Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is a 2004 fantasy film directed by Alfonso Cuarón and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, it is based on J. K. Rowling's 1999 novel of the same name; the film, the third instalment in the Harry Potter film series, was written by Steve Kloves and produced by Chris Columbus, David Heyman, Mark Radcliffe. The story follows Harry Potter's third year at Hogwarts as he is informed that a prisoner named Sirius Black has escaped from Azkaban intending to kill him; the film stars Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter, alongside Rupert Grint and Emma Watson as Harry's best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. It features well-known actors in supporting roles, including Gary Oldman as Sirius Black, David Thewlis as Remus Lupin, Michael Gambon as Albus Dumbledore, Emma Thompson as Sybill Trelawney and Timothy Spall as Peter Pettigrew, it is the sequel to Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets and is followed by Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. The film was released on 31 May 2004 in the United Kingdom and on 4 June 2004 in North America, as the first Harry Potter film released into IMAX theatres and to be using IMAX Technology.
The film was nominated for two Academy Awards, Best Original Music Score and Best Visual Effects at the 77th Academy Awards in 2004. Prisoner of Azkaban grossed a total of $796.9 million worldwide, making it the second highest-grossing film of 2004 and received praise for Cuarón's direction and the performances of the lead actors. It marked a notable change in the film series' tone and directing, is considered by many critics and fans to be one of the best Harry Potter films. Harry Potter has been spending another dissatisfying summer with The Dursleys; when Harry's Aunt Marge insults his parents, he loses his temper and silently wills her to bloat up and float away. Fed up, Harry flees the Dursleys with his luggage; the Knight Bus delivers Harry to the Leaky Cauldron, where he is pardoned by Minister of Magic Cornelius Fudge for using magic outside of Hogwarts. After reuniting with his best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, Harry learns that Sirius Black, a convicted supporter of the dark wizard Lord Voldemort, has escaped Azkaban prison and intends to kill Harry.
The trio return to Hogwarts for the school year on the Hogwarts Express, only for dementors to board the train, searching for Sirius. One enters the trio's compartment, causing Harry to pass out, but new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher Professor Lupin repels the dementor with a Patronus Charm. At Hogwarts, headmaster Albus Dumbledore announces that dementors will be guarding the school while Sirius is at large. Hogwarts groundskeeper Rubeus Hagrid is announced as the new Care of Magical Creatures teacher. Draco exaggerates his injury, his father Lucius Malfoy has Buckbeak sentenced to death; the Fat Lady's portrait, which guards the Gryffindor quarters, is found ruined and empty. Terrified and hiding in another painting, she tells Dumbledore. During a stormy Quidditch match against Hufflepuff, dementors attack Harry, causing him to fall off his broomstick. At Hogsmeade, Harry is shocked to learn that not only had Sirius been his father's best friend and betrayed them to Voldemort, but is Harry's godfather.
Lupin teaches Harry to defend himself against dementors, using the Patronus Charm. After Harry and Hermione witness Buckbeak's execution, Ron's pet rat Scabbers bites him and escapes; when Ron gives chase, a large dog appears and drags both Ron and Scabbers into a hole at the Whomping Willow's base. This leads the trio to an underground passage of the Shrieking Shack, where they discover that the dog is Sirius, an Animagus. Lupin embraces Sirius as an old friend, he admits to being a werewolf, explains that Sirius is innocent. Sirius was falsely accused of betraying the Potters to Voldemort, as well as murdering twelve Muggles and their mutual friend, Peter Pettigrew, it is revealed that Scabbers is Pettigrew, an Animagus who betrayed the Potters and committed the murders. After forcing him back into human form and Sirius prepare to kill him, but Harry convinces them to turn Pettigrew over to the dementors; as the group departs, the full moon rises and Lupin transforms into a werewolf. Sirius transforms into his dog form to fight him off.
In the midst of the chaos, Pettigrew escapes. Harry and Sirius are attacked by dementors, Harry sees a figure in the distance save them by casting a powerful Patronus spell, he believes. He awakens to discover that Sirius has been sentenced to the Dementor's Kiss. Acting on Dumbledore's advice and Hermione travel back in time with Hermione's Time Turner, watch themselves and Ron repeat the night's events, they save Buckbeak from execution and witness Sirius. The present Harry realises that it was him who conjured the Patronus, does so again. Harry and Hermione rescue Sirius. Exposed as a werewolf, Lupin resigns from teaching to prevent an uproar from parents, he returned the Marauder's Map back to Harry, given he no longer has the authority to confiscate contrabands. Sirius sends Harry a Firebolt broom, he takes it for a ride. Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter, a 13-year-old British wizard famous for surviving his parents' murder at the hands of the evil dark wizard Lord Voldemort as an infant, who now enters his third year at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.
Rupert Grint as Ron Weasley, Harry's best friend at Hogwarts. Emma Watson as
Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling; the novels chronicle the lives of a young wizard, Harry Potter, his friends Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main story arc concerns Harry's struggle against Lord Voldemort, a dark wizard who intends to become immortal, overthrow the wizard governing body known as the Ministry of Magic, subjugate all wizards and Muggles. Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, on 26 June 1997, the books have found immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide, they have attracted a wide adult audience as well as younger readers and are considered cornerstones of modern young adult literature. As of February 2018, the books have sold more than 500 million copies worldwide, making them the best-selling book series in history, have been translated into eighty languages; the last four books consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history, with the final instalment selling eleven million copies in the United States within twenty-four hours of its release.
The series was published in English by two major publishers, Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom and Scholastic Press in the United States. A play, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, based on a story co-written by Rowling, premiered in London on 30 July 2016 at the Palace Theatre, its script was published by Little, Brown; the original seven books were adapted into an eight-part namesake film series by Warner Bros. Pictures, the third highest-grossing film series of all time as of February 2018. In 2016, the total value of the Harry Potter franchise was estimated at $25 billion, making Harry Potter one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time. A series of many genres, including fantasy, coming of age, the British school story, the world of Harry Potter explores numerous themes and includes many cultural meanings and references. According to Rowling, the main theme is death. Other major themes in the series include prejudice and madness; the success of the books and films has allowed the Harry Potter franchise to expand with numerous derivative works, a travelling exhibition that premiered in Chicago in 2009, a studio tour in London that opened in 2012, a digital platform on which J.
K. Rowling updates the series with new information and insight, a pentalogy of spin-off films premiering in November 2016 with Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, among many other developments. Most themed attractions, collectively known as The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, have been built at several Universal Parks & Resorts amusement parks around the world; the central character in the series is Harry Potter, a boy who lives in Surrey with his aunt and cousin – the Dursleys – and discovers, at the age of eleven, that he is a wizard, though he lives in the ordinary world of non-magical people known as Muggles. The wizarding world exists parallel to the Muggle world, albeit hidden and in secrecy, his magical ability is inborn, children with such abilities are invited to attend exclusive magic schools that teach the necessary skills to succeed in the wizarding world. Harry becomes a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, a wizarding academy in Scotland, it is here where most of the events in the series take place.
As Harry develops through his adolescence, he learns to overcome the problems that face him: magical and emotional, including ordinary teenage challenges such as friendships, romantic relationships and exams, depression and the greater test of preparing himself for the confrontation that lies ahead in wizarding Britain's increasingly-violent second wizarding war. Each novel chronicles one year in Harry's life during the period from 1991 to 1998; the books contain many flashbacks, which are experienced by Harry viewing the memories of other characters in a device called a Pensieve. The environment Rowling created is intimately connected to reality; the British magical community of the Harry Potter books is inspired by 1990s British culture, European folklore, classical mythology and alchemy, incorporating objects and wildlife such as magic wands, magic plants, spells, flying broomsticks and other magical creatures, the Philosopher's Stone, beside others invented by Rowling. While the fantasy land of Narnia is an alternate universe and the Lord of the Rings' Middle-earth a mythic past, the wizarding world of Harry Potter exists parallel to the real world and contains magical versions of the ordinary elements of everyday life, with the action set in Scotland, the West Country, Devon and Surrey in southeast England.
The world only accessible to wizards and magical beings comprises a fragmented collection of overlooked hidden streets, ancient pubs, lonely country manors, secluded castles invisible to the Muggle population. When the first novel of the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone opens, it is apparent that some significant event has taken place in the wizarding world – an event so remarkable Muggles notice signs of it; the full background to this event and Harry Potter's past is revealed throughout the series. After the introductory chapter, the book leaps forward to a time shortly before Harry Potter's eleventh birthday, it is at this point that his magical background begins to be revealed. Despite Harry's aunt and uncle's desperate prevention of Harry
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the Muses are the inspirational goddesses of literature and the arts. They are considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, lyric songs, myths that were related orally for centuries in these ancient cultures. In current English usage, "muse" can refer in general to a person who inspires an artist, musician, or writer; the word "Muses" came from the o-grade of the Proto-Indo-European root *men- or from root *men- since all the most important cult-centres of the Muses were on mountains or hills. R. S. P. Beekes suggests a Pre-Greek origin; the earliest known records of the Nine Muses are from the homeland of Hesiod. Some ancient authorities thought. There, a tradition persisted. In the first century BC, Diodorus Siculus cited Homer and Hesiod to the contrary, observing: Writers disagree concerning the number of the Muses. Diodorus states that Osiris first recruited the nine Muses, along with the satyrs, while passing through Ethiopia, before embarking on a tour of all Asia and Europe, teaching the arts of cultivation wherever he went.
According to Hesiod's account followed by the writers of antiquity, the Nine Muses were the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, figuring as personifications of knowledge and the arts literature and music. The Roman scholar Varro relates that there are only three Muses: one born from the movement of water, another who makes sound by striking the air, a third, embodied only in the human voice, they were called Melete or "Practice", Mneme or "Memory" and Aoide or "Song". Three ancient Muses were reported in Plutarch's Quaestiones Convivales. However, the classical understanding of the Muses tripled their triad and established a set of nine goddesses, who embody the arts and inspire creation with their graces through remembered and improvised song and mime, traditional music, dance, it was not until Hellenistic times that the following systematic set of functions was assigned to them, then there was some variation in both their names and their attributes: Calliope, Euterpe, Melpomene, Erato and Urania.
According to Pausanias in the second century AD, there were three Muses, worshipped on Mount Helicon in Boeotia: Aoide and Mneme. Together, these three form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice. In Delphi three Muses were worshiped as well, but with other names: Nete and Hypate, which are assigned as the names of the three chords of the ancient musical instrument, the lyre. Alternatively they were called Cephisso and Borysthenis, names which characterize them as daughters of Apollo. In a tradition, a set of four Muses were recognized: Thelxinoë, Archē, Melete, said to be daughters of Zeus and Plusia or of Ouranos. One of the people associated with the Muses was Pierus. By some he was called the father of a total of seven Muses, called Neilṓ, Tritṓnē, Asōpṓ, Heptápora, Achelōís, Tipoplṓ, Rhodía. According to Hesiod's Theogony, they were daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, Mnemosyne, Titan goddess of memory. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were more primordial, springing from the early deities Ouranos and Gaia.
Gaia is Mother Earth, an early mother goddess, worshipped at Delphi from prehistoric times, long before the site was rededicated to Apollo indicating a transfer to association with him after that time. Sometimes the Muses are referred to as water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and with Pieris, it was said that the winged horse Pegasus touched his hooves to the ground on Helicon, causing four sacred springs to burst forth, from which the Muses were born. Athena tamed the horse and presented him to the Muses. Classical writers set Apollo as Apollon Mousagetēs. In one myth, the Muses judged a contest between Marsyas, they gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, buried them in Leivithra. In a myth, Thamyris challenged them to a singing contest, they punished Thamyris by blinding him and robbing him of his singing ability. According to a myth from Ovid's Metamorphoses—alluding to the connection of Pieria with the Muses—Pierus, king of Macedon, had nine daughters he named after the nine Muses, believing that their skills were a great match to the Muses.
He thus challenged the Muses to a match, resulting in his daughters, the Pierides, being turned into chattering magpies for their presumption. Pausanias records a tradition of two generations of Muses. Another, rarer genealogy is that they are daughters of Harmonia
Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of music and prophecy, the sun and light, plague and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Seen as the most beautiful god and the ideal of the kouros, Apollo is considered to be the most Greek of all gods. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu; as the patron of Delphi, Apollo was an oracular god—the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing are associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius, yet Apollo was seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague. Apollo is the god of archery and the invention of archery is credited to him and his sister Artemis, he had a quiver of golden arrows. He is said to have never missed his aim, his arrows could inflict harm by causing sudden deaths or deadly plague.
As the leader of the Muses and director of their choir, Apollo functions as the patron god of music and poetry. He is the inventor of string-music; the Cithara and the lyre are said to be his inventions. The lyre is a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans. Apollo delights in the foundation of towns and the establishment of civil constitution. Hence is associated with dominion over colonists. Additionally, he is the god of the protector of fugitives and refugees. Apollo is the interpreter of laws, he presides over the divine law and custom along with Zeus and Themis. As the protector of young, Apollo is concerned with the health of children, he brings them out of their adolescence. Boys in Ancient Greece, upon reaching their adulthood, dedicated it to Apollo. Apollo is the patron of protector of herds and flocks, he is causes abundance in the milk produced by cattle, is connected with their fertility. As an agricultural deity, Apollo protects the crops from diseases the rust in corns and grains.
He is the controller and destroyer of pests that infect plants and plant harvests. Apollo is the god who wards off evil, he delivered men from the epidemics. Various epithets call him the "averter of evil". In Hellenistic times during the 5th century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios, Titan god of the sun. In Latin texts, there was no conflation of Apollo with Sol among the classical Latin poets until 1st century AD. Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the 5th century CE. Apollo The name Apollo—unlike the related older name Paean—is not found in the Linear B texts, although there is a possible attestation in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo--[) on the KN E 842 tablet; the etymology of the name is uncertain. The spelling Ἀπόλλων had superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form, Apellon, is more archaic, as it is derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων, it is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios, the offerings apellaia at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai.
According to some scholars, the words are derived from the Doric word apella, which meant "wall," "fence for animals" and "assembly within the limits of the square." Apella is the name of the popular assembly in corresponding to the ecclesia. R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun. Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most associated Apollo's name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι, "to destroy". Plato in Cratylus connects the name with ἀπόλυσις, "redemption", with ἀπόλουσις, "purification", with ἁπλοῦν, "simple", in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, with Ἀειβάλλων, "ever-shooting". Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα, which means "assembly", so that Apollo would be the god of political life, he gives the explanation σηκός, "fold", in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the ancient Macedonian language πέλλα means "stone," and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα and Πελλήνη.
A number of non-Greek etymologies have been suggested for the name, The Hittite form Apaliunas is attested in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter related to Hurrian Aplu, a god of plague, in turn from Akkadian Aplu Enlil meaning "the son of Enlil", a title, given to the god Nergal, linked to Shamash, Babylonian god of the sun. The role of Apollo as god of plague is evident in the invocation of Apollo Smintheus by Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, with the purpose of sending a plague against the Greeks (the reasoning behind a god of the plague becoming a god of healing is
The griffin, griffon, or gryphon is a legendary creature with the body and back legs of a lion. Because the lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts and the eagle the king of birds by the Middle Ages the griffin was thought to be an powerful and majestic creature. Since classical antiquity, Griffins were known for guarding treasure and priceless possessions. In Greek and Roman texts and Arimaspians were associated with gold deposits of Central Asia. Indeed, as Pliny the Elder wrote, "griffins were said to lay eggs in burrows on the ground and these nests contained gold nuggets."In medieval heraldry, the Griffin became a Christian symbol of divine power and a guardian of the divine. The derivation of this word remains uncertain, it could be related to the Greek word γρυπός, meaning'curved', or'hooked'. This could have been an Anatolian loan word, compare Akkadian karūbu, similar to Cherub. A related Hebrew word is כרוב. Most statuary representations of griffins depict them with bird-like talons, although in some older illustrations griffins have a lion's forelimbs.
Its eagle's head is conventionally given prominent ears. Infrequently, a griffin is portrayed without wings, or a wingless eagle-headed lion is identified as a griffin. In 15th-century and heraldry, such a beast may be called an alce or a keythong. In heraldry, a griffin always has forelegs like an eagle's hind-legs. A type of griffin with the four legs of a lion was distinguished by only one English herald of heraldry as the Opinicus, which had a camel-like neck and a short tail that resembles a camel's tail. There is evidence of representations of griffins in Ancient Iranian and Ancient Egyptian art dating back to before 3000 BC. In Egypt, a griffin can be seen in a cosmetic palette from Hierakonpolis, known as the "Two Dog Palette", dated to ca. 3300-3100 BC. In Iranian mythology, griffin is called Shirdal means: Lion-Eagle. Shirdal have used in ancient art of Iran since late second millennium BC. Shirdals appeared on cylinder seals from Susa as early as 3000 BC. Shirdals are common motifs in the art of Luristan and North West region of Iran in Iron Age, Achaemenid art.
Griffin depictions appear in the Levant and Anatolia in the Middle Bronze Age, dated at about 1950-1550 BC. Early depictions of griffins in Ancient Greek art are found in the 15th century BC frescoes in the Throne Room of the Bronze Age Palace of Knossos, as restored by Sir Arthur Evans, it continued being a favored decorative theme in Classical Greek art. In Central Asia, the griffin appears about a thousand years after Bronze Age Crete, in the 5th–4th centuries BC originating from the Achaemenid Persian Empire; the Achaemenids considered the griffin "a protector from evil and secret slander". The modern generalist calls it the lion-griffin, as for example, Robin Lane Fox, in Alexander the Great, 1973:31 and notes p. 506, who remarks a lion-griffin attacking a stag in a pebble mosaic at Pella as an emblem of the kingdom of Macedon or a personal one of Alexander's successor Antipater. The Pisa Griffin is a large bronze sculpture, in Pisa in Italy since the Middle Ages, though it is of Islamic origin.
It is the largest bronze medieval Islamic sculpture known, at over three feet tall, was created in the 11th century in Al-Andaluz. From about 1100 it was placed on a column on the roof of Pisa Cathedral until replaced by a replica in 1832. Adrienne Mayor, a classical folklorist and historian of science, proposes that the ancient Greek idea and image of the griffin in classical art and literature beginning in the seventh century BC was influenced in part by the fossilized remains of beaked dinosaurs such as Protoceratops observed on the way to gold deposits by nomadic prospectors of ancient Scythia, This hypothesis is speculative, based on a number of Greek and Latin literary sources and related artworks, beginning with the first written ancient descriptions of griffins in a lost work by Aristeas of Proconnessus in the seventh century BC), cited by Aeschylus and Herodotus and ending with Aelian. Mayor's suggestion has been contested in a blog claiming that it ignores pre-Mycenaean accounts and bird-lion composites in earlier art that goes far earlier than 7th century BCE..
A multitude of imaginary composite creatures combining features of birds and mammals can be found in ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern art, including mammals with bird heads in Minoan, Mycenaean,and Egyptian art, but there are no pre-Mycenaean written accounts about Griffins. Mayor's suggestion is speculative, intended to account for the profusion of Greco-Latin literary accounts of the "gryps" as a real animal of the East and the accompanying popularity of artistic representations that arose in Greece after travelers like Aristeas brought back tales of "Griffins" from Central Asia. Several ancient mythological creatures are similar to the griffin; these include the Lama
Orlando Furioso is an Italian epic poem by Ludovico Ariosto which has exerted a wide influence on culture. The earliest version appeared in 1516, although the poem was not published in its complete form until 1532. Orlando Furioso is a continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo's unfinished romance Orlando Innamorato. In its historical setting and characters, it shares some features with the Old French Chanson de Roland of the eleventh century, which tells of the death of Roland; the story is a chivalric romance which stemmed from a tradition beginning in the late Middle Ages and continuing in popularity in the 16th century and well into the 17th. Orlando is the Christian knight known in French as Roland; the story takes place against the background of the war between Charlemagne's Christian paladins and the Saracen army that has invaded Europe and is attempting to overthrow the Christian empire. The poem is the romantic ideal of chivalry, it mixes realism and fantasy and tragedy. The stage is a trip to the Moon.
The large cast of characters features Christians and Saracens and sorcerers, fantastic creatures including a gigantic sea monster called the orc and a flying horse called the hippogriff. Many themes are interwoven in its complicated episodic structure, but the most important are the paladin Orlando's unrequited love for the pagan princess Angelica, which drives him mad; the poem is divided into forty-six cantos, each containing a variable number of eight-line stanzas in ottava rima. Ottava rima had been used in previous Italian romantic epics, including Luigi Pulci's Morgante and Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato. Ariosto's work is 38,736 lines long in total, making it one of the longest poems in European literature. Ariosto began working on the poem around 1506, when he was 32; the first edition of the poem, in 40 cantos, was published in Ferrara in April 1516 and dedicated to the poet's patron Ippolito d'Este. A second edition appeared in 1521 with minor revisions. Ariosto continued to write more material for the poem and in the 1520s he produced five more cantos, marking a further development of his poetry, which he decided not to include in the final edition.
They were published after his death by his illegitimate son Virginio under the title Cinque canti and are regarded by some modern critics. The third and final version of Orlando Furioso, containing 46 cantos, appeared in 1532. Ariosto had sought stylistic advice from the humanist Pietro Bembo to give his verse the last degree of polish and this is the version known to posterity; the first English translation by John Harington was published in 1591 at the behest of Queen Elizabeth I, who banned Harington from court until the translation was complete. Ariosto's poem is a sequel to Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato. One of Boiardo's main achievements was his fusion of the Matter of France with the Matter of Britain; the name Orlando is a translation of Roland from the 12th-century Song of Roland. The latter contained the magical elements and love interest that were lacking in the more austere and warlike poems about Carolingian heroes. Ariosto continued to mix these elements in his poem as well as adding material derived from Classical sources.
However, Ariosto has an ironic tone present in Boiardo, who treated the ideals of chivalry much more seriously. In Orlando Furioso, instead of chivalric ideals, no longer alive in the 16th century, a humanistic conception of man and life is vividly celebrated under the appearance of a fantastical world; the action of Orlando Furioso takes place against the background of the war between the Christian emperor Charlemagne and the Saracen king of Africa, who has invaded Europe to avenge the death of his father Traiano. Agramante and his allies – who include Marsilio, the King of Spain, the boastful warrior Rodomonte – besiege Charlemagne in Paris. Meanwhile, Charlemagne's most famous paladin, has been tempted to forget his duty to protect the emperor because of his love for the pagan princess Angelica. At the beginning of the poem, Angelica escapes from the castle of the Bavarian Duke Namo, Orlando sets off in pursuit; the two meet with various adventures until Angelica saves a wounded Saracen knight, falls in love, elopes with him to Cathay.
When Orlando learns the truth, he goes mad with despair and rampages through Europe and Africa destroying everything in his path. The English knight Astolfo journeys to Ethiopia on the hippogriff to find a cure for Orlando's madness, he flies up in Elijah's flaming chariot to the Moon, where everything lost on Earth is to be found, including Orlando's wits. He makes Orlando sniff them, thus restoring him to sanity. Orlando joins with Brandimart and Oliver to fight Agramante and Gradasso on the island of Lampedusa. There Orlando kills King Agramante. Another important plotline involves the love between the female Christian warrior Bradamante and the Saracen Ruggiero, they too have to endure many vicissitudes. Ruggiero is taken captive by the sorceress Alcina and has to be freed from her magic island
Pegasus is a famous pterippus, a mythical winged divine stallion, one of the most recognized creatures in Greek mythology. Although misused in popular culture, the term "Pegasus" is a proper noun, referring to a particular character, whereas the term "pterippus" is the generic name for the species of winged horses. Pegasus is depicted as pure white in color. Pegasus is a child of the Olympian god Poseidon, he was foaled by the Gorgon Medusa upon her death. Pegasus is the uncle of Geryon. Greco-Roman poets wrote about the ascent of Pegasus to heaven after his birth, his subsequent obeisance to Zeus, king of the gods, who instructed him to bring lightning and thunder from Olympus. Friend of the Muses, Pegasus created the fountain on Mt. Helicon. Pegasus was caught by the Greek hero Bellerophon, near the fountain Peirene, with the help of Athena and Poseidon. Pegasus allowed Bellerophon to ride him in order to defeat the monstrous Chimera, which led to many other exploits. Bellerophon fell from the winged horse's back while trying to reach Mount Olympus.
Afterwards, Zeus transformed Pegasus into the eponymous constellation. The symbolism of Pegasus varies with time. Symbolic of wisdom and fame from the Middle Ages until the Renaissance, Pegasus became associated with poetry around the 19th century, as the fountainhead of sources from which the poets gained their inspiration. Pegasus is the subject of a rich iconography throughout ancient Greek pottery and paintings and sculptures of the Renaissance. Hypotheses have been proposed regarding the relationship between Pegasus and the Muses, the gods Athena, Zeus and the hero Perseus; the poet Hesiod presents a folk etymology of the name Pegasus as derived from πηγή pēgē "spring, well": "the pegai of Okeanos, where he was born."A proposed etymology of the name is Luwian pihassas, meaning "lightning", Pihassassi, a local Luwian-Hittite name in southern Cilicia of a weather god represented with thunder and lightning. The proponents of this etymology adduce Pegasus' role, reported as early as Hesiod, as the bringer of thunderbolts to Zeus.
It was first suggested in 1952 and remains accepted, but Robin Lane Fox has criticized it as implausible. According to legend, everywhere the winged horse struck his hoof to the earth, an inspiring water spring burst forth. One of these springs was upon the Muses' Mount Helicon, the Hippocrene, Antoninus Liberalis suggested, at the behest of Poseidon to prevent the mountain swelling with rapture at the song of the Muses. Hesiod relates how Pegasus was peacefully drinking from a spring when the hero Bellerophon captured him. Hesiod says Pegasus carried thunderbolts for Zeus. There are several versions of the birth of the winged stallion and his brother Chrysaor in the far distant place at the edge of Earth, Hesiod's "springs of Oceanus, which encircles the inhabited earth, where Perseus found Medusa: One is that they sprang from the blood issuing from Medusa's neck as Perseus was beheading her, similar to the manner in which Athena was born from the head of Zeus. In another version, when Perseus beheaded Medusa, they were born of the Earth, fed by the Gorgon's blood.
A variation of this story holds that they were formed from the mingling of Medusa's blood and sea foam, implying that Poseidon had involvement in their making. The last version bears resemblance to Hesiod's account of the birth of Aphrodite from the foam created when Uranus's severed genitals were cast into the sea by Cronus. Pegasus aided the hero Bellerophon in his fight against the Chimera. There are varying tales about; the next morning, still clutching the bridle, Bellerophon found Pegasus drinking at the Pierian spring, caught him and tamed him. Michaud's Biographie universelle relates that when Pegasus was born, he flew to where thunder and lightning are released. According to certain versions of the myth, Athena tamed him and gave him to Perseus, who flew to Ethiopia to help Andromeda. In fact, Pegasus is a late addition to the story of Perseus, who flew on his own with the sandals lent to him by Hermes. Pegasus and Athena left Bellerophon and continued to Olympus where he was stabled with Zeus' other steeds, was given the task of carrying Zeus' thunderbolts, along with other members of his entourage, his attendants/handmaidens/shield bearers/shieldmaidens and Bronte.
Because of his years of faithful service to Zeus, Pegasus was honoured with transformation into a constellation. On the day of his catasterism, when Zeus transformed him into a constellation, a single feather fell to the earth near the city of Tarsus. During World War II, the silhouetted image of Bellerophon the warrior, mounted on the winged Pegasus, was adopted by the United Kingdom's newly raised parachute troops in 1941 as their upper sleeve insignia; the image symbolized a warrior arriving at a battle by air, the same tactics used by paratroopers. The square upper-sleeve insignia comprised Bellerophon/Pegasus in light blue on a maroon background. One source suggests that the insignia was designed by famous English novelist Daphne du Maurier, wife of the commander of the 1st Airborne Division, General Frederick "Boy" Browning. According to the British Army Website, the insignia was designed by the celebrated East Anglian painter Major Edward Seago in May 1942; the maroon background on