Tara Singh (activist)
Master Tara Singh was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century. He was instrumental in organising the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee and guiding the Sikhs during the Partition of India and he led their demand for a Sikh-majority state in Punjab, India. The Indian journalist and politician Rajinder Kaur was his daughter, Tara Singh was born on 24 June 1885 to a Hindu family in Rawalpindi, which was a part of Punjab Province in British India. He converted to Sikhism while a student and became a school teacher upon his graduation from Khalsa College in Amritsar in 1907. Singhs career in education was within the Sikh school system and the use of Master as a prefix to his name reflects this period, Singh was ardent in his desire to promote and protect the cause of Sikhism. This often put him at odds with authorities and he was jailed on 14 occasions for civil disobedience beteween 1930-1966. Early examples of his support for civil disobedience came through his involvement with the movement led by Mohandas K.
Gandhi. During the Partition of India, over one million Sikhs and Muslims were killed, during this period, many alleged that Tara Singh was endorsing the killing of Punjabis. On 3 March 1947, at Lahore, Singh along with about 500 Sikhs declared from a dais Death to Pakistan, Singhs most significant cause was that favouring the creation of a distinct Punjabi-speaking state. He believed that this would best protect the integrity of Sikh religious, Nehru argued that India was a secular country and that this meant the creation of a state based on religious distinction was inappropriate. Nonetheless, Nehru did promise to consider the issue and thus Singh abandoned his fast after 48 days, Singhs fellow Sikhs turned against him, believing that he had capitulated, and they put him on trial in a court adjudged by pijaras. He pleaded guilty to the charges laid against him and found his reputation in tatters and he was thought to have abandoned his ideals and was replaced as leader of the SAD. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, SIKH HISTORY, Sikh University Press, harjinder Singh Dilgeer, Master Tara Singhs Contribution to Punjabi Literature.
Manohar Singh Batra, Master Tara Singh, Delhi,1972, jaswant Singh, Jeewan Master Tara Singh, Amritsar,1972. Master Tara Singh, Meri Yaad, Amritsar,1945 Master Tara Singh materials in the South Asian American Digital Archive
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory of India that serves as the capital of the Indian states of Haryana and Punjab. As a union territory, the city is governed directly by the Union Government and is not part of either state, Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north and south, and to the state of Haryana to the east. Chandigarh is considered to be a part of the Chandigarh capital region or Greater Chandigarh, which includes Chandigarh, and it is located 260 km north of New Delhi,229 km southeast of Amritsar and just 116 km southwest of Shimla. Chandigarh was one of the planned cities in the post-independence India and is internationally known for its architecture. Most of the government buildings and housing in the city, were designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Le Corbusier, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry. In 2015, an article published by BBC named Chandigarh as one of the cities of the world in terms of architecture, cultural growth. Chandigarh’s Capitol Complex was in July 2016 declared by UNESCO as World Heritage at the 40th session of World Heritage Conference held in Istanbul, UNESCO inscription was under “The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier an outstanding contribution to the Modern Movement”.
The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories by per capita income followed by Haryana, the city was reported to be the cleanest in India in 2010, based on a national government study. The union territory heads the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index, in 2015, a survey by LG Electronics, ranked Chandigarh as the happiest city in India over the happiness index. The metropolitan of Chandigarh-Mohali-Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city, with a population of over 2 million. The name Chandigarh is a portmanteau of Chandi and Garh, Chandi refers to Hindu Goddess Chandi, the warrior Avatar of Goddess Parvati, and Garh means home. The name is derived from Chandi Mandir, an ancient temple devoted to the Hindu Goddess Chandi, the logo of The City Beautiful derives from the City Beautiful movement that was a popular philosophy in North American urban planning during the 1890s and 1900s. Architect Albert Mayer, the planner of Chandigarh, lamented the American rejection of City Beautiful concepts.
The phrase was used on as a logo in official publications in the 1970s, the city has a pre-historic past. Due to the presence of lake, the area has fossil remains with imprints of a variety of aquatic plants and animals, and amphibian life. As it was a part of the Punjab region, it had many rivers nearby where the ancient, so, about 8000 years ago, the area was known to be a home to the Harappans. Chandigarh was the city of Indias first Prime Minister, Jawahar Lal Nehru. After the partition of India in 1947, the former British province of Punjab was split between East Punjab in India and West Punjab in Pakistan, the Indian Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition
Jaipur is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India. It was founded on 18 November 1726 by Maharaja Jai Singh II, as of 2011, the city has a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is known as the Pink City of India, Jaipur is located 260 km from the Indian capital New Delhi. Jaipur forms a part of the west Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Agra, Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur, Jaisalmer Udaipur. and Mount Abu. The city of Jaipur was founded in 1726 by Jai Singh II and he planned to shift his capital from Amer,11 km from Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water. Jai Singh consulted several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur, under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu shastra and Shilpa Shastra.
The construction of the city began in 1726 and took four years to complete the major roads, the city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates, during the rule of Sawai Ram Singh, the city was painted pink to welcome the Prince of Wales, Edward VII, in 1876. Many of the avenues remained painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance, in the 19th century, the city grew rapidly and by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The wide boulevards were paved and its industries were the working of metals and marble. The city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college and a school opened during the reign of the Maharaja Ram Singh II. Temperatures remain relatively high during summer from April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30 °C, during the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common.
The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with temperatures ranging from 10–15 °C and with little or no humidity. The city was planned according to Indian Vastu shastra by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya in 1727, there are three gates facing east and north. The eastern gate is called Suraj pol, the gate is called Chand pol. The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, the urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east and west sides of a central palace quarter, the Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, according to provisional report of 2011 census, Jaipur city had a population of 3,073,350
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. Congress was founded in 1885 during the British Raj, its founders include Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, there have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, and the most recent Manmohan Singh. The partys social liberal platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of regional parties. As of March 2017, the party is in power in five states, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, in Bihar, it is a part of the ruling coalition. The Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, in the 2014 general election, the Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member house. The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, the Congress was founded in 1885 by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, including Scotsman Allan Octavian Hume.
It has been suggested that the idea was conceived in a meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December was issued. Its objective was to obtain a share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of the Congress, the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, representing each province of India, the Partys delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims, the rest were of Parsi and Jain backgrounds. It included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mohammed Ali Jinnah—later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905.
Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915, in 1923 following the deaths of policemen at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of leaders, Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, the Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split. Although its members were predominantly Hindu, it had members from other religions, economic classes, at the Congress 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, Purna Swaraj was declared as the partys goal, declaring 26 January 1930 as Purna Swaraj Diwas, Independence Day. The same year, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the party for demanding full independence, the British government allowed provincial elections in India in the winter of 1936–37 under the Government of India Act 1935
Acharya Shri Sudarshan Patna Central School is a co-educational school in Patna, India. The school has nursery and high schools, one of the popular schools in Patna, Bihar. Over the last 32 years, Acharya Shri Sudarshan Patna central school, has been cruising ahead from strength to excellence adding new feathers to its cap, located in plush premises at New Bye Pass, Patna the School got affiliation from CBSE up to +2 level in 1993
Kolkata /koʊlˈkɑːtɑː/ is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. In 2011, the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Areas economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai, in the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company was enough to abolish Nizamat. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement, it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics, following Indian independence in 1947, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation.
Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football, there are several explanations about the etymology of this name, The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning Field of Kali. Similarly, it can be a variation of Kalikshetra, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or flat area. The name may have its origin in the words khal meaning canal, followed by kaṭa, according to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata, hence, it was called Kolikata. The discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh,35 kilometres north of Kolkata, Kolkatas recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, which was consolidating its trade business in Bengal.
The area occupied by the city encompassed three villages, Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a village, Sutanuti was a riverside weavers village. They were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor and these rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the construction of Fort William, facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and his warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked, he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta. A force of Company soldiers and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year, declared a presidency city, Calcutta became the headquarters of the East India Company by 1772. In 1793, ruling power of the Nawabs were abolished and East India company took control of the city
Hindustan Dainik or Hindustan is an Indian Hindi-language daily newspaper and the fifth-largest circulated newspaper in India. It is published by Hindustan Media Ventures Limited, earlier it was part of HT Media Ltd group, which spun off its Hindi business into a separate company named Hindustan Media Ventures Limited in December 2009. It ranks as the second daily in the country. Hindustan has 19 editions across the Hindi belt and they are spread across Delhi, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Apart from these, the paper is available in key towns like Mathura, Saharanpur. In Delhi plus NCR, Hindustan is an undisputed No.2 and has a rapidly growing even as the market is declining, Hindustan readership has grown to 120 L readers in Q411. As per Total Readership, Hindustan is No 2 with 385 L readers, Hindustan, in addition to high-quality reportage, aspires to become an ally to its readers in their quest for success. The ambition for the brand is to become the partner of progress for the youth in the Hindi belt, the major editions of Hindustan are available online in epaper format.
Hindustan dominates in Bihar with a readership of about 5 million. It commands a massive 73% share of the Hindi readership market of Bihar, Hindustan has been the No.1 newspaper of Jharkhand, ever since readership surveys have been reported for the state. On 13 May 2016, a reporter was shot to death, Hindustan is expanding rapidly in the state of Uttar Pradesh, which is the largest Hindi newspaper market, and where it is the fastest growing Hindi daily. Apart from a presence in Lucknow and Varanasi, Hindustan was launched in Meerut, Agra. In 2008, Hindustan launched in the cities of Mathura, in 2009, Hindustan launched in Allahabad and Bareilly. In 2010, Hindustan launched in Gorakhpur as well, in 2011, Hindustan launched in Aligarh, and in 2012 in Moradabad. Hindustan has made an entry into Uttarakhand with a location in Dehradun. This edition covers key cities in Uttarakhand and West UP, in Jan 2009, Hindustan started its edition in Haldwani. It has the highest numbers of readers in Uttarakhand at present.
Print media in India Hindustan Official Website epaper
New Delhi is the capital of India and one of Delhi citys 11 districts. The National Capital Region is a larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory along with adjoining districts. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V and it was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy, New Delhi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister of India Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. Calcutta was the capital of India during the British Raj until December 1911, Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India was officially named, from Calcutta on the east coast, to Delhi.
The Government of British India felt that it would be easier to administer India from Delhi in the centre of northern India. The land for building the new city of Delhi was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894. The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens, who first visited Delhi in 1912, the contract was given to Sobha Singh. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad fort, construction really began after World War I and was completed by 1931. The city that was dubbed Lutyens Delhi was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin, Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britains imperial aspirations. Soon Lutyens started considering other places, however, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high.
The central axis of New Delhi, which faces east at India Gate, was previously meant to be a north-south axis linking the Viceroys House at one end with Paharganj at the other. During the projects early years, many believed it was a gate from Earth to Heaven itself. Eventually, owing to space constraints and the presence of a number of heritage sites in the North side. A site atop the Raisina Hill, formerly Raisina Village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan, known as the Viceroys House. The reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the Dinapanah citadel, which was considered the site of Indraprastha
A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. As of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue.
Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, plunged during the financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers.
Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in 1664. While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers. Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Membership of Rajya Sabha is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of 250 members, Members sit for staggered six-year terms, with one third of the members retiring every two years. The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, and unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha can be prorogued by the President. The Rajya Sabha has equal footing in all areas of legislation with Lok Sabha, except in the area of supply, in the case of conflicting legislation, a joint sitting of the two houses can be held. However, since the Lok Sabha has twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha, the Vice-President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, who presides over its sessions. The Deputy Chairman, who is elected from amongst the houses members, the Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13 May 1952. The salary and other benefits for a member of Rajya Sabha are same as for a member of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha members are elected by state legislatures rather than directly through the electorate by single transferable vote method.
Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament, must be elected by the Legislative Assembly of States and Union territories by means of Single transferable vote through Proportional representation. Must have their name present on the voters list, cannot be an insolvent, i. e. he/she should not be in debt that he/she is not capable of repaying in a current manner and should have the ability to meet his/her financial expenses. Should not hold any office of profit under the Government of India. Should not be of unsound mind, must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament. In addition, twelve members are nominated by the President of India having special knowledge in areas like arts. However, they are not entitled to vote in Presidential elections as per Article 55 of the Constitution, the Constitution of India places some restrictions on Rajya Sabha which makes Lok Sabha more powerful in certain areas in comparison.
Money bills, as defined in the Constitution of India Act 110, when Lok Sabha passes a money bill, and transmits it to Rajya Sabha, Rajya Sabha has only fourteen days to return the bill to Lok Sabha. If Rajya Sabha fails to return the bill in fourteen days, also, if Lok Sabha rejects any of the amendments proposed by Rajya Sabha, the bill is deemed to have been passed by both Houses of Parliament in the form Lok Sabha finally passes it. Hence, Rajya Sabha cannot stall, or amend, a bill without Lok Sabhas concurrence on the same. Article 108 provides for a joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament in certain cases, considering that the numerical strength of Lok Sabha is more than twice that of Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha tends to have a greater influence in a joint sitting of Parliament. A joint session is chaired by the Speaker of Lok Sabha, in Indian federal structure, Rajya Sabha is a representative of the States in the Union legislature
Lucknow is the capital of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division. It is the largest city in Uttar Pradesh, the eleventh most populous city, in North India, it is the third largest city after Delhi and Jaipur. Lucknow has always known as a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub. It continues to be an important centre of governance, education, aerospace, pharmaceuticals, design, tourism, the city stands at an elevation of approximately 123 metres above sea level. Lucknow district covers an area of 2,528 square kilometres, bounded on the east by Barabanki, on the west by Unnao, on the south by Raebareli and in the north by Sitapur and Hardoi, Lucknow sits on the northwestern shore of the Gomti River. Hindi is the language of the city and Urdu is widely spoken. Lucknow is the centre of Shia Islam in India with the highest Shia Muslim population in India, the capital of Awadh was controlled by the Delhi Sultanate which came under Mughal rule.
It was transferred to the Nawabs of Awadh, in 1856, the British East India Company abolished local rule and took complete control of the city along with the rest of Awadh and, in 1857, transferred it to the British Raj. Along with the rest of India, Lucknow became independent from Britain on 15 August 1947 and it has been listed the 17th fastest growing city in India and 74th in world. Lucknow, along with Agra and Varanasi, is in the Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc, Lucknow is the anglicised spelling of the local pronunciation lakhnau. According to one legend, the city is named after Lakshmana, the legend states that Lakshmana had a palace or an estate in the area, which was called Lakshmanapuri. However the Dalit movement believes that Lakhan Pasi, a ruler, was the settler of the city and is named after him. The settlement came to be known as Lakhanpur by the 11th century, a similar theory states that the city was known as Lakshmanavati after Lakshmana. The name changed to Lakhanavati and finally Lakhnau, yet another theory states that the citys name is connected with Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess of wealth.
Over time, the changed to Laksmanauti, Lakhsnaut, Lakhsnau and, finally. From 1350 onwards and parts of the Awadh region were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate, Sharqi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Nawabs of Awadh, the British East India Company and the British Raj. Lucknow was one of the centres of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and actively participated in Indias independence movement. Until 1719, the subah of Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor, persian adventurer Saadat Khan, known as Burhan-ul-Mulk, was appointed nizam of Awadh in 1722 and established his court in Faizabad, near Lucknow