer as Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme, alongside Achim Steiner of Germany and Rajendra K. Pachauri of India. In January 2008, Brende joined the World Economic Forum as managing director in charge of relations with governments and civil society. In 2009, Brende joined the Norwegian Red Cross as Secretary General.
He re-joined the World Economic Forum in 2011 as managing director with responsibility for policy initiatives and engagement of the Forum's non-business constituents. From 2009-2011 Brende was Secretary General of Red Cross Norway. Brende was Chairman of the UN Commission of Sustainable Development, he has been the Chairman of Mesta, Norway's largest contracting group in the area of road and highway maintenance. He was a member of the board of Statoil. Brende was International Vice-Chairman of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development. Brende was the deputy chairman of the Conservative party from 1994-98; as foreign minister of Norway Brende normalized the relationship with China. Together with the foreign minister of Cuba the “guarantor” of the Colombian peace process; as Norwegian Minister of Trade and Industry, Brende improved the framework conditions for trade and industry, for innovation and development. By the end of his term in office, funding for innovation had increased by 30%.
As a minister of the Environment he was in charge of an increase of the national park area of Norway of more than 50%. As Secretary General of Norwegian Red Cross Brende was leading two of the largest relief operations in the society's history. In October 2014, Brende – in his capacity as Chairman of the Ad-Hoc Liaison Committee – co-hosted the Cairo Conference on Palestine, an international donor conference on reconstructing the Gaza Strip, which garnered $5.4 billion in pledges. In 2015, Brende negotiated an interim agreement between Norway and the other coastal states in the Arctic – Canada, Denmark and the United States – on prohibiting commercial fishing in the ice-free international waters of the Arctic. In January 2016, Brende was appointed by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to the High-level Advisory Group for Every Woman Every Child. On 15 September 2017 it was announced that Brende will be the president of the World Economic Forum from mid-October 2017. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Governors Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, World Bank Group, Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Governors World Bank, Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Governors Statoil, Member of the Board Mesta, Chairman of the Board Bilderberg Group, Member of the Steering Committee P4G – Partnering for Green Growth and the Global Goals 2030, Member of the Board of Directors World Economic Forum, Member of the Europe Policy Group Norwegian Defence University College, Deputy Chairman of the Advisory Board 2004 – Order of the Phoenix 2005 – Order of St. Olav 2005 – Order of Merit of the Italian Republic 2018 – Order of San Carlos Brende is married and has two sons.
2059 Baboquivari, provisional designation 1963 UA, is an asteroid classified as near-Earth object of the Amor group 1.9 kilometers in diameter. Discovered by the Indiana Asteroid Program in 1963, it was named after the Baboquivari Mountains in Arizona, United States. Baboquivari is one of the lowest numbered near-Earth asteroids as it was discovered on 16 October 1963; the discovery observation was made by the Indiana Asteroid Program at Goethe Link Observatory near Brooklyn, Indiana, in the United States. Three months it became a lost asteroid until June 1976, when it was recovered by the Steward Observatory's 90-inch Bok Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory located in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. Baboquivari is an Amor asteroid – a subgroup of near-Earth asteroids that approach the orbit of Earth from beyond, but do not cross it, it orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.2 -- 4.1 AU once 4 months. Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.53 and an inclination of 11° with respect to the ecliptic.
The body's observation arc begins at the discovering observatory, 10 days after its official discovery observation. The asteroid has an Earth minimum orbit intersection distance of 0.2537 AU, which corresponds to 98.8 lunar distances. It approached the Earth at a similar distance on 20 October 1963, shortly after its discovery; the eccentric asteroid is a Mars-crosser and approached Jupiter at a distance of about 1.4 AU on 20 April 1970. Little is known about Baboquivari's physical characteristics, its spectral type has never been determined. It is classified as a near-Earth object larger than one kilometer in diameter by the Minor Planet Center. A generic magnitude-to-diameter conversion gives a diameter of 1.9 kilometers, based on the body's absolute magnitude of 16.0 and an assumed standard albedo for stony S-type asteroids. As of 2017, no rotational lightcurve of Baboquivari has been obtained from photometric observations; the asteroid's rotation period and shape remain unknown. This minor planet was named after the main-peak of the Baboquivari Mountains, a sacred location in the mythology of the Papago Indian Tribe.
The Observatories of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy are located on the Baboquivari land, just a few kilometers south of Kitt Peak. The approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 1 December 1979. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 2059 Baboquivari at NeoDyS-2, Near Earth Objects—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Obs prediction · Orbital info · MOID · Proper elements · Obs info · Close · Physical info · NEOCC 2059 Baboquivari at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
The Ford FK, short for "Ford Köln," is a series of medium-duty trucks built by Ford of Germany in their Cologne plant in two generations from 1951 until 1961. The Ford "Köln" name replaced the earlier Rhein and Ruhr badges as competitor Krupp had copyrighted them. Ford Germany withdrew from the truck sector after 1961, focusing on lighter utility vehicles and imports from Ford UK; the first Ford FK series arrived in 1951, in three weight models: the 2-tonne FK 2000 with a 3.3 liter four-cylinder G28T petrol engine with 52 PS. The FK's headlights were integrated in the fenders and the prominent grille consisted of seven horizontal chromed strips; the earlier, smaller Ford Rhein-series of trucks had been built with a petrol V8 engine, but as it was not economical Ford decided to install a diesel engine. The choice fell on a 94 PS 4,080 cc unit from American engine manufacturer Hercules; this was installed in the Rhein series, but in the 3 1⁄2-tonne FK 3500D and the 4-tonne FK 4000 which arrived in 1953.
Reliability concerns prompted Ford to detune the diesel to 85 PS. In 1953, the underpowered four-cylinder engines, carried over from the 1932 Ford BB and developed from the 1927 Model A's engine, were discontinued. In June 1954 the FK 4000 S/D arrived, this had a 4,460 cc version of the Hercules diesel with 90 PS; the comparatively high-revving, low-compression Hercules diesels had a bad reputation for quality and served to hurt Ford's reputation in the truck market. At this time the Ford Köln received a redesigned cabin, with a square, chromed grille, a split windshield, a shorter bonnet; the shorter cab allowed for a longer cargo space with better weight distribution. Forward control versions were offered to market, but only a small number of units was sold; the second generation of Ford Kölns was introduced at the end of 1955 and were nicknamed Haifisch due to their toothy grilles. The shape was much modern, with a one-piece, curved windshield, a rounded nose, a grille with twelve vertical, chromed elements.
The range included three main models: the 2.5 tonnes FK 2500, the 3.5 tonnes FK 3500, the 4.5 tonnes FK 4500. The FK has a ladder frame chassis with leaf sprung live axles front and rear and hydraulic brakes on all four wheels. Four- or five-speed transmissions were available. While petrol models retained the earlier 3.9-liter V8 with 100 PS, the diesel engines were new: they were two-stroke diesels in either V4 or V6 formats, of 2.8 or 4.2 liters. Maximum power claims were 120 PS, respectively; the two-stroke design, developed by Professor Hans List of Graz, Austria for Gräf & Stift, was chosen as it was believed that its minimum number of moving parts would provide both reliability and economy. However, reality proved otherwise; the cylinders deformed around the exhaust ports, engine failures were rife. In the first half of 1956, warranty claims outnumbered new truck deliveries. Production of new engines was halted in order to be able to carry out rebuilds. By the middle of 1957 the diesels were discontinued, leaving only the petrol V8 to soldier on until 1961.
The disastrous experience is credited with ending Ford Germany's involvement with trucks. The pressing tools for the cabin were transferred to Ford UK in 1962, who used them for the Thames Trader NC sold as the Ford K-series