Schizanthus called butterfly flower, poor-man's-orchid, is a genus of plants in the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are annual or biennial herbaceous plants, with attractive flowers and they belong to the subfamily Schizanthoideae of the Solanaceae; the genus includes species native to Chile and Argentina, many species are adventitious in other parts of the world such as New Zealand and the United States. Annual or biennial, glandulous-pubescent herbaceous plants, with alternate, pinnatilobate or bipinnatisect leaves and attractive flowers, arranged at the end of stems; the flowers are hermaphrodite. The calyx has 5 parts, with spatulate segments; the corolla is bilabiate. The inferior labia is tripartite with the central lobe notched, almond-shaped and the laterals are complete; the androecium is formed of 4 didynamous stamens, the two or three inferior stamens are reduced to staminodes. The fruit is a pluriseminate boll, dehiscent by two bifid valves; the basic chromosome number is x=10. The species recognized in Schizanthus are the following: This is an annual plant that grows up to 40 to 60 cm in height and sticky, with divided, irregularly parted leaves of 4 to 8 cm in length, the superior leaves are smaller and whole.
The flowers are divided into a number of segments, they are colourful, shades of violet with yellow patches and a dark line at the divisions between the upper labia. The flowers are comprised on a short, terminal inflorescence; the fruit is a boll, shorter than the calyx. This and other species of the genus are cultivated in Europe, it originates in Chile where is grows in the littoral zone of the provinces of Coquimbo and Aconcagua. It is called the "butterfly of the coast"; the seeds do not germinate in artificial conditions as they need scarification or manual abrasion to obtain good results. This is an annual plant of 20 to 50 cm in height, glandulous-pubescent, with pinnatisect leaves 2.5 to 3 cm in length, divided into 6 to 8 pairs in oblong-linear segments, entire or separated. The flowers are white, pink or violet, 2 to 3 cm in diameter, arranged in panniculate inflorescences, sometimes dichotomous; the fruit is a globular boll of 5 mm length. It is native to Chile but the plants are cultivated as ornamentals.
It is known as the "small butterfly" or "small, white butterfly". Some names that are considered synonymous to Schizanthus pinnatus are Schizanthus gayanus Phil.. Y S. tenuis Phil. This plant grows to a height of 30 to 50 cm, glandulous-pubescent, with pinnatisect leaves up to 8 cm long; the flowers can be violet, orange or white, with the tube 1 cm long and the superior labia greater than 2 cm in length, being longer than the inferior one. The fruit is a 1 cm long ellipsoid boll. Native to Chile they are cultivated as ornamentals; the plants flowers in summer. This plant is an interspecific hybrid between Schizanthus pinnatus and S. grahamii, it grows to between 30 and 40 cm tall and has characteristics intermediate between both progenitors. In Spanish speaking countries it is known as the "butterfly plant" and in English speaking countries as "poor man's orchid"; the flowers are attractive, they are white, pink or rose coloured depending on the variety. The foliage is light green and looks like the fronds of a fern.
It is grown as an ornamental in all the temperate regions of the world. It flowers in spring. Plants prefer semi-shaded places as they do not tolerate excessive heat. Plants replicate through seeds. Germination takes 10–14 days at 16-18 °C. Plants in the genus Schizanthus are entomophilous, that is, they require that their pollen is transported from plant to plant by insects; the majority of Schizanthus species are pollinated by hymenoptera. However, the species with white flowers are pollinated by moths, Schizanthus grahamii is pollinated by hummingbirds. Although the great majority of Solanaceae exhibit poricidal pollen dehiscence, the bee-pollinated species in this genus use explosive dehiscence, triggered when an insect lands on a flower; this mechanism favours cross pollination in these plants. Alkaloids are nitrogenous organic substances that are produced by plants as a secondary metabolite and which have an intense physiological action on animals at low doses. Schizanthus contain a great diversity of alkaloids, among them: Pyrrolidines: such as for example, 1-methyl-2-ethyl-6-deoxi3-O--alpha-galactopyranoside found in Schizanthus integrifolius.
Tropanes. Various types of tropanes have been isolated from different species of the genus. Derivatives of hydroxytropane and angeloyloxytropane have been detected in Schizanthus alpestris, Schizanthus grahamii, Schizanthus. Hookerii, Schizanthus litoralis and Schizanthus pinnatus. Schizantines. Esters of hydroxytropane have been detected in Schizanthus grahamii and derivatives of mesaconic acid and itaconic acid have been found in Schizanthus litoralis; the C, D and E schizantines have been found in Schizanthus grahamii as well has dimers of an ester of truxillic acid. Schizanthus pinnatus a
Crassula is a genus of succulent plants containing about 200 accepted species, including the popular jade plant. They are members of the stonecrop family and are native to many parts of the globe, but cultivated varieties originate exclusively from species from the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Crassulas are propagated by stem or leaf cuttings. Most cultivated forms will tolerate some small degree of frost, but extremes of cold or heat will cause them to lose foliage and die; the name crassula comes from the Latin, meaning thick, referring to the thickening of the succulent leaves. Crassula alata Crassula alba Crassula alpestris Crassula alstonii Crassula anomala Crassula aquatica Crassula arborescens Crassula atropurpurea Crassula ausensis Crassula ausensis ssp. titanopsis Crassula bakeri Crassula barbata Crassula barklyi Crassula biplanata Crassula brevifolia Crassula capitella Crassula capitella ssp. thyrsiflora Crassula clavata Crassula closiana Crassula coccinea Crassula colligata Crassula colorata Crassula columella Crassula columnaris Crassula connata Crassula corallina Crassula cornuta Crassula cotyledonis Crassula cultrata Crassula deceptor Crassula decidua Crassula decumbens Crassula dejecta Crassula deltoidea Crassula drummondii Crassula dubia Crassula elegans Crassula erosula Crassula exilis Crassula exilis ssp. sedifolia Crassula exserta Crassula extrorsa Crassula falcata Crassula garibina Crassula gillii Crassula globularioides Crassula glomerata Crassula helmsii Crassula herrei Crassula hirtipes Crassula humbertii Crassula hystrix Crassula lactea Crassula lanceolata Crassula longipes Crassula marchandii Crassula marnieriana Crassula mesembryanthemoides Crassula mesembryanthemopsis Crassula milfordiae Crassula moschata Crassula multicava Crassula muscosa Crassula namaquensis Crassula namaquensis ssp. comptonii Crassula natans Crassula nealeana Crassula nudicaulis Crassula nudicaulis var. herrei Crassula nudicaulis var. platyphylla Crassula obovata Crassula obovata var. dregeana Crassula orbicularis Crassula ovata Crassula ovata var. cristata Crassula ovata var. mostruosa Crassula parvisepala Crassula pedicellosa Crassula peduncularis Crassula pellucida Crassula pellucida var. marginalis Crassula pentandra Crassula perfoliata Crassula perforata Crassula picturata Crassula plegmatoides Crassula pruinosa Crassula pubescens Crassula pubescens ssp. radicans Crassula pubescens ssp. rattrayi Crassula pyramidalis Crassula radicans Crassula rogersii Crassula rubricaulis Crassula rupestris Crassula rupestris ssp. marnierana Crassula saginoides Crassula sarcocaulis Crassula sarmentosa Crassula schmidtii Crassula sericea Crassula sericea var. hottentotta Crassula sieberiana Crassula socialis Crassula solierii Crassula streyi Crassula subaphylla Crassula susannae Crassula tecta Crassula tetragona Crassula tetramera Crassula thunbergiana Crassula tillaea Crassula umbella Crassula viridis Crassula volkensii Crassula'Buddha's Temple' Crassula'Coralita' Crassula'Dorothy' Crassula'Emerald' Crassula'Fallwood' Crassula'Ivory Pagoda' Crassula'Justus Corderoy' Crassula'Morgan's Beauty' Crassula'Moonglow' Crassula'Tom Thumb' Data related to Crassula at Wikispecies genera| family
Datura is a genus of nine species of poisonous vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. They are known as daturas, but known as devil's trumpets, not to be confused with angel's trumpets, its related genus Brugmansia, they are sometimes called moonflowers, devil's weed, hell's bells, thorn-apple, many more. Its precise and natural distribution is uncertain, owing to its extensive cultivation and naturalization throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the globe, its distribution within the Americas and North Africa, however, is most restricted to the United States and Southern Canada in North America, Tunisia in Africa where the highest species diversity occurs. All species of Datura are poisonous their seeds and flowers; some South American plants thought of as Datura are now treated as belonging to the distinct genus Brugmansia. Other related taxa include Hyoscyamus niger, Atropa belladonna, Mandragora officinarum and many more; the name Datura is taken from Sanskrit धतूरा dhatūra'thorn-apple' from Sanskrit धत्तूर dhattūra'white thorn-apple'.
In the Ayurvedic text Sushruta Samhita different species of Datura are referred to as kanaka and unmatta. Dhatura is offered to Shiva in Hinduism. Record of this name in English dates back to 1662. Nathaniel Hawthorne refers to one type in The Scarlet Letter as apple-Peru. In Mexico, its common name is toloache. Datura species are herbaceous, leafy annuals and short-lived perennials which can reach up to 2 m in height; the leaves are 10 -- 20 cm long and 5 -- 18 cm broad, with a lobed or toothed margin. The flowers are erect or spreading, trumpet-shaped, 5–20 cm long and 4–12 cm broad at the mouth; the fruit is a spiny capsule 4–10 cm long and 2–6 cm broad, splitting open when ripe to release the numerous seeds. The seeds disperse over pastures and wasteland locations. Datura belongs to the classic "witches' weeds", along with deadly nightshade and mandrake. Most parts of the plants are toxic, datura has a long history of use for causing delirious states and death, it was well known as an essential ingredient of witches' brews.
In India it has been referred to as an aphrodisiac. In little measures it was used in Ayurveda as a medicine from the ancient times, it is used in prayers to Shiva. It is used in Ganesh Chaturthi; the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Hypercompe indecisa, eat some Datura species. It is difficult to classify Datura as to its species, it happens that the descriptions of new species are accepted prematurely; these "new species" are found to be varieties that have evolved due to conditions at a specific location. They disappear in a few years. Contributing to the confusion is the fact that various species, such as D. wrightii and D. inoxia, are similar in appearance, the variation within a species can be extreme. For example, Datura species can change size of plant and flowers, all depending on location; the same species, when growing in a half-shady, damp location can develop into a flowering bush half as tall as an adult human of average height, but when growing in a dry location, will only grow into a thin plant not much more than ankle-high, with tiny flowers and a few miniature leaves.
Today, experts classify only nine species of Datura: D. ceratocaula Jacq. – torna loco D. discolor Bernh. – desert thorn-apple D. ferox L. – long-spined thorn-apple D. innoxia Mill. – thorn-apple, downy thorn-apple, Indian-apple, sacred datura, toloache D. leichhardtii F. Muell. Ex Benth. – Leichhardt's datura D. metel L. – devil's trumpet D. quercifolia Kunth – oak-leaf thorn-apple D. stramonium L. – jimsonweed, thorn-apple D. wrightii Regel – sacred datura, sacred thorn-appleAmerican Brugmansia and Datura Society, Inc. is designated in the 2004 edition of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants as the official International Cultivar Registration Authority for Datura. This role was delegated to ABADS by the International Society for Horticultural Science in 2002. D. bernhardii D. kymatocarpa D. lanosa D. reburra D. suaveolens Datura species are planted annually from the seed produced in the spiny pods, but with care, plants can be overwintered. Most species are suited to being planted in containers.
As a rule, they need soil that will keep their roots dry. When grown outdoors in good locations, the plants may become invasive. In containers, they should have aerated potting soil with adequate drainage; the plants are susceptible to fungi in the root area, so anaerobic organic enrichment such as anaerobically composted organic matter or manure, should be avoided. All Datura plants contain tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine and atropine in their seeds and flowers; because of the presence of these substances, Datura has been used for centuries in some cultures as a poison. A given plant's toxicity depends on its age, where it is growing, the local weather conditions; these variations make Datura exceptionally hazardous as a drug. In traditional cultures, a great deal of experience with and detailed knowledge of Datura was critical to minimize harm. Many tragic incidents result from modern users ingesting Datura. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, the United States media c
Alexander von Humboldt
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt was a Prussian polymath, naturalist and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science. He was the younger brother of the Prussian minister and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography. Humboldt's advocacy of long-term systematic geophysical measurement laid the foundation for modern geomagnetic and meteorological monitoring. Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in the Americas and describing them for the first time from a modern scientific point of view, his description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. Humboldt was one of the first people to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined. Humboldt resurrected the use of the word cosmos from the ancient Greek and assigned it to his multivolume treatise, Kosmos, in which he sought to unify diverse branches of scientific knowledge and culture.
This important work motivated a holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity. He was the first person to describe the phenomenon and cause of human-induced climate change, in 1800 and again in 1831, based on observations generated during his travels. Alexander von Humboldt was born in Berlin in Prussia on 14 September 1769, he was baptized with the Duke of Brunswick serving as godfather. Humboldt's father, Alexander Georg von Humboldt, belonged to a prominent Pomeranian family, although not one of the titled gentry, a major in the Prussian Army, who had served with the Duke of Brunswick. At age 42, Alexander Georg was rewarded for his services in the Seven Years' War with the post of royal chamberlain, he profited from the contract to lease state lotteries and tobacco sales. He first married the daughter of Prussian General Adjutant Schweder. In 1766, Alexander Georg married Maria Elisabeth Colomb, a well-educated woman and widow of Baron Hollwede, with whom she had a son. Alexander Georg and Maria Elisabeth had three children, a daughter, who died young, two sons and Alexander.
Her first-born son and Alexander's half-brother, was something of a ne'er do well, not mentioned in the family history. Alexander Georg died in 1779, leaving the brothers Humboldt in the care of their distant mother, she did have high ambitions for Alexander and his older brother Wilhelm, hiring excellent tutors, who were Enlightenment thinkers, including Kantian physician Marcus Herz and botanist Karl Ludwig Willdenow, who became one of the most important botanists in Germany. Humboldt's mother expected them to become civil servants of the Prussian state; the money Baron Holwede left to Alexander's mother became, after her death, instrumental in funding Alexander's explorations, contributing more than 70% of his private income. Due to his youthful penchant for collecting and labeling plants and insects, Alexander received the playful title of "the little apothecary". Marked for a political career, Alexander studied finance for six months in 1787 at the University of Frankfurt, which his mother might have chosen less for its academic excellence than its closeness to their home in Berlin.
On 25 April 1789, he matriculated at Göttingen known for the lectures of C. G. Heyne and anatomist J. F. Blumenbach, his brother Wilhelm was a student at Göttingen, but they did not interact much, since their intellectual interests were quite different. His vast and varied interests were by this time developed. At Gottingen, he met Georg Forster, a naturalist, with Captain James Cook on his second voyage. Humboldt traveled with Forster in Europe; the two traveled to England, Humboldt's first sea voyage, the Netherlands, France. In England, he met Sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal Society, who had traveled with Captain Cook; the scientific friendship between Banks and Humboldt lasted until Banks's death in 1820, the two shared botanical specimens for study. Banks mobilized his scientific contacts in years to aid Humboldt's work. Humboldt's scientific excursion up the Rhine resulted in his 1790 treatise Mineralogische Beobachtungen über einige Basalte am Rhein. Humboldt's passion for travel was of long standing.
Humboldt's talents were devoted to the purpose of preparing himself as a scientific explorer. With this emphasis, he studied commerce and foreign languages at Hamburg, geology at Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg in 1791 under A. G. Werner, leader of the Neptunist school of geology. C. Loder. X. von Zach and J. G. Köhler. At Freiberg, he met a number of men who were to prove important to him in his career, including Spaniard Manuel del Rio, who became director of the School of Mines the crown established in Mexico. During this period, his brother Wilhelm married. Humboldt graduated from the Freiberg School of Mines in 1792 and was appointed to a Prussian government position in the Department of Mines as an inspector in Bayreuth and the Fichtel mountains. Humboldt was excellent at his job, with production of gold ore in his first year outstripping the previous eight years. During his period as a mine inspector, Humbo
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
Xyris is a genus of flowering plants, the yelloweyed grasses, in the yellow-eyed-grass family. The genus counts over 250 species, widespread over much of the world, with the center of distribution in the Guianas; the leaves are distichous, linear and thin or round with a conspicuous sheath at the base. They are arranged in a basal aggregation; the small, yellow flowers are dioecious, borne on head. Each flower grows from the axil of a leathery bract; the fruit is a dehiscent capsule. In Xyris complanata, a single flower bud on the spike appears in the morning, expands into a conspicuous flower during the afternoon hours; the APG IV system, of 2016, places the genus in family Xyridaceae, into the order Poales in the clade commelinids, in the monocots. Species include: Xyris in the Flora of North America
Amaryllis is the only genus in the subtribe Amaryllidinae. It is a small genus with two species; the better known of the two, Amaryllis belladonna, is a native of the Western Cape region of South Africa the rocky southwest area between the Olifants River Valley and Knysna. For many years there was confusion among botanists over the generic names Amaryllis and Hippeastrum, one result of, that the common name "amaryllis" is used for cultivars of the genus Hippeastrum sold in the winter months for their ability to bloom indoors. Plants of the genus Amaryllis are known as belladonna lily, Jersey lily, naked lady, Easter lily in Southern Australia or, in South Africa, March lily due to its propensity to flower around March; this is one of numerous genera with the common name "lily" due to their flower shape and growth habit. However, they are only distantly related to Lilium. In the Victorian Language of Flowers, amaryllis means "pride". Amaryllis is a bulbous plant, with each bulb being 5–10 cm in diameter.
It has green leaves, 30 -- 50 cm long and 2 -- 3 cm broad, arranged in two rows. Each bulb produces one or two leafless stems 30–60 cm tall, each of which bears a cluster of two to twelve funnel-shaped flowers at their tops; each flower is 6–10 cm diameter with six tepals. The usual color is white with crimson veins, but pink or purple occur naturally; the single genus in subtribe Amaryllidinae, in the Amaryllideae tribe. The taxonomy of the genus has been controversial. In 1753 Carl Linnaeus created the name Amaryllis belladonna, the type species of the genus Amaryllis. At the time both South African and South American plants were placed in the same genus; the key question is whether Linnaeus's type was a South American plant. If the latter, Amaryllis would be the correct name for the genus Hippeastrum, a different name would have to be used for the genus discussed here. Alan W. Meerow et al. have summarized the debate, which took place from 1938 onwards and involved botanists on both sides of the Atlantic.
The outcome was a decision by the 14th International Botanical Congress in 1987 that Amaryllis L. should be a conserved name and based on a specimen of the South African Amaryllis belladonna from the Clifford Herbarium at the Natural History Museum in London. Amaryllidinae are placed within Amaryllideae as follow: These are phylogenetically related as follows: The name Amaryllis is taken from a shepherdess in Virgil's pastoral Eclogues, from "Amarella" for the bitterness of the bulb. Although the 1987 decision settled the question of the scientific name of the genus, the common name "amaryllis" continues to be used differently. Bulbs sold as amaryllis and described as "ready to bloom for the holidays" belong to the allied genus Hippeastrum; the common name "naked lady" used for Amaryllis is used for other bulbs with a similar growth and flowering pattern. The common name "naked lady" comes from the plant's pattern of flowering when the foliage has died down. In areas of its native habitat with mountainous fynbos flowering tends to be suppressed until after bush fires as dense overhead vegetation prevents growth.
In more open sandy areas of the Western Cape, the plant flowers annually. Plants tend to be localized in dense concentrations due to the seeds' large size and heavy weight. Strong winds shake loose the seeds, which fall to ground and start to germinate, aided by the first winter rains; the leaves are produced in the autumn or early spring in warm climates depending on the onset of rain and die down by late spring. The bulb is dormant until late summer; the plant is not frost-tolerant, nor does it do well in tropical environments since they require a dry resting period between leaf growth and flower spike production. One or two leafless stems arise from the bulb in the dry ground in late summer; the plant has a symbiotic relationship with carpenter bees. It is visited by noctuid moths at night; the relative importance of these animals as pollinators has not yet been established. The plant's main parasite is the lily borer Brithys crini and/or Diaphone eumela. Amaryllis belladonna was introduced into cultivation at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
It reproduces by either bulb division or seeds and has naturalized from plantings in urban and suburban areas throughout the lower elevations and coastal areas in much of the West Coast of the USA since these environments mimic their native South African habitat. Hardiness zones 6-8, it is naturalized in Australia. There is an Amaryllis belladonna hybrid, bred in the 1800s in Australia. No one knows the exact species it was crossed with to produce color variations of white, peach and nearly red hues; the hybrids were crossed back onto the original Amaryllis belladonna and with each other to produce seed-bearing crosses that come in a wide range of flower sizes, stem heights and intensities of pink. Pure white varieties with bright green stems were bred as well; the hybrids are quite distinct in that the many shades of pink have stripes, darkene