World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle
William Parker, 13th Baron Morley, 4th Baron Monteagle was an English peer, best known for his role in the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot. In 1605 Parker was due to attend the opening of Parliament, he was a member of the House of Lords as the title on his mother's side. He received a letter: it appears that someone a fellow Catholic, was afraid he would be blown up; the so-called Monteagle letter survives in the National Archives. William was the eldest son of Edward Parker, 12th Baron Morley, of Elizabeth Stanley and heiress of William Stanley, 3rd Baron Monteagle, he had both a younger sister, Mary. William's father appears to have been in favour at court. However, William was allied with many Roman Catholic families, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I was in sympathy with their cause, his wife, the daughter of Sir Thomas Tresham, came from a well-known Roman Catholic family. His sister married Thomas Habington a Roman Catholic, he was knighted while with Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex in Ireland in 1599, in 1601 he took part in the latter's rebellion in London.
He was punished by imprisonment and a fine of £8,000. Having close ties with the extremist Catholic faction during Queen Elizabeth I's rule, a hand in organising Thomas Winter's mission to Spain in 1602, William Parker declared to be "done with all formal plots" after King James I took the throne. Parker went as far as writing a letter to his new king with a promise to follow the state religion. Like some reformers, Parker blamed his childhood for his previous wrongdoings, stating: "I knew no better." When King James I began his reign, English Catholics had hoped that the persecution felt for over 45 years under his predecessor Queen Elizabeth would end. Though more tolerant than others before him, James was still faced with plots and schemes by priests and rebels trying to end the mistreatment of Catholics through force. To please the Protestants, who were distressed over the growing strength of the Catholic religion, James proclaimed his detestation for Catholics in England. Once again priests were expelled, fines were taxed, Catholics went back to living a hidden life.
But some Catholics weren't so accepting of the secretive nature in which they had to practice their faith. In 1604 Robert Catesby, a devout Catholic with a magnetic personality, recruited friends and rebels to meet and discuss his plot to blow up the House of Lords in an attempt to reestablish Catholicism in England; those present at that first meeting with Catesby were Thomas Wintour, John Wright, Thomas Percy and Guy Fawkes. With the imminent threat of plague, Parliament postponed re-opening until November 5, 1605, which gave the plotters ample time to lease out a small house in the centre of London where Fawkes would live under the alias “Jhon Jhonson” as Thomas Percy's servant while gathering the gunpowder necessary. By March 1605, the 36 barrels of gunpowder were moved to the newly leased out cellar directly under the House of Lords. On 26 October an anonymous letter warned Lord Monteagle to avoid the opening of Parliament; this letter was sent by Monteagle's brother-in-law, Francis Tresham.
In any event it caused enough suspicion that on the night of 4 November the undercroft beneath the House of Lords was searched by guards, where Guy Fawkes was found in possession of matches and gunpowder was found hidden under coal. After intense torture in the Tower of London Fawkes gave his true name and those of his fellow conspirators. All but one of the plotters pleaded not guilty but the seven were found guilty of high treason and each were executed on 30 and 31 January. On 26 October 1605, while sitting at supper at his house in Hoxton, London, he received a letter warning of the Gunpowder Plot, it is believed by some historians that he authored the letter himself to win acclaim and favour with the King. Fraser posits. Had it been a conspirator, such as Francis Tresham, the writer would have intended to end the plot before it began; the argument against Mary Habington having sent the letter is that the letter was too clumsy, that there were far better ways to discreetly deliver the information, had it come from her.
As for a conspirator, Parker benefited too richly—and the conspirators too terribly—for that to be the case. After deciphering the letter, Parker rushed to Whitehall and showed it to Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, who showed it to the King. On 4 November, Parker joined Thomas Howard in searching the basement of Parliament, where they found the stash of gunpowder and explosives. For his service in protecting the crown, Monteagle was rewarded with 500 pounds and 200 pounds' worth of lands. In 1609, William Parker became a member of the council, he had shares in the East North West Companies as well. Parker used his influence to protect his brother-in-law, Thomas Habington, from the possible consequence of death, after harbouring the forbidden priests at Hindlip. Although Habington was condemned, his wife's pleas to her brother secured his reprieve. Despite revealing the Gunpowder Plot, Parker seems to have retained some connections to the Catholic community, his eldest son of six children, Henry Lord Morley, was a known Catholic and in 1609, he was suspected of sheltering students from St. Omer's seminary
Blessed Edward Oldcorne or Oldcorn alias Hall was an English Jesuit priest. He was known to people who knew of the Gunpowder Plot to destroy the Parliament of England and kill King James I, he is a Roman Catholic martyr, was beatified in 1929. Oldcorne was born in York in 1561, the son of John Oldcorne, a bricklayer, his wife Mary, his father was a Protestant, his mother a Catholic who had spent some time in prison due to her faith. He was educated at St Peter's School in York. Oldcorne was educated as a doctor, but decided to enter the priesthood, he went to the English College at Reims to Rome where after ordination in 1587, he became a Jesuit in 1588. In late 1588 Oldcorne returned in the company of John Gerard. In early 1589 he went with Henry Garnet to the West Midlands, visiting Coughton and settling at Baddesley Clinton, he worked chiefly in Worcestershire for 17 years. Oswald Tesimond assisted him after 1596. Oldcorne sometimes stayed with Thomas Abington, whose house at Hindlip Hall was near Baddesley Clinton.
There he converted Thomas's sister Dorothy. The house was was adapted by Nicholas Owen to help conceal Catholic priests. On 3 November 1601, Oldcorne went on a pilgrimage to St Winefride's Well at Holywell in north Wales to obtain a cure for a cancer of the throat; the cancer cleared up and in 1605 about thirty people returned with him to give thanks for his recovery. Amongst this group were the priests Oswald Tesimond, Ralph Ashley, Henry Garnet, as well as Nicholas Owen and John Gerard. In the group was plotter Everard Digby and his wife, whose priest was Oldcorne; the timing of this second pilgrimage and the people involved aroused suspicion. The government investigation used this gathering as circumstantial evidence to implicate some of those there in the plot; when the Gunpowder Plot was discovered, Oldcorne was at his base for fourteen years. In December, he was joined there by Nicholas Owen, Henry Garnet and Ralph Ashley who were hiding because they were under suspicion of involvement. Hindlip was searched in January but the four were not discovered: Garnet and Oldcorne were in one hiding place while the two lay brothers were in another.
Their conditions were poor, after eight days they surrendered. Oldcorne was arrested with Garnet by Sir Henry Bromley and held at the castle at Holt in Worcestershire before being taken to the Tower of London, it has been said that Bromley would have abandoned his search much earlier but he had information from Humphrey Littleton that Oldcorne and Garnet were hiding there. Oldcorne was tortured, he recounted under interrogation that on 8 November 1605 there arrived Tesimond from Robert Wintour's who told Mr Abington and himself that "he brought them the worst news that they had heard, they were all undone." Tesimond said that certain people had intended to blow up the parliament house but they had been discovered a few days before it was meant to happen. Some allege. Others suppose that it may have been because he was notorious or because he had provided safe refuge through Father Jones for the plotters, Robert Wintour and Stephen Littleton. At his trial, Humphrey Littleton asked for his forgiveness and it was said that he believed he deserved to die for revealing his friend's whereabouts.
Two letters of his are at the second written from prison. On the day before his execution John Floyd, a fellow Jesuit, was arrested for trying to visit him. Oldcorne was executed at Red Hill, together with John Wintour, Humphrey Littleton and Ralph Ashley, his servant, it is said that, as Oldcorne waited on the ladder to die, Ashley kissed his feet and said, "What a happy man am I to follow in the steps of my sweet father". Oldcorne died with the name of St Winifred on his lips; when Ashley came to die he prayed and asked for forgiveness and noted that like Oldcorne he was dying for his religion and not as a traitor. Oldcorne's portrait was painted after his death for the Church of the Gesù. A number of his relics survived. A grisly relic is one of his eyes which he lost when the executioner decapitated him: it is said that the force of the blow was so great that his eye flew out of its socket. A secondary school, Blessed Edward Oldcorne Catholic College, named in his honour, is in Worcester, his right eye and the rope that bound him are kept as relics at Stonyhurst College.
They believe that the eye was taken by a Catholic sympathiser while his body was being parboiled after he was quartered. Abington's wife Mary was the sister of 4th Baron Monteagle; the authorship of Monteagle's letter has been a significant problem to historians. One of the candidates put forward is Oldcorne
A priest hole is a hiding place for a priest built into many of the principal Catholic houses of England during the period when Catholics were persecuted by law in England. When Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558, there were several Catholic plots designed to remove her and severe measures were taken against Catholic priests. Many great houses had a priest hole built so that the presence of a priest could be concealed when searches were made of the building, they were cleverly concealed in walls, under floors, behind wainscoting and other locations and were successful in concealing their occupant. Many priest holes were designed by the Jesuit lay brother Nicholas Owen, who spent much of his life building priest holes to protect the lives of persecuted priests. After the Gunpowder Plot, Owen himself was captured, taken to the Tower of London and tortured to death on the rack, he was canonised as a martyr by Pope Paul VI in 1970. The measures put in force shortly after Elizabeth's accession became much harsher after the Rising of the North and the Babington Plot in particular, the utmost severity of the law being enforced against seminary priests.
"Priest hunters" were tasked to locate any priests. An Act was passed prohibiting a member of the Roman Catholic Church from celebrating the rites of his faith on pain of forfeiture for the first offence, a year's imprisonment for the second, imprisonment for life for the third. All those who refused to take the Oath of Supremacy were called "recusants" and were guilty of high treason. A law was enacted which provided that if any "papist" should be found converting an Anglican, or other Protestant, to Catholicism, both would suffer death for high treason. In November 1591, a priest was hanged before the door of a house in Gray's Inn Fields for having said Mass there the month previously. Laws against seminary priests and "Recusants" were enforced with great severity after the Gunpowder Plot episode during James I's reign. Arrest for a priest meant imprisonment, torture and execution. England's castles and country houses had some precaution in the event of a surprise, such as a secret means of concealment or escape that could be used at a moment's notice.
However, in the time of legal persecution the number of secret chambers and hiding-places increased in the houses of the old Catholic families. These took the form of apartments or chapels in secluded parts of the houses, or in the roof space, where Mass could be celebrated with the utmost privacy and safety. Nearby there was an artfully contrived hiding-place, not only for the officiating priest to slip into in case of emergency, but to provide a place where the vestments, sacred vessels, altar furniture could be stored on short notice. Priest's holes were built in fireplaces and staircases and were constructed between the 1550s and 1605. Many such hiding places are attributed to a Jesuit lay brother, Nicholas Owen, who devoted the greater part of his life to constructing these places to protect the lives of persecuted priests. With incomparable skill Owen knew how to conduct priests to a place of safety along subterranean passages, to hide them between walls and bury them in impenetrable recesses, to entangle them in labyrinths and a thousand windings.
But what was much more difficult of accomplishment, he so disguised the entrances to these as to make them most unlike what they were. Moreover, he kept these places so close a secret that he would never disclose to another the place of concealment of any Catholic, he alone was both their builder. No one knows; some may still be undiscovered. They were sometimes built as an offshoot from a chimney. Another favorite entrance was behind panelling. Others were incorporated for example at Chesterton Hall, near Cambridge. Harvington Hall in Worcestershire has seven priest holes throughout the house, including access through the main staircase, a false fireplace. After the Gunpowder Plot, Owen himself was captured at Hindlip Hall, taken to the Tower of London and tortured to death on the rack, he was canonised as a martyr by Pope Paul VI in 1970. The effectiveness of priest holes was demonstrated by their success in baffling the exhaustive searches of the "pursuivants", described in contemporary accounts of the searches.
Search-parties would bring with them skilled carpenters and masons and try every possible expedient, from systematic measurements and soundings to the physical tearing down of panelling and pulling up of floors. Another ploy would be for the searchers to pretend to leave and see if the priest would emerge from hiding, he might be half-starved, sore with prolonged confinement, afraid to breathe lest the least sound should throw suspicion upon the particular spot where he was concealed. Sometimes a priest could die by lack of oxygen. Priest hunter Anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom English & Irish Penal Laws Come Rack! Come Rope! Secret Chambers and Hiding Places, by Allan Fea, an eText at Project Gutenberg, from which this article is derived. Article in The Blackpool Gazette:'Priest hole found in Tudor Hall', featuring a priest hole discovered by the owner of Mains Hall, Lancashire BBC Black Country feature about a priest hole in Moseley Old Hall, that harbored Charles II in 1651 as he fled from Cromwell's army "Gunpowder Plot hall for sale".
Rushton Hall, Northamptonshire: BBC News. 2 October 2002. Webpage about the priest hole at Naworth Castle, with historical notes and video
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is used in the Catholic Church and Anglican churches, as well as some Lutheran churches, Western Rite Orthodox and Old Catholic churches; some Protestants employ terms such as worship service, rather than the word Mass.. For the celebration of the Eucharist in Eastern Christianity, including Eastern Catholic Churches, other terms such as Divine Liturgy, Holy Qurbana, Badarak are used instead; the English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa. The Latin word was adopted in Old English as mæsse, was sometimes glossed as sendnes; the Latin term missa itself was in use by the 6th century. It is most derived from the concluding formula Ite, missa est. However, there have been other explanations of the noun missa, i.e. as not derived from the formula ite, missa est. Fortescue cites older, "fanciful" etymological explanations, notably a latinization of Hebrew matzâh "unleavened bread.
The French historian Du Cange in 1678 reported "various opinions on the origin" of the noun missa "mass", including the derivation from Hebrew matzah, here attributed to Caesar Baronius. The Hebrew derivation is learned speculation from 16th-century philology. Thus, De divinis officiis explains the word as a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deo, while Rupert of Deutz derives it from a "dismissal" of the "enmities, between God and men"; the Catholic Church sees the Mass or Eucharist as "the source and summit of the Christian life", to which the other sacraments are oriented. The Catholic Church believes that the Mass is the same sacrifice that Jesus Christ offered on the Cross at Calvary; the ordered celebrant is understood to act in persona Christi, as he imitates the words and gestures of Jesus Christ at the Last Supper. By virtue of the mediation of the Holy Spirit, said to be present in the apostolic church, through the words proffered by the celebrant, similar to the Word of God the Son, there takes place a transubstantiation of: the wine into the Precious Blood, the sacramental bread into the Holy Body of Jesus Christ.
Hence, Roman Catholic and Orthodox believe that the Holy Trinity is in the host, celebrated during the Holy Mass and in the previous context of the Christian consecrations. The Holy Mass renews, makes alive at any time the innocent sacrifice of Jesus Christ, as He is "the Holy One of God", thus the unique door of salvation for the human sins; the term "Mass" is used only in the Roman Rite, while the Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches use the analogous term "Divine Liturgy" and other Eastern Catholic Churches have terms such as Holy Qurbana. Although similar in outward appearance to the Anglican Mass or Lutheran Mass, the Catholic Church distinguishes between its own Mass and theirs on the basis of what it views as the validity of the orders of their clergy, as a result, does not ordinarily permit intercommunion between members of these Churches. In a 1993 letter to Bishop Johannes Hanselmann of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria, Cardinal Ratzinger affirmed that "a theology oriented to the concept of succession, such as that which holds in the Catholic and in the Orthodox church, need not in any way deny the salvation-granting presence of the Lord in a Lutheran Lord's Supper."
The Decree on Ecumenism, produced by Vatican II in 1964, records that the Catholic Church notes its understanding that when other faith groups "commemorate His death and resurrection in the Lord's Supper, they profess that it signifies life in communion with Christ and look forward to His coming in glory."Within the fixed structure outlined below, specific to the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite, the Scripture readings, the antiphons sung or recited during the entrance procession or communion, certain other prayers vary each day according to the liturgical calendar. The priest enters, with a deacon, if there is one, altar servers. After making the sign of the cross and greeting the people liturgically, he begins the Act of Penitence; this concludes with the priest's prayer of absolution, however, lacks the efficacy of the Sacrament of Penance. The Kyrie, eleison, is sung or said, followed by the Gloria in excelsis Deo, an ancient praise, if appropriate for the liturgical season; the Introductory Rites are brought to a close by the Collect Prayer.
On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given. On other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament, or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide; the first reading is sung responsorially or recited. The second reading is from the New Testament from one of the Pauline e
Henry Garnet, sometimes Henry Garnett, was an English Jesuit priest executed for his complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Born in Heanor, Derbyshire, he was educated in Nottingham and at Winchester College before he moved to London in 1571 to work for a publisher. There he professed an interest in legal studies and in 1575, he travelled to the continent and joined the Society of Jesus, he was ordained in Rome some time around 1582. In 1586, Garnet returned to England as part of the Jesuit mission, soon succeeding Father William Weston as Jesuit superior, following the latter's capture by the English authorities. Garnet established a secret press, which lasted until late 1588, in 1594 he interceded in the Wisbech Stirs, a dispute between secular and regular clergy, he preferred a passive approach to the problems Catholics faced in England, approving of the disclosure by Catholic priests of the existence of the 1603 Bye Plot, exhorting English Catholics not to engage in violent rebellion.
In summer 1605 Garnet met with Robert Catesby, a religious zealot who, unknown to him, planned to kill the Protestant King James I. The existence of Catesby's Gunpowder Plot was revealed to him by Father Oswald Tesimond on 24 July 1605, but as the information was received under the seal of the confessional, he felt that Canon law prevented him from speaking out. Instead, without telling anyone of what Catesby planned, he wrote to his superiors in Rome, urging them to warn English Catholics against the use of force; when the plot failed Garnet went into hiding, but he was arrested on 27 January 1606. He was taken to London and interrogated by the Privy Council, whose members included John Popham, Edward Coke and Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury. Imprisoned in the Tower of London, his conversations with fellow prisoner Edward Oldcorne were monitored by eavesdroppers, his letters to friends such as Anne Vaux were intercepted, his guilt, announced at the end of his trial on 28 March 1606, was a foregone conclusion.
Criticised for his use of equivocation, which Coke called "open and broad lying and forswearing", attacked for not warning the authorities of what Catesby planned, he was sentenced to be hanged and quartered. He was executed on 3 May 1606. Henry Garnet was born some time around July 1555 at Heanor in Derbyshire, son of Brian Garnet and Alice, he had at least five siblings: two brothers and John, three sisters, Margaret and Anne, all of whom became nuns at Louvain. Henry studied at the grammar school in Nottingham. Following his election as a scholar on 24 August 1567, in 1568 he entered Winchester College, where he excelled, his love of music and "rare and delightful" voice were complemented by an ability to perform songs without preparation, he was also skilled with the lute. Father Thomas Stanney wrote that Garnet was "the prime scholar of Winchester College skilful in music and in playing upon the instruments modest in his countenance and in all his actions, so much that the schoolmasters and wardens offered him great friendship, to be placed by their means in New College, Oxford."
Garnet did not enter New College. There he worked for Richard Tottell, as a proof-reader and corrector, he dined with Sir John Popham, who as Lord Chief Justice was to preside over the trial of the Gunpowder Plotters, men whose association with Garnet would prove so fateful. Although Garnet professed to Popham an interest in legal studies, in 1575 he sailed for Portugal with Giles Gallop, to enter the Society of Jesus; the two men travelled to Rome and on 11 September 1575 were accepted into the church at Sant'Andrea della Valle. Garnet studied under the theologian Father Robert Bellarmine. Two of his professors, Christopher Clavius and Robert Bellarmine, praised his abilities, he was ordained sometime around 1582 and stayed in Rome as a Professor of Hebrew, lecturing on metaphysics and mathematics. He was an English confessor at St Peter's, but in May 1584 his academic career was curtailed when as a consequence of a petition from the Jesuit superior for England William Weston, Father Robert Persons asked that he be sent to England.
The Superior General Claudio Acquaviva, who saw Garnet as his successor, refused this request. He thought Garnet more suited to "the quiet life" than that which awaited him in England, but on 2 May 1586 he relented and allowed him to leave. Appointed superior for the journey, Garnet travelled with Robert Southwell, leaving for Calais on 8 May, he landed near Folkestone early in July 1586. After meeting the Jesuit superior for England William Weston at a London inn, Garnet and Weston travelled to Harlesford, near Marlow, Buckinghamshire. Spending just over a week at the home of Richard Bold, they engaged in prayer and masses, took confessions, they discussed their mission in England, deciding to meet each year in August. Weston gave the two men details of Catholic houses that would shelter them. Acquaviva had instructed that should anything happen to Weston, Garnet was to succeed him as superior in England, which he did when only days after leaving Harlesford, Weston was captured en route to London.
Acquaviva had given Garnet permission to print pro-Catholic literature, so early the next year he met Southwell in London to discuss the establishment of a secret press, located somewhere around a former Augustinian hospital near Spitalfields. It lasted until late 1588 and was responsible for A Consolatory Letter to All the Afflicted Catholikes in England, a
Viscount Southwell, of Castle Mattress in the County of Limerick, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1776 for 3rd Baron Southwell; the Southwell family descends from Thomas Southwell. In 1662 he was created a Baronet, of Castle Mattress in the County of Limerick, in the Baronetage of Ireland, he was succeeded by the second Baronet. He represented Limerick County in the Irish Parliament. In 1717 he was created Baron Southwell, of Castle Mattress, in the County of Limerick, in the Peerage of Ireland, his grandson was the aforementioned third Baron, elevated to a viscountcy in 1776. Before succeeded in the barony he had represented Enniscorthy in the Irish House of Commons, his great-grandson, the fourth Viscount, served as Lord Lieutenant of County Leitrim between 1872 and 1878. As of 2010 the titles are held by his great-grandson, the seventh Viscount, who succeeded his uncle in 1960; the family surname and the title of the peerages, Southwell, is pronounced "Suthell". Sir Thomas Southwell, 1st Baronet Sir Thomas Southwell, 2nd Baronet Thomas Southwell, 1st Baron Southwell Thomas Southwell, 2nd Baron Southwell Thomas George Southwell, 3rd Baron Southwell Thomas George Southwell, 1st Viscount Southwell Thomas Arthur Southwell, 2nd Viscount Southwell Thomas Anthony Southwell, 3rd Viscount Southwell Thomas Arthur Joseph Southwell, 4th Viscount Southwell Arthur Robert Pyers Southwell, 5th Viscount Southwell Robert Arthur William Joseph Southwell, 6th Viscount Southwell Pyers Anthony Joseph Southwell, 7th Viscount Southwell The heir apparent is the present holder's son the Hon. Richard Andrew Pyers Southwell The next and last in line to the titles is the present holder's younger son the Hon. Charles Anthony John Southwell Kidd, Williamson, David.
Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Pyers Southwell, 7th Viscount Southwell