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Hindu calendar

Hindu calendar is a set of various lunisolar calendars that are traditionally used in the Indian subcontinent and South-east Asia with regional variations for social and Hindu religious purposes. They adopt a similar underlying concept for timekeeping with based on sidereal year for solar cycle and adjustment of lunar cycles in every three years, however differ in their relative emphasis to moon cycle or the sun cycle and the names of months and when they consider the New Year to start. Of the various regional calendars, the most studied and known Hindu calendars are the Shalivahana Shaka found in South India, Vikram Samvat found in North and Central regions of India, Tamil calendar used in Tamil Nadu, the Bengali calendar used in the Bengal – all of which emphasize the lunar cycle, their new year starts in spring. In contrast, in regions such as Kerala, the solar cycle is emphasized and this is called the Malayalam calendar, their new year starts in autumn, these have origins in the second half of the 1st millennium CE.

A Hindu calendar is sometimes referred to as Panchanga. The ancient Hindu calendar conceptual design is found in the Jewish calendar, but different from the Gregorian calendar. Unlike Gregorian calendar which adds additional days to lunar month to adjust for the mismatch between twelve lunar cycles and nearly 365 solar days, the Hindu calendar maintains the integrity of the lunar month, but insert an extra full month by complex rules, every few years, to ensure that the festivals and crop-related rituals fall in the appropriate season; the Hindu calendars have been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, remains in use by the Hindus all over the world to set the Hindu festival dates such as Diwali, Saraswati Puja, Maha Shivaratri, Makar Sankranti, Vaisakhi, Rath Yatra, Raksha Bandhan, Ganesh Puja, Onam, Krishna Janmashtami, Durga Puja, Ram Navami, Pana Sankranti, Vishu. Early Buddhist communities of India adopted the ancient Indian calendar Vikrami calendar and local Buddhist calendars.

Buddhist festivals continue to be scheduled according to a lunar system. The Buddhist calendar and the traditional lunisolar calendars of Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar; the ancient Jain traditions have followed the same lunisolar system as the Hindu calendar for festivals and inscriptions. However, the Buddhist and Jain timekeeping systems have attempted to use the Buddha and the Mahavira's lifetimes as their reference points; the Hindu calendar is important to the practice of Hindu astrology and zodiac system. Time keeping was important to Vedic rituals, Jyotisha was the Vedic era field of tracking and predicting the movements of astronomical bodies in order to keep time, in order to fix the day and time of these rituals; this study was one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Vedic Sanatan Sanskriti. The ancient Indian culture developed a sophisticated time keeping methodology and calendars for Vedic rituals.

David Pingree has proposed that the field of timekeeping in Jyotisha may have been "derived from Mesopotamia during the Achaemenid period", but Yukio Ohashi considers this proposal as "definitely wrong". Ohashi states; the texts of Vedic Jyotisha sciences were translated into the Chinese language in the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE, the Rigvedic passages on astronomy are found in the works of Zhu Jiangyan and Zhi Qian. Timekeeping as well as the nature of solar and moon movements are mentioned in Vedic texts. For example, Kaushitaki Brahmana chapter 19.3 mentions the shift in the relative location of the sun towards north for 6 months, south for 6 months. The Vikrami calendar is named after king Vikramaditya and starts in 57 BCE. Dharmic scholars kept precise time by observing and calculating the cycles of i.e. the sun and the planets. These calculations about the sun appear in various astronomical texts in Sanskrit, such as the 5th-century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhata, the 6th-century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th-century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th-century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla.

These texts present Surya and various planets and estimate the characteristics of the respective planetary motion. Other texts such as Surya Siddhanta dated to have been completed sometime between the 5th century and 10th century present their chapters on various deified planets with stories behind them; the manuscripts of these texts exist in different versions. They present planet-based calculations and Surya's relative motion to earth; these vary in their data. For example, the 1st millennium CE Sanathana Dharma scholars calculated the sidereal length of a year as follows, from their astronomical studies, with different results: The Hindu texts used the lunar cycle for setting months and days, but the solar cycle to set the complete year; this system is similar to the Jewish and Babylonian ancient calendars, creating the same challenge of accounting for mismatch between the nearly 354 lunar days in twelve months, versus nearly 365 solar days in a year. They tracked the solar year by observing the entrance and departure of surya in the constellation formed by stars in the sky, which they divided into 12 intervals of 30 degrees each.

Like other ancient human cultures, Hindus innovated a number of systems of which intercalary months became most used, adding another month every 32.5 months on average. As their calendar keeping and ast

Kristopher Prather

Kristopher Prather of Plainfield, Illinois is an American professional ten-pin bowler who competes on the PBA Tour. He is known for winning the inaugural PBA Tour Playoffs on June 2, 2019 and the PBA Tournament of Champions on February 9, 2020. Kris is a member of the Roto Vise Grips pro staffs. Prather bowled collegiately at Wichita State University in Kansas; as an amateur, he won the 2012 Paragon Open in Grand Rapids and finished second at the 2012 New Mexico Open. As of January 2020, Prather is a member of Team USA. After qualifying for the championship finals four times in 2018 and twice more in early 2019 without winning, Prather broke through with his first PBA title in the PBA Scorpion Championship, held at the 2019 World Series of Bowling in Allen Park, Michigan. Based on points earned during the first 13 events of the 2019 season, he qualified as the #9 seed for the inaugural PBA Tour Playoffs, he was the only player to make the final four. He defeated #4 seed Anthony Simonsen in the semifinal round on June 1 topped #7 seed Bill O'Neill on June 2 to take the championship and $100,000 first place prize.

The PBA Tour Playoffs was considered a non-title event. However, on December 6, 2019, the PBA announced that Prather would retroactively be awarded a PBA title for his win, giving him his second career Tour title. Kris was a member of winners of the 2019 PBA League competition. On February 9, 2020, Prather won the PBA Tournament of Champions held in Ohio; as the #4 seed for the stepladder finals, he won all four matches, defeating Sean Rash, Jason Belmonte, Anthony Simonsen, Bill O'Neill to capture his third PBA Tour title, first major, second career $100,000 prize check. In addition to his two national PBA Tour titles, Prather has earned two PBA Regional Tour titles, he has rolled 25 certified perfect 300 games, including two in PBA Tour competition, has 11 certified 800 series. Statistics are through the last full PBA Tour season. +CRA = Championship Round Appearances

List of UK Rock & Metal Albums Chart number ones of 2001

The UK Rock & Metal Albums Chart is a record chart which ranks the best-selling rock and heavy metal albums in the United Kingdom. Compiled and published by the Official Charts Company, the data is based on each album's weekly physical sales, digital downloads and streams. In 2001, there were 16 albums; the first number-one album of the year was Coldplay's debut studio album Parachutes, which remained at number one for the first two weeks of the year at the end of a nine-week run which began on 4 November 2000. The final number-one album of the year was Linkin Park's debut studio album Hybrid Theory, which spent the last four weeks of the year at number one in its fourth spell of the year at the top of the chart; the most successful album on the UK Rock & Metal Albums Chart in 2001 was Hybrid Theory, which spent a total of 18 weeks at number one over four spells, including two separate runs of six consecutive weeks. Hybrid Theory was the best-selling rock and metal album of the year, ranking 13th in the UK End of Year Albums Chart.

Coldplay's Parachutes spent six weeks at number one in 2001. 2001 in British music List of UK Rock & Metal Singles Chart number ones of 2001 Official UK Rock & Metal Albums Chart Top 40 at the Official Charts Company The Official UK Top 40 Rock Albums at BBC Radio 1