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Hindutva

Hindutva is the predominant form of Hindu nationalism in India. The term was popularised by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in 1923, it is championed by the Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Vishva Hindu Parishad, Bharatiya Janata Party and other organizations, collectively called the Sangh Parivar. The Hindutva movement has been described as "almost fascist in the classical sense", adhering to a disputed concept of homogenised majority and cultural hegemony; some dispute the fascist label, suggest Hindutva has been an extreme form of "conservatism" or "ethnic absolutism". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Hindutva is "originally: the state or quality of being Hindu. In use: an ideology seeking to establish the hegemony of Hindus and the Hindu way of life; the relevant meaning of hindu is stated as deriving from "Persian language hindu, Urdu hindū... from Sanskrit sindhu, or river, the Indus, hence the region of the Indus, i.e. Sindh; the term "conflates a geographically based religious and national identity: a true'Indian' is one who partakes of this'Hindu-ness'.

Some Indians insist, that Hindutva is a cultural term to refer to the traditional and indigenous heritage of the Indian nation-state, they compare the relationship between Hindutva and India to that of Zionism and Israel." This view, as summarized by Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, holds that "even those who are not religiously Hindu but whose religions originated in India — Jains, Buddhists and others — share in this historical and national essence. Those whose religions were imported to India, meaning the country’s Muslim and Christian communities, may fall within the boundaries of Hindutva only if they subsume themselves into the majority culture". According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations, "Hindutva, translated as'Hinduness,' refers to the ideology of Hindu nationalists, stressing the common culture of the inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent.... Modern politicians have attempted to play down the racial and anti-Muslim aspects of Hindutva, stressing the inclusiveness of the Indian identity.

According to The Dictionary of Human Geography, "Hindutva encapsulates the cultural justification of Hindu nationalism, a "Hinduness" shared by all Hindus." According to A Political and Economic Dictionary of South Asia, "One of the main purposes behind the concept of Hindutva was to construct a collective identity to support the cause of'Hindu-unity' and to avoid too narrow a definition of Hinduism, which had the consequence of excluding Buddhists and Jains from the Hindu community. Hindu-nationalist ideologues transformed the concept into a strategy to include non-Hindus, in order to widen their social base, for political mobilization."According to Encyclopædia Britannica's article on Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, a Hindu and Indian nationalist, "Hindutva... sought to define Indian culture as a manifestation of Hindu values. According to the Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Hindutva as defined in the classic statement of its ideology, is the "culture of the Hindu race" where Hinduism is but an element and "Hindu dharma is a religion practiced by Hindus as well as Sikhs and Buddhists".

The article further states, "proponents of Hindutva have sought to promote the identification of national identity with the religious and broader cultural heritage of Hindus. Measures taken to achieve this end have included attempts to'reclaim' individuals judged to have taken up'alien' religions, the pursuit of social and philanthropic activities designed to strengthen awareness of Hindu belonging, direct political action through various organisations, including recognized political parties such as the Bharatiya Janata Party." For Savarkar, in Hindutva: Who Is a Hindu?, Hindutva is an inclusive term of everything Indic. The three essentials of Hindutva in Savarkar's definition were the common nation, common race, common culture or civilisation. Savarkar used the words "Hindu" and "Sindhu" interchangeably; those terms were at the foundation of his Hindutva, as geographic and ethnic concepts, "religion did not figure in his ensemble", states Sharma. His elaboration of Hindutva included all Indian religions, i.e. Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

Savarkar restricted "Hindu nationality" to "Indian religions" in the sense that they shared a common culture and fondness for the land of their origin. According to Christophe Jaffrelot, a political scientist specializing in South Asia, Savarkar – declaring himself as an atheist – "minimizes the importance of religion in his definition of Hindu", instead emphasizes an ethnic group with a shared culture and cherished geography. To Savarkar, states Jaffrelot, a Hindu is "first and foremost someone who lives in the area beyond the Indus river, between the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean". Savarkar composed his ideology in reaction to the "pan-Islamic mobilization of the Khilafat movement", where Indian Muslims were pledging support to the Istanbul-based Caliph of the Ottoman Empire and to Islamic symbols, his thoughts pred

Family planning in India

Family planning in India is based on efforts sponsored by the Indian government. From 1965–2009, contraceptive usage has more than tripled and the fertility rate has more than halved, but the national fertility rate remains high, causing concern for long-term population growth. India adds up to 1,000,000 people to its population every 20 days. Extensive family planning has become a priority in an effort to curb the projected population of two billion by the end of the twenty-first century. In 2016, the total fertility rate of India was 2.30 births per women and 15.6 million abortions performed, with an abortion rate of 47.0 abortions per 1000 women aged between 15–49 years. With high abortions rates follows a high number of unintended pregnancies, with a rate of 70.1 unintended pregnancies per 1000 women aged 15–49 years. Overall, the abortions occurring in India make up for one third of pregnancies and out of all pregnancies occurring half were not planned. On the Demographic Transition Model, India falls in the third stage due to decreased birth rates and death rates.

In 2026, it is projected to be in stage four once the Total Fertility Rate reaches 2.1. Women in India are not being educated on contraception usage and what they are putting in their bodies. From 2005-2006 data was collected to indicate only 15.6% of women using contraception in India were informed of all their options and what those options do. Contraceptive usage has been rising in India. In 1970, 13% of married women used modern contraceptive methods, which rose to 35% by 1997 and 48% by 2009. Awareness of contraception is near-universal among married women in India. However, the vast majority of married Indians reported significant problems in accessing a choice of contraceptive methods; the above table indicates more evidence that the availabity of contraceptives problem for people in India. In 2009, 48.4% of married women were estimated to use a contraceptive method. About three-fourths of these were using female sterilization, by far the most prevalent birth-control method in India. Condoms, at a mere 3%, were the next most prevalent method.

Meghalaya, at 20%, had the lowest usage of contraception among all Indian states. Bihar and Uttar Pradesh were the other two states that reported usage below 30%, it is important to note. Contraceptive practices in India are skewed towards terminal methods like sterilization, which means that contraception is practiced for birth limitation is than birth planning, it is common to use camps to enforce sterilization. This process can be done without consent. Comparative studies have indicated that increased female literacy is correlated with a decline in fertility. Studies have indicated that female literacy levels are an independent strong predictor of the use of contraception when women do not otherwise have economic independence. Female literacy levels in India may be the primary factor that help in population stabilisation, but they are improving slowly: a 1990 study estimated that it would take until 2060 for India to achieve universal literacy at the current rate of progress. In 2015, there was an average 58% of women who used contraceptives, with female sterilization still being the most preferred and favored among 91% of women.

Higher rates of sterilization are seen among women who hold less education than those with more education. Those with higher education have lower rates due to the delay of getting childbirth. 77% of the women who underwent sterilization had not used an alternative contraception prior to the procedure and most women were under the age of 26, who seem to have many options available in regards to protection. The preoccupation with birth limitation by India's family planning programme has meant that it has not been able to reach young married women who are in the process of building their family and enable them to meet their family planning intentions. According to Family Planning 2020, in 2017 there were 136,569,000 women using modern method contraception which prevented: 39,170,000 unintended pregnancies, 11,966,000 unsafe abortions, 42,000 maternal deaths due to family planning. In 2012, India's modern contraception prevalence rate among all women was 39.2, in 2017 it was 39.57, in 2020 is predicted to rise to 40.87.

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is the government unit responsible for formulating and executing family planning in India. An inverted Red Triangle is the symbol for family planning health and contraception services in India. In addition to the newly implemented government campaign, improved healthcare facilities, increased education for women, higher participation among women in the workforce have helped lower fertility rates in many Indian cities; the objectives of the program are positioned towards achieving the goals stated in several policy documents. While India is improving in fertility rates, there are still areas of India that maintain much higher fertility rates. In 2017, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched Mission Pariwar Vikas, a central family planning initiative; the key strategic focus of this initiative is on improving access to contraceptives through delivering assured services, ensuring commodity security and accelerating access to high quality family planning services.

Its overall goal is to reduce India's overall fertility rate to 2.1 by the year 2025. Along with that two contraceptive pills, MPA under Antara program and Chaya will be made available to all government hospitals. Family planning program benefits not only parents and children bu

2007 Russian Figure Skating Championships

The 2007 Russian Figure Skating Championships were the figure skating national championship to determine the national champions of Russia for the 2006–2007 season. Skaters competed at the senior level in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies singles, pair skating, ice dancing; the Juniors event was held separately. The competition took January 7, 2007 in Moscow; the 2007 Russian Junior national championships were held in Samara on February 1–4, 2007. As well as deciding the National Junior Champions of Russia for 2007, it was the qualifying event for the 2007 World Junior Figure Skating Championships; the 1st through 3rd places in men and ice dancing qualified for the World Junior Championships. The 1st and 2nd places in ladies qualified. Results at the Russian Skating Federation The results of the Juniors goldenskate report