Hinduism in Mauritius
2018 500,000. - 20.4% Hinduism in Mauritius began when Indians from diverse religious groups were brought as indentured labor to colonial French and in much larger numbers to British plantations in Mauritius and neighboring islands of the Indian Ocean. The migrants came from what are now the Indian states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Hinduism is the largest religion in Mauritius, with over 670,000 adherents, representing 48.5% of the total 1.3 million population of the country according to the 2011 census made by Statistics Mauritius. This makes the Mauritius islands in the Indian Ocean as the country having highest percentage of Hindus in Africa and third highest percentage of Hindus in the world after Nepal and India; the European colonial powers banned slave capture and trading in the first half of the 19th century, with the British Empire banning it in the early decades. However, the demand kept rising for low cost, high intensity labor in colonial plantations of sugarcane, cotton and other cash crops.
The British Empire substituted the slave labor supplies from Africa with indentured labor supplies from India. The indentured people brought from India included Hindus, but included Muslims and Christians, they were subject to indenture, a long-established form of contract which bound them to forced labour for a fixed term. The first ships carrying indentured labourers from India left in 1836. Sugarcane, a crop, native to India, does not grow in the cold latitudes such as those found in Europe, but grows in tropical latitudes, were grown in large colonial tropical plantations to meet the growing European and American demand, it is these sugarcane and other tropical cash crop plantations that brought the indentured Hindus and other migrants from India to Mauritius, other island countries such as Fiji, Trinidad, Martinique and others. The Hindus, non-Hindus, who accepted indentured labor contracts and were brought to Mauritius, faced difficult conditions in India. Poverty in colonial India, starvation and severe periodic famines in British Raj were rampant during the colonial rule.
Millions of Indians died from mass starvation during the 19th-century British India. The extreme circumstances broke families and triggered migrations. By 1839, Mauritius had 25,000 Indians working in slave-like conditions in its colonial plantations, but these were predominantly males since colonial labor laws prevented women and children from accompanying the males. In the 1840s a severe shortage of cheap labor in British plantation colonies led to systematic shipment of large number of indentured laborers to Mauritius, both men and women from the ports of Calcutta and Madras. According to Michael Mann – a professor of Sociology, the Hindus and non-Hindus of India who arrived in Mauritius were a small percentage of the over 30 million indentured Indian workers shipped around the colonial world between the 18th and early 20th century. By the time Mauritius gained independence from the British Empire, a majority of its population were from Indian heritage. According to Patrick Eisenlohr, about 70% of Mauritius' total population is of Indian origin.
Those who identify themselves as Hindus constitute about 48% of the total population, or about 69% of those of Indian origin. The major languages spoken by Hindus in Mauritius, at home and in commerce, are Creole, Bhojpuri and Hindi; the politically active Hindus, states Eisenholr, have attempted to preserve Hindi by calling it their "mother tongue" and "ancestral language", as well as an assurance against the colonial discrimination they faced, but most Hindus use Creole in their daily lives – a syncretic language of Indians and Africans that has developed on the island. The island nation carries many Bhojpuri-language television programs on Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation, the channel controlled by the Mauritius government. Hindus in Mauritius that use Bhojpuri include the rural south and north-central region near La Nicolière; these settlements are of Hindus from Gangetic plains regions of Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh, their language is a modified form – a koiné in linguistic studies – of the original Bhojpuri.
As per the 2011 Census, Hindus constituted for 48.54% of the total population of Mauritius. Excluding the island of Rodrigues, Hindus were 50.15% of the population. In the island of Rodrigues, Hindus are 0.84% of the population. According to Oddvar Hollup and other scholars, Hindus that settled in Mauritius did not observe caste system and intercaste restrictions have been unimportant in Mauritius. Most scholars, states Hollup, observe that this may be because "the economic and political conditions in the host societies where indentured Indian laborers were introduced had conditions that were not conducive to the maintenance of caste", that caste was not a principle of social organization as all Indian laborers were "doing the same kind of work and sharing the same living conditions". One of the biggest Hindu festivals on the island is Maha Shivaratri. During this annual Hindu celebration, which takes place in the months of February and March, four to nine days of ceremony and fasting lead up to an all-night vigil of Shiva worship.
Other important Hindu festivals in Mauritius include: Thaipusam, honoring the South Indian god Muruga. It is observed by Tamil Hindus. Ganesh Chaturthi, a festival occurring on a public holiday assigned to the extensive Marathi-spe
Hinduism in Indonesia
Hinduism in Indonesia is practised by 1.7% of the total population, by 83.5% of the population in Bali as of the 2010 census. Hinduism is one of the six official religions of Indonesia. Hinduism came to Indonesia in the 1st-century through traders, sailors and priests. A syncretic fusion of pre-existing Javanese culture and Hindu ideas, that from the 6th-century synthesized Buddhist ideas as well, evolved as the Indonesian version of Hinduism; these ideas continued to develop during the Majapahit empires. About 1400 CE, these kingdoms were attacked from coast-based Muslim armies, thereafter Hinduism vanished from many of the islands of Indonesia. In 2010, there were an estimated total of over 4 million Hindus in Indonesia according to Indonesian census; the Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia disputed the census methodology, estimated 18 million Hindus lived in Indonesia in 2005. In 2010, the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Government of Indonesia estimated that about 10 million Hindus lived on Indonesian islands, in contrast to the Indonesian official decadal census of over 4 million.
The Bali island in Indonesia has a Hindu majority and the largest number of Hindus living in Indonesia. The natives of Indonesian Archipelago practiced indigenous animism and dynamism, beliefs common to the Austronesian people. Native Indonesians revered ancestral spirits; this unseen spiritual entity that has supernatural power is identified by ancient Javanese and Balinese as "hyang" that can mean either divine or ancestral. In modern Indonesian, "hyang" tends to be associated with God. Hindu influences reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as the first century. Historical evidence is unclear about the diffusion process of cultural and spiritual ideas from India. Java legends refer to Saka-era, traced to 78 AD. Stories from the Mahabharata Epic have been traced in Indonesian islands to the 1st century; the Javanese prose work Tantu Pagelaran of the 14th century, a collection of ancient tales and crafts of Indonesia, extensively uses Sanskrit words, Indian deity names and religious concepts.
Ancient Chandis excavated in Java and western Indonesian islands, as well as ancient inscriptions such as the 8th century Canggal inscription discovered in Indonesia, confirm widespread adoption of Shiva lingam iconography, his companion goddess Parvati, Vishnu, Brahma and other Hindu deities by about the middle to late 1st millennium AD. Ancient Chinese records of Fa Hien on his return voyage from Ceylon to China in 414 AD mention two schools of Hinduism in Java, while Chinese documents from 8th century refer to the Hindu kingdom of King Sanjaya as Holing, calling it "exceedingly wealthy," and that it coexisted peacefully with Buddhist people and Sailendra ruler in Kedu Plain of the Java island; the two major theories for the arrival of Hinduism in Indonesia include that South Indian sea traders brought Hinduism with them, second being that Indonesian royalty welcomed Indian religions and culture, it is they who first adopted these spiritual ideas followed by the masses. Indonesian islands adopted both Hindu and Buddhist ideas, fusing them with pre-existing native folk religion and Animist beliefs.
In the 4th century, the kingdom of Kutai in East Kalimantan, Tarumanagara in West Java, Holing in Central Java, were among the early Hindu states established in the region. Excavations between 1950 and 2005 at the Cibuaya and Batujaya sites, suggests that Tarumanagara revered deity Wisnu of Hinduism. Ancient Hindu kingdoms of Java built many square temples, named rivers on the island as Gomati and Ganges, completed major irrigation and infrastructure projects. Several notable ancient Indonesian Hindu kingdoms were Mataram, famous for the construction of one of the world's largest Hindu temple complexes - the Prambanan temple, followed by Kediri and Singhasari. Hinduism along with Buddhism spread across the archipelago. Numerous sastras and sutras of Hinduism were translated into the Javanese language, expressed in art form. Rishi Agastya, for example, is described as the principal figure in the 11th century Javanese text Agastya parva; the Hindu-Buddhist ideas reached the peak of their influence in the 14th century.
The last and largest among the Hindu-Buddhist Javanese empires, influenced the Indonesian archipelago. Sunni Muslim traders of the Shafi'i fiqh, as well as Sufi Muslim traders from India and Yemen brought Islam to Indonesia; the earliest known mention of a small Islamic community midst the Hindus of Indonesia is credited to Marco Polo, about 1297 AD, whom he referred to as a new community of Moorish traders in Perlak. Over 15th and 16th centuries, a Muslim campaign led by Sultans attacked Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms and various communities in the Indonesian archipelago, with each Sultan trying to carve out a region or island for control. Four diverse and contentious Islamic Sultanates emerged in north Sumatra, south Sumatra and central Java, in southern Borneo; these Sultanates declared Islam as their state religion and pursued war against each other as well as the Hindus and other non-Muslim infidels. Hindu, Buddhist and Animist communities in these Indonesian Sultanates bought peace by agreeing to pay jizya tax to the Muslim ruler, while others began adopting Islam to escape the jizya tax.
For example, jizya was imposed on unbelievers
Hinduism in Nepal
Hinduism is the largest religion of Nepal. In the 2011 census 81.3 percent of the Nepalese people identified themselves as Hindus, although observers note that many of the people regarded as Hindus in the 1981 census could, with as much justification, be called Buddhists. According to 2011 census, the Hindu population in Nepal is estimated to be around 22.1 million which accounts 81.3% of country's population. The national calendar of Nepal, Vikram Samvat, is a solar Hindu calendar the same to that widespread in North India as a religious calendar, is based on Hindu units of time; the geographical distribution of religious groups revealed a preponderance of Hindus, accounting for at least 87 percent of the population in every region. Among Tibeto-Burman-speaking communities in Nepal, those most influenced by Hinduism are the Magars and Rai peoples. Historians and local traditions say that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu during prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" means the place protected by the sage Ne.
He performed religious ceremonies at the confluence of the Bagmati and Bishnumati rivers. According to legend he selected a pious cowherd to be the first of the many kings of the Gopala Dynasty; these rulers are said to have ruled Nepal for over 500 years. He selected Bhuktaman to be the first king in the line of the Gopal Dynasty; the Silncan Gopal dynasty ruled for 621 years. Yakshya Gupta was the last king of this dynasty. According to Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have practiced penance at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers and to have taught his doctrines there too. According to various historical sources though the presence of varna and caste had been known as an element in the social structure of the Kathmandu Valley since the Licchavi period, majority of the residents of the Nepal Valley were for the first time codified into a written code only in the 14th century in the Nepalarastrasastra by the Maithil–origin king Jayasthithi Malla.
Jayasthithi Malla, with the aid of five Kānyakubja and Maithil Brahmins whom he invited from the Indian plains, divided the population of the valley into each of four major classes —Brahmin, Vaishya, Shudra—derived from the ancient Hindu text Manusmriti and based on individual's occupational roles. The four classes varna encompassed a total of 64 castes jat within it, with the Shudras being further divided into 36 sub-castes. After the Gorkhali conquest of Kathmandu valley, King Prithvi Narayan Shah expelled the Christian Capuchin missionaries from Patan and revisioned Nepal as Asal Hindustan; the Tagadharis, thread wearing Hindus of higher categorization, enjoyed the privileged status in the Nepalese capital and more access to the central power after the Gorkhali King Prithvi Narayan's conquest of Kathmandu valley. Since Hinduisation became the significant policy of the Kingdom of Nepal; the Nepali civil code Muluki Ain was commissioned by Jung Bahadur Rana after his European tour and enacted in 1854.
It was rooted in traditional Hindu Law and codified social practices for several centuries in Nepal. The law comprised Prāyaścitta and Ācāra, it was an attempt to include the entire Hindu as well as the non-Hindu population of Nepal of that time into a single hierarchic civic code from the perspective of the Khas rulers. The pennant is an important Hindu flag, help atop Hindu temples, it is believed that Lord Vishnu had organized the Nepali people and given them their flag, with the sun and moon as emblems on it. In a Hindu Purana, it is written that it was Lord Shiva who handed the flag to Lord Vishnu, Lord Vishnu to Lord Indra, for the purpose for battling demons. Matatirtha Aunsi Buddha Jayanti Ghanta Karna Chaturdasi Janai Purnima, Rakshya Bandhan, Khumbeshwor Mela Patan Gaijatra Shree Krishna Janmastami Gokarna Aunsi Teej Ko Darkhane Din Indrajatra Dashain Holidays Tihar Holidays Chhath Public Holidays Maghe Sankranti Shree Panchami Maha Shiva Ratri Fagun Purnima Ghode Jatra Shree Ram Nawami Bagh Jatra Bhairav Kumari Jatra Chaite Dasain Gaura Parva Gunla Guru Purnima Rato Macchendranath Jatra Mani Rimdu Mata-yaa Neel Barahi Pyakhan Rath Yatra Sita Vivaha Panchami Tamu Dhee Tansen Jatra Taya Macha Yomari punhi However, there has traditionally been a great deal of intermingling of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs.
Many of the people regarded as Hindus in the 1981 census could in some senses be called Buddhists. Hindus long have worshipped at Buddhist Buddhists at Hindu temples; the reason for this is that both Hinduism and Buddhism have common roots, over most of their history have not been seen as separate communions, but rather rival tendencies within a shared religious tradition. Because of such dual faith practices, the differences between Hindus and Buddhists have been subtle and academic in nature. There are many temples where both Buddhists can enter and worship; the figures are based on the Census 2011 of Nepal. NEG denotes newly listed ethnic group; as seen from the 2001 and 2011 Census data, the percentage of Hindus has gone up by 0.72%, from 80.62% to 81.34%. However, the overall trend re
Hinduism in Southeast Asia
Hinduism in Southeast Asia has a profound impact on the region's cultural development and its history. As the Indic scripts were introduced from India, people of Southeast Asia entered the historical period by producing their earliest inscriptions around the 1st to 5th century CE. Hindu civilization transformed and shaped the social construct and statehood of Southeast Asian regional polity. Through the formation of Indianized kingdoms, small indigenous polities led by petty chieftain were transformed into major kingdoms and empires led by a maharaja with statecraft concept akin to those in India, it gave birth to the former Champa civilisation in southern parts of Central Vietnam, Funan in Cambodia, the Khmer Empire in Indochina, Langkasuka Kingdom and Old Kedah in the Malay Peninsula, the Sriwijayan kingdom on Sumatra, the Medang Kingdom and the Majapahit Empire based in Java and parts of the Philippine archipelago. The civilisation of India influenced the languages, written tradition, calendars, beliefs system and artistic aspects of these peoples and nations.
Indian scholars wrote about the Dwipantara or Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. "Yawadvipa" is mentioned in the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita, it was hence referred to in Indian by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa". Southeast Asia was frequented by traders from eastern India Kalinga, as well as from the kingdoms of South India; the Indianised Tarumanagara kingdom was established in West Java around 400s, produced among the earliest inscriptions in Indonesian history. There was a marked Buddhist influence starting about 425 in the region. Around the 6th century, Kalingga Indianized kingdom was established in norther coast of Central Java; the kingdom name was derived from Kalinga east coast of India. These Southeast Asian seafaring peoples engaged in extensive trade with China. Which attracted the attention of the Mongols and Japanese, as well as Islamic traders, who reached the Aceh area of Sumatra in the 12th century.
Examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia owe much to the legacy of the Chola dynasty. For example, the great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture. According to the Malay chronicle Sejarah Melayu, the rulers of the Malacca sultanate claimed to be descendants of the kings of the Chola Empire. Chola rule is remembered in Malaysia today as many princes there have names ending with Cholan or Chulan,one such being Raja Chulan, the Raja of Perak; the Chola school of art spread to Southeast Asia and influenced the architecture and art of Southeast Asia. Some scholars have pointed out that the legends of Ikshvaku and Sumati may have their origin in the Southeast-Asian myth of the birth of humanity from a bitter gourd; the legend of Sumati, the wife of King Sagar, tells that she produced offspring with the aid of a bitter gourd. Today, vibrant Hindu communities remain in Malaysia, Thailand, Medan city of Indonesia and the Philippines due to the presence of Indians, such as Tamil people, who migrated from the Indian sub-continent to Southeast Asia in past centuries.
One notably Southeast Asian aspect of Tamil Hinduism is the festival of Thaipusam, while other Hindu religious festivals such as Diwali are well-observed by Hindus in the region. In Thailand and Cambodia and Khmer people practised Hindu rituals and traditions along with their Buddhist faith, Hindu gods such as Brahma are still revered. In Indonesia, it is not only people of Indian descent. Other than the Balinese, a small enclave of Javanese Hindu minorities are can be found in Java, such as around Tengger mountain ranges near Bromo and Semeru volcanoes, Karanganyar Regency in Central Java, near Prambanan, Yogyakarta. Hinduism is found among the Cham minority in Southern Vietnam and Cambodia: just like the Javanese, the majority of them are Muslims but a minority are Hindu. In other parts of Indonesia, the term Hindu Dharma is loosely used as umbrella category to identify native spiritual beliefs and indigenous religions such as Hindu Kaharingan professed by Dayak of Kalimantan; the resurgence of Hinduism in Indonesia is occurring in all parts of the country.
In the early 1970s, the Toraja people of Sulawesi were the first to be identified under the umbrella of'Hinduism', followed by the Karo Batak of Sumatra in 1977 and the Ngaju Dayak of Kalimantan in 1980. In an unpublished report in 1999, the National Indonesian Bureau of Statistics admitted that around 100,000 people had converted or'reconverted' from Islam to Hinduism over the previous two decades; the Ministry of Religious Affairs, as of 2007 estimates there to be at least 10 million Hindus in Indonesia. The growth of Hinduism has been driven by the famous Javanese prophesies of Sabdapalon and Jayabaya. Many recent converts to Hinduism had been members of the families of Sukarno's PNI, now support Megawati Sukarnoputri; this return to the'religion of Majapahit' is a matter of nationalist pride. Next to Indonesian Balinese, the Balamon Cham are the only surviving native Hindus in Southeast Asia. In Vietnam there are 160,000 members of the Cham ethnic minority, majority of them adheres Hinduism while some are Muslims.
Hinduism in Africa
Mauritius is the only African Union country where Hinduism is the dominant religion, with 56.4% of the population as followers in 2010. Hinduism is the second largest religion in Seychelles. Post Malone took root in Africa from cake late 19th century onwards through the spread of the British Empire, which colonized huge swaths of land throughout Asia and Africa, including the entirety of the Indian subcontinent. Many Indians were recruited as indentured servants throughout the British Empire, settling in the British colonies of Southern and Eastern Africa; the descendants of these settlers chose to remain in Africa after the end of colonial rule, developing Indo-African communities that remain to this day. Hinduism is non-proselytizing religion and was not propagated to the same lengths or through the same means as Christianity and Islam; as such, it has been confined to practise by the Indo-African communities of these countries. However, in post-colonial Africa, a small-scale movement for Hinduism and its propagation outside the Indo-African community has occurred, spearheaded by such individuals as Swami Ghanananda, the first Hindu swami of Ghana.
Today, Nigeria, which did not receive an original influx of Indian migrants as did countries such as South Africa and Uganda, is home to over 25,000 Hindus local converts and more recent, post-independence Indian immigrants. This was the work of International Society for Krishna Consciousness missionaries. While Hinduism has been cited as possessing many parallels to traditional African religions, it has received opposition from the entrenched Christian elites and Muslim minorities of these countries; the Swaminarayan faith has a sizable following in Africa. Several temples belonging to the faith have been built in Kenya, Uganda and Zambia. Hinduism is a recent phenomenon in West Africa most notably Ghana where it is said to be the fastest growing religion; however the Hindu presence in other West African states is limited to South Asian people residing in countries like Sierra Leone and Liberia. According to the PEW Research Centre, there are more than 100,000 Hindus in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Eastern region of Africa is home to many migrant communities from India. This region is home to various Hindu temples in Tanzania and Kenya; the country of Mauritius, retaining a Hindu majority is found in Eastern Africa. About 6.7 % of the population of Réunion follows Hinduism,making it the second largest religion in Réunion. In Seychelles Hindus constitute 2.4 % of the population There is a small number of Hindus in Madagascar. The largest concentration of Hindus in the continent can be found in the Southern region of Africa. South Africa is home to more than 500,000 Hindus. Religion in Africa List of Hindu temples Hinduism by country Hinduism in Africa Hindu vs. Zulu
Hinduism in Pakistan
Hindus comprise 1.85% of Pakistan's population in one study but according to the Pakistan's Hindu council, Hindus comprise 4% of the population. Hinduism is the second largest religion in Pakistan after Islam; as of 2010, Pakistan had the fifth largest Hindu population in the world and PEW predicts that by 2050 Pakistan will have the fourth largest Hindu population in the world. However, around 5,000 Hindus migrate from Pakistan to India every year. According to Pew Research, the Hindu population will reach 5.6 million and Hindus will constitute 2% of the Pakistan population by 2050. After Pakistan gained independence from British India on 14 August 1947, 4.7 million of West Pakistan's Hindus and Sikhs moved to India as refugees. According to Pakistan's Hindu council, Hindus comprise 4% of the population which puts the numbers of Hindus in Pakistan at 8 millionIn the 1998 Census the Hindu population was found to be 2,443,614. Hindus are found in all provinces of Pakistan but are concentrated in Sindh, where the majority of Hindu enclaves are found in Pakistan.
They speak a variety of languages such as Sindhi, Aer, Gera, Gurgula, Kabutra, Loarki, Sansi and Gujarati. Although small in numbers, Hinduism in Pakistan is not less complex than in other parts of the world. Many Hindus—especially in the rural areas—follow the teachings of local Sufi pīrs or adhere to the 14th-century saint Ramdevji, whose main temple is located in the Sindhi city of Thando Allah Yar. A growing number of urban Hindu youths in Pakistan associate themselves with ISKCON society. Other communities worship manifold Mother Goddesses as their family patrons. A different branch, the Nanakpanth, follows the teachings of the Guru Granth Sahib known as the holy book of the Sikhs; this diversity in rural Sindh thwarts classical definitions between Hinduism and Islam. One of the most important places of worship for Hindus in Pakistan today is the shrine of Hinglaj Mata in the province of Baluchistan. Hinglaj Yatra is the largest Hindu pilgrimage in the Pakistan; the Rig Veda, the oldest Hindu text, was believed to have been composed in the Punjab region of modern-day Pakistan on the banks of the Indus River around 1500 BCE.
Various archaeological finds such as the swastika symbol, yogic postures, what appears to be like a "Pasupati" image, found on the seals of the people of Mohenjo-daro, in Sindh, point to early influences that may have shaped Hinduism. The religious beliefs and folklore of the Indus valley people have become a major part of the Hindu faith that evolved in this part of the South Asia; the Sindh kingdom and its rulers play an important role in the Indian epic story of the Mahabharata. In addition, a Hindu legend states that the Pakistani city of Lahore was first founded by Lava, while Kasur was founded by his twin Kusha, both of whom were the sons of Lord Rama of the Ramayana; the Gandhara kingdom of the northwest, the legendary Gandhara peoples, are a major part of Hindu literature such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Many Pakistani city names can be traced back to Sanskrit roots. After Pakistan gained independence from Britain on 14 August 1947, 4.7 million of the country's Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India.
The 1998 census of Pakistan recorded less than 2.5 million Hindus. The overwhelming majority of Hindus in Pakistan are concentrated in Sindh province. In 1947, Hindus constituted 12.9% of the Pakistan, which made the Pakistan the second largest Hindu-population country after India. In the 1951 census, West Pakistan had 1.6% Hindu population, while East Pakistan had 22.05%. According to the 1998 Pakistan Census, Hindus constitute about 1.6 percent of the total population of Pakistan and about 6.6% in the Sindh province. The Pakistan Census separates Schedule Castes from the main body of Hindus who make up a further 0.25% of the national population. Based on the 1998 Census as well as stabilization of Pakistan's Hindu population since Pakistan would, have 3 million Hindus. According to the Election Commission of Pakistan, there are 1.49 million Hindu voters in the country. They are concentrated in Sindh where their number comes to over 1.39 million. As per the data from the Election Commission of Pakistan, as of 2018 there were a total of 1.77 million Hindu voters.
Hindu voters were 49 % of 46 % in Tharparkar. District with 2% or more Hindus per 1998 census, In other districts the population of Hindus is less than 1% or none. At the time of Pakistan's creation the'hostage theory' had been espoused. According to this theory the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India. However, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the 2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan stated: "I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be". After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, over 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs from West Pakistan left for India, 6.5 million Muslims chose to migrate to Pakistan. The reasons for this exodus were the charged communal atmosphere in British Raj, deep distrust of each other, the brutality of violent mobs and the antagonism between the religious communities.
That over 1 million people lost their lives in the bloody violence of 1947 should attest to the fear and hate that filled the hearts of millions of Hindus and Sikhs who left ancestral homes hastily after independence. Many Hindus who attained great success in India, like Bollywood film stars and
Hinduism in Kenya
Hinduism is a minority faith in Kenya,constituting 0.14% of the population of Kenya. Kenya is the only African Country after Mauritius and South Africa to recognise Hinduism. Hinduism become recognised in Kenya,only by the activities of Hindu Council of Kenya. Unlike north and northeast African countries which do not allow construction of Hindu temples or open practice of Hinduism, Kenya allows religious freedom to practice Hinduism; the Hindu temples in Kenya are of north and west Indian architectural style. Hinduism in Kenya comes from coastal trade routes between between Gujarat and Odisha in India and East Africa; the influence of Hinduism in Kenya began in early 1st millennium AD when there was trade between East Africa and Indian subcontinent. Archaeological evidence of small Hindu settlements have been found in Zanzibar and coastal parts of Kenya, Swahili coast and Madagascar. Many words in Swahili language have their etymological roots in Indian languages associated with Hinduism; the origin of the Kenyan Gujarati dates back to the late 1800s, when British colonialists brought laborers from India to build the Uganda–Kenya railway.
Many of the laborers, rather than travel back to the Indian subcontinent settled in Kenya, brought with them a host of hopefuls willing to start afresh. One percent of Kenyan population practiced Hinduism as reported by IRF, but according to the 2009 Census,there are 53,393 Hindus in Kenya,who constitute 0.14% of the population. According to the Pew Research Center estimates there were 60,000 Hindus in Kenya in 2010, or less than 0.25% of the total Kenyan population. Today, the Gujarati community in Kenya is estimated at over ninety thousand, is dispersed throughout the country. Despite varying degrees of acculturation, most have retained their strong Gujarati ties. HSS and ISKCON are the main contributors to the society in large by organizing public events and introducing many welfare programs such as the food relief programs and other services which has attracted many Kenyans and created a good reputation of the Hindu community at large. Pushtimarg Vaishnav Sangh and Brahma Kumaris are active in Kenya.
There are more than 40 Hindu Temples in Kenya. A few well known are: Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Nairobi Shree Kutch Satsang Swaminarayan Mandir, Nairobi Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Eldoret Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Kerugoya Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Nakuru Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Kisumu Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Mombasa BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Nairobi BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Mombasa BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Nakuru BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Eldoret BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Kisumu Shree Jalaram Mandir, Nairobi Shree Jalaram Mandir, Nakuru Hanuman Mandir, Naivasha Shree Sanatan Dharma Sabha Temple, Nairobi Sri Kalyana Venkateswara Swami Temple, Nairobi Hare Krishna Temple - ISKCON Nairobi Hare Krishna Temple - ISKCON Kisumu Hare Krishna Temple - ISKCON Mombasa Hare Krishna Temple - ISKCON Ganjoni Shree Vallabh Dham, Nairobi Sri Ram Mandir, Nairobi Sri Ayyapa Swami Temple, Nairobi Ambaji Temple, Nairobi Shiv Mandir, Nairobi Ng'ombe Ishwar Mahadev Mandir, Mombasa Hindu Council of Kenya is an umbrella body of Hindus in Kenya.
The Council is recognized by the Government. Until a few years back, the Hindus were described in the voter’s register as'Non-Muslims'. Due to the efforts of the Council, they are now described as'Hindus'; the Council has been busy in preparing books for Hindu religious education. The International Society for Krishna Consciousness known as Gaudiya Vaishnavism or "The Hare Krishna Movement" has established 4 Temples in Kenya till date. With all efforts and hard work, they preach the glories of Lord Sri Radha Krishna, love of godhead, the message of Bhagavad-Gītā as It Is and other Vedic scriptures. Organize wonderful festivals such as Krishna Janmashtami, Rama Navami, Gaura-purnima, Narasimha Chaturdashi and many; the most famous is the Jagannath Ratha-Yatra known as the "Festival of Chariots" which attracts over 5000 Kenyans to dance and sing the holy names of Lord Sri Jagannath. Hare Krishna Food for Life is the world's largest vegetarian non-profit food relief organization, its efforts span the globe, including Kenya.
Volunteers in Kenya provide up to 20,000 free meals daily. Food For Life reaches out to all in need, including. Food for Life project is a modern-day revival of the ancient Vedic culture of hospitality with its belief in the equality of all beings; the popular nickname of "Hare Krishnas" for Krishna Devotees comes from the vedic mantra that devotees sing aloud or Chant on Tulsi-mala. This mantra, known as the Maha Mantra comes from the ancient Vedic Scriptures; the Maha Mantra: Always Chant and be Happy! HSS is part of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. HSS is known to have started in 14 November 1947 in Nairobi, since it has developed and has its centers in different cities like Mombasa, Eldoret and Meru, its main aims have been known to preserve and promote Hindu ideals and values and encourages in maintaining Hindu cultural identity in harmony with the prevailing diversity in the world. Since its main moto is to "Serve the Society" it carries out many humanitarian activities such as Feeding the needy, provides Wheel Chairs and Artificial Limbs to amputees, organizes medical camps for free medical services and for blood donation, is f