Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Twine is a light string or strong thread composed of two or more smaller strands or yarns twisted, twisted together. More the term can be applied to a cord. Natural fibres used for making twine include, cotton, jute, hemp and coir. A variety of synthetic fibres are used. Biggest ball of twine Binder Twine Festival Hair twists International Year of Natural Fibres 2009 Rope String
White Dominicans are Dominicans of complete or predominant European descent. They represent 16.1% of the Dominican Republic's population, according to the last population census in which race was queried. The majority of white Dominicans are descendants from the first European settlers to arrive in Hispaniola and have ancestry of the Canary Islanders, mainland Spanish, French settlers’ lineage who settled in the island during colonial times. Many others are descendants from white Levantines, Dutchmen, Hungarians and other nationalities who have migrated between the 19th and 20th centuries. White Dominicans make up a significant minority in the country, but it is not possible to quantify their numbers because the National Institute of Statistics does not collect racial data because of the race taboo that originated after Rafael L. Trujillo’s dictatorship. According to a 2011 survey by Latinobarómetro, 11% of the Dominicans surveyed identified themselves as white; the 1750 estimates show that there were 30,863 whites out of a total population of 70,625 in the colony of Santo Domingo.
The census of 1920 was the first national enumeration. The second census, taken in 1935, covered race, literacy, labor force and urban-rural residence. Table shows the results per census to a 2006 survey; the census bureau decided to discontinue its use of racial classifications in the 1970 census. The Dominican identity card used to categorised people as yellow, white and black, in 2011 the Junta planned to replace Indian with mulatto in a new ID card with biometric data, under development, but in 2014 when it released the new ID card, it decided to just drop racial categorisation, the old ID card expired on 10 January 2015; the Ministry of Public Works and Communications uses racial classification in the driver’s license, being white, mulatto and yellow the categories used. It was applied to the Middle Eastern immigrants of the early 20th century; the presence of whites in the Dominican Republic dates back to the founding of La Isabela, one of the first European settlements in the Americas, by Bartholomew Columbus in 1493.
The presence of precious metals such as gold boosted migration of thousands of Spaniards to Hispaniola seeking easy wealth. They tried to enslave the Taíno, but many of these died of diseases, those who survived did not make good slaves. In 1510, there were 10,000 Spaniards in the colony of Santo Domingo, it rose to over 20,000 in 1520, but following the depleting of the gold mines, the island began to depopulate, as most poor Spanish colonists embarked to the newly conquered Mexico or to Venezuela. This was followed by a limited Spanish migration toward Hispaniola, composed overwhelmingly by males. In order to counteract the depopulation and impoverishment of the colony, the Spanish Monarchy allowed the importation of African slaves to hew sugar cane. By 1542 there were only few hundred natives. Several epidemics wiped out the remaining natives on the island; the shortage of Spanish females led to miscegenation, that drove the creation of a caste system, in which white Spaniards were at the top, mixed-race people at middle, Amerindians and black people at the bottom.
Endogamy became a norm within the higher classes, in order to maintain their status and remain racially pure specially because only pure whites were able to inherit majorats. As a result, Santo Domingo, like the rest of Hispanic America, became a pigmentocracy; the local-born whites were known as blancos de la tierra, in contrast to the blancos de Castilla, "whites from Castile". The color prejudice between blacks and whites disappeared due to the great misery that prevailed in the colony. By the mid-17th century, the overall population decreased to 3,000 inhabitants and it was concentrated in or near the city of Santo Domingo. About one tenth of the colony’s population was Portuguese-born. During the eighteenth century, there were French colonists that settled in many Spanish towns in Santiago, by 1730 they totalled 25% of the population; this was seen as a problem for the Spanish authorities, because if the population became French, there could be problems of loyalty toward Spain. In 1718 a Royal Decree ordered the expel of the French people from Santo Domingo.
The Grand Mayor of Santiago, Antonio Pichardo Vinuesta, refused to obey the decree arguing that most of the Frenchmen had married local women and that their expulsion would damage the economy of the Cibao. Grand Mayor Pichardo was tried and imprisoned in the city of Santo Domingo, but in the next year, the Council of the Indies reasoned in favor of Pichardo and decided a pardon to the French. In 1720-1721, a revolt in Santiago against a new tax on beef exports to the Saint Domingue, arose Frenchification fears in the Santo Domingo elite. After the failed plans of the Spanish Monarchy to expel the French colonists, the Monarchy decided to encourage the mass settlement of Spanish families in order to counteract the Frenchification of the colony. Over the next decades, the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo was the subject of a mass migration of Spaniards, most of whom came from the Canary Islands. During that period, Neyba
Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production. The term was coined in 1957 by Davis, it includes agrichemicals, crop production, farm machinery and seed supply, as well as marketing and retail sales. All agents of the food and fiber value chain and those institutions that influence it are part of the agribusiness system. Within the agriculture industry, "agribusiness" is used as a portmanteau of agriculture and business, referring to the range of activities and disciplines encompassed by modern food production. There are academic degrees in and departments of agribusiness, agribusiness trade associations, agribusiness publications, so forth, worldwide. In the context of agribusiness management in academia, each individual element of agriculture production and distribution may be described as agribusinesses. However, the term "agribusiness" most emphasizes the "interdependence" of these various sectors within the production chain. Among critics of large-scale, vertically integrated food production, the term agribusiness is used negatively, synonymous with corporate farming.
As such, it is contrasted with smaller family-owned farms. Examples of agribusinesses include seed and agrichemical producers like Dow AgroSciences, DuPont and Syngenta; as concern over global warming intensifies, biofuels derived from crops are gaining increased public and scientific attention. This is driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, support from government subsidies. In Europe and in the US, increased research and production of biofuels have been mandated by law. Studies of agribusiness come from the academic fields of agricultural economics and management studies, sometimes called agribusiness management. To promote more development of food economies, many government agencies support the research and publication of economic studies and reports exploring agribusiness and agribusiness practices; some of these studies are on foods produced for export and are derived from agencies focused on food exports.
These agencies include the Foreign Agricultural Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and New Zealand Trade and Enterprise; the Federation of International Trade Associations publishes studies and reports by FAS and AAFC, as well as other non-governmental organizations on its website. Ray A. Goldberg coined the term agribusiness together with coauthor John H. Davis, they provided a rigorous economic framework for the field in their book A Concept of Agribusiness. That seminal work traces a complex value-added chain that begins with the farmer's purchase of seed and livestock and ends with a product fit for the consumer's table. Agribusiness boundary expansion is driven by a variety of transaction costs. Manuel Alvarado Ledesma and Peter D. Goldsmith explain the implications of weak institutions on agribusiness investment. According to them weak institutions lead to policy development and enforcement grounded in the moment, rather than based on precedent and deliberative processes over time.
Agrarian law Agrarian reform Agricultural machinery industry Agricultural marketing Agricultural value chain Agroecology Biofuel Contract farming Energy crop Factory farming Industrial agriculture Land banking List of environment topics John Wilkinson. "The Globalization of Agribusiness and Developing World Food Systems". Monthly Review. Gitta and South, David. Southern Innovator Magazine Issue 3: Agribusiness and Food Security: United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation. ISSN 2222-9280 https://web.archive.org/web/20160304034828/http://www.ifama.org/files/IS_Ledesma_Formatted.pdf
Blond or fair hair is a hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. The resultant visible hue always has some yellowish color; the color can be from the pale blond to reddish "strawberry" blond or golden-brownish blond colors. Because hair color tends to darken with age, natural blond hair is very rare in adulthood. Naturally-occurring blond hair is found in populations of northern European descent and is believed to have evolved to enable more efficient synthesis of vitamin D, due to northern Europe's lower levels of sunlight. Blond hair has developed in other populations, although it is not as common, can be found among natives of the Solomon Islands and Fiji, among the Berbers of North Africa, among some Asians. In Western culture, blond hair has long been associated with female beauty. Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, was reputed to have blond hair. In ancient Greece and Rome, blond hair was associated with prostitutes, who dyed their hair using saffron dyes in order to attract customers.
The Greeks stereotyped Thracians and slaves as blond and the Romans associated blondness with the Celts and the Germans to the north. In western Europe during the Middle Ages, blond hair was idealized as the paragon of female beauty; the Norse goddess Sif and the medieval heroine Iseult were both portrayed as blond and, in medieval artwork, Mary Magdalene, the Virgin Mary are shown with blond hair. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, scientific racists categorized blond hair and blue eyes as characteristics of the supreme Nordic race. In contemporary western culture, blonde women are negatively stereotyped as sexually attractive, but unintelligent; the word "blond" is first documented in English in 1481 and derives from Old French blund, meaning "a colour midway between golden and light chestnut". It eclipsed the native term "fair", of same meaning, from Old English fæġer, causing "fair" to become a general term for "light complexioned"; this earlier use of "fair" survives in the proper name Fairfax, from Old English fæġer-feahs meaning "blond hair".
The word "blond" has two possible origins. Some linguists say it comes from Medieval Latin blundus, meaning "yellow", from Old Frankish blund which would relate it to Old English blonden-feax meaning "grey-haired", from blondan/blandan meaning "to mix". Old English beblonden meant "dyed", as ancient Germanic warriors were noted for dyeing their hair. However, linguists who favor a Latin origin for the word say that Medieval Latin blundus was a vulgar pronunciation of Latin flavus meaning "yellow". Most authorities French, attest to the Frankish origin; the word was reintroduced into English in the 17th century from French, was for some time considered French. "Blond", with its continued gender-varied usage, is one of few adjectives in written English to retain separate lexical genders. The two forms, are pronounced identically. American Heritage's Book of English Usage propounds that, insofar as "a blonde" can be used to describe a woman but not a man, said to possess blond hair, the term is an example of a "sexist stereotype women are defined by their physical characteristics."
The Oxford English Dictionary records that the phrase "big blond beast" was used in the 20th century to refer to men "of the Nordic type". The OED records that blond as an adjective is used with reference to women, in which case it is to be spelt "blonde", citing three Victorian usages of the term; the masculine version is used in the plural, in "blonds of the European race", in a citation from 1833 Penny cyclopedia, which distinguishes genuine blondness as a Caucasian feature distinct from albinism. By the early 1990s, "blonde moment" or being a "dumb blonde" had come into common parlance to mean "an instance of a person, esp. A woman... being foolish or scatter-brained." Another hair color word of French origin, functions in the same way in orthodox English. The OED gives "brunet" as meaning "dark-complexioned" or a "dark-complexioned person", citing a comparative usage of brunet and blond to Thomas Henry Huxley in saying, "The present contrast of blonds and brunets existed among them." "Brunette" can be used, like "blonde", to describe a mixed-gender populace.
The OED quotes Grant Allen, "The nation which resulted... being sometimes blonde, sometimes brunette.""Blond" and "blonde" are occasionally used to refer to objects that have a color reminiscent of fair hair. For example, the OED records its use in 19th-century poetic diction to describe flowers, "a variety of clay ironstone of the coal measures", "the colour of raw silk", a breed of ray, lager beer, pale wood. Various subcategories of blond hair have been defined to describe the different shades and sources of the hair color more accurately. Common examples include the following: ash-blond: grayish blond. Bleached blond, bottle blond, or peroxide blond: terms used to refer to artificially colored blond hair. Blond/flaxen: when distinguished from other varieties, "blond" by itself refers to a light but not whitish blond, with no traces of red, gold, or brown. Dirty blond or dishwater blond: dark blond with flecks of golden blond and brown. Golden blond: a darker to rich, golden-yellow blond (found in Northeastern Europe, i.e. Russia
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins. Opinions and practice vary across the world. In some cultures and communities, cousin marriage is considered ideal and encouraged. In some countries, this practice is common. In others, it is seen as incestuous and is prohibited: it is banned in China and Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, the Philippines and 24 of the 50 United States. Supporters of cousin marriage where it is banned may view the prohibition as discrimination, while opponents may appeal to moral or other arguments. Worldwide, more than 10 % of marriages are between second cousins. In the past, cousin marriage was practised within indigenous cultures in Australia, North America, South America, Polynesia. Various religions have ranged from prohibiting sixth cousins or closer from marrying, to allowing first-cousin marriage. Cousin marriage is an important topic in alliance theory. Children of first-cousin marriages may have an increased risk of genetic disorders if their parents both carry a harmful recessive mutation, but this can only be estimated empirically, those estimates are to be specific to particular populations in specific environments.
Children of more distantly related cousins have less risk of genetic disorders. In fact, a study of Icelandic records indicated that marriages between third or fourth cousins may produce the most children and grandchildren. According to Professor Robin Fox of Rutgers University, 80% of all marriages in history may have been between second cousins or closer; the founding population of Homo sapiens was 700 to 10,000 individuals. Proportions of first-cousin marriage in Western countries have declined since the 19th century. In the Middle East, cousin marriage is still favoured. Cousin marriage has been chosen to keep cultural values intact, preserve family wealth, maintain geographic proximity, keep tradition, strengthen family ties, maintain family structure or a closer relationship between the wife and her in-laws. Many such marriages are arranged. Confucius described marriage as "the union of two surnames, in friendship and in love". In ancient China, some evidence indicates in some cases, two clans had a longstanding arrangement wherein they would only marry members of the other clan.
Some men practiced sororate marriage, that is, a marriage to a former wife's sister or a polygynous marriage to both sisters. This would have the effect of eliminating parallel-cousin marriage as an option, but would leave cross-cousin marriage acceptable. In the ancient system of the Erya dating from around the third century BC, the words for the two types of cross cousins were identical, with father's brother's children and mother's sister's children both being distinct. However, whereas it may not have been permissible at that time, marriage with the mother's sister's children became possible by the third century AD; the mother's sister's children and cross cousins shared one set of terms, with only the father's brother's children retaining a separate set. This usage remains today, with biao cousins considered "outside" and paternal tang cousins being of the same house. In some periods in Chinese history, all cousin marriage was prohibited, as law codes dating from the Ming Dynasty attest.
However, enforcement proved difficult and by the subsequent Qing Dynasty, the former laws had been restored. The following is a Chinese poem by Po Chu-yi. Anthropologist Francis Hsu described mother's brother's daughter as being the most preferred type of Chinese cousin marriage, mother's sister's daughter as being tolerated, father's brother's daughter as being disfavored; some writers report this last form as being nearly incestuous. One proposed explanation is that in FBD marriage, the daughter does not change her surname throughout her life, so the marriage does not result in an extension of the father's kinship ties. In Chinese culture, these patrilineal ties are most important in determining the closeness of a relation. In the case of the MSD marriage, no such ties exist, so this may not be viewed as cousin marriage. One reason that MBD marriage is most common may be the greater emotional warmth between a man and his mother's side of the family. Analyses have found regional variation in these patterns.
By the early to mid-20th century, anthropologists described cross-cousin marriage in China as "still permissible... but... obsolete" or as "permitted but not encouraged". Cousin marriage has been allowed throughout the Middle East for all recorded history. Anthropologists have debated the significance of the practice. Little numerical evidence exists of rates of cousin marriage in the past. Raphael Patai reports that in central Arabia, no relaxation of a man's right to the father's brother's daughter, seems to have taken place in the past hundred years before his 1962 work. Here the girl is not forced to marry her male cousin, but she cannot marry another unless he gives consent; the forc