Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitat. Wildlife plays an important role in balancing the ecosystem and provides stability to different natural processes of nature like rainfall,changing of temperature, fertility of soil; the goal of wildlife conservation is to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness for humans and other species alike. Many nations have government agencies and NGO's dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent non-profit organizations promote various wildlife conservation causes. Wildlife conservation has become an important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living species, in the danger of becoming extinct because the species has a low or falling population, or because they are threatened by the varying environmental or prepositional parameters like.
Fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Moreover, the habitat that remains has been degraded to bear little resemblance to the wild areas which existed in the past. Habitat loss due to destruction and degradation of habitat is the primary threat to the survival of wildlife. Climate change: Global warming is making hot days hotter and flooding heavier, hurricanes stronger and droughts more severe; this intensification of weather and climate extremes will be the most visible impact of global warming in our everyday lives. It is causing dangerous changes to the landscape of our world, adding stress to wildlife species and their habitat. Since many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements, climate change could cause a disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight drop or rise in average rainfall will translate into large seasonal changes. Hibernating mammals, reptiles and insects are harmed and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in moisture level.
Natural phenomena like floods, volcanoes and forest fires affect wildlife. Unregulated Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife. Along with this, mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem. Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms. Pesticides and toxic chemical being used, making the environment toxic to certain plants and rodents. Overexploitation: Overexploitation is the overuse of wildlife and plant species by people for food, pets, medicine and many other purposes. People have always depended on wildlife and plants for food, medicine and many other needs. More resources are being consumed; the danger is that if too many individuals of a species are taken from their natural environment, the species may no longer be able to survive. The loss of one species can affect many other species in an ecosystem; the hunting, trapping and fishing of wildlife at unsustainable levels is not something new.
The passenger pigeon was hunted to extinction, early in the last century, over-hunting nearly caused the extinction of the American bison and several species of whales. Deforestation: Humans are continually expanding and developing, leading to an invasion of wildlife habitats; as humans continue to grow, they clear forested land to create more space. This stresses wildlife populations as there are fewer homes and food sources for wildlife to survive. Population: The increasing population of human beings is a major threat to wildlife. More people on the globe means more consumption of food and fuel, therefore more waste is generated. Major threats to wildlife are directly related to the increasing population of human beings. Low population of humans results in less disturbance to wildlife; the activities like nuclear test,use of phones,loudspeaker etc produced a harmful radiations which decreased the growth rate of animals and plants. These radiations change the genetic order of DNA. Nowadays governments were making a law to restricted the use of loudspeaker,fire crackers and many harmful substances.
Culling: Culling is the deliberate and selective killing of wildlife by governments as a population control measure. An example of this is shark culling, in which Australian government shark control programs have killed thousands of sharks, as well as turtles, dolphins and other marine life. There are examples of population culling in the United States, such as bison in Montana and swans and deer in New York and other places. In 1972, the Government of India enacted. In America, the Endangered Species Act of 1973 protects some U. S. species that were in danger from overexploitation, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora works to prevent the global trade of wildlife, but there are many species that are not protected from being illegally traded or being over-harvested. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources with advice and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scien
Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park is an American national park located in the western Sierra Nevada of Central California, bounded on the southeast by Sierra National Forest and on the northwest by Stanislaus National Forest. The park is managed by the National Park Service and covers an area of 747,956 acres and sits in four counties: centered in Tuolumne and Mariposa, extending north and east to Mono and south to Madera County. Designated a World Heritage site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its granite cliffs, clear streams, giant sequoia groves, mountains, meadows and biological diversity. 95% of the park is designated wilderness. On average, about 4 million people visit Yosemite each year, most spend the majority of their time in the 7 square miles of Yosemite Valley; the park set a visitation record in 2016, surpassing 5 million visitors for the first time in its history. Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development leading to President Abraham Lincoln's signing the Yosemite Grant in 1864.
John Muir led a successful movement to have Congress establish a larger national park by 1890, one which encompassed the valley and its surrounding mountains and forests, paving the way for the National Park System. Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, the park supports a diversity of plants and animals; the park has an elevation range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet and contains five major vegetation zones: chaparral and oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone, alpine. Of California's 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada and more than 20% are within Yosemite; the park contains suitable habitat for more than 160 rare plants, with rare local geologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy. The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic remnants of older rock. About 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and tilted to form its gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes.
The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in the formation of deep, narrow canyons. About one million years ago and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet during the early glacial episode; the downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. The name "Yosemite" referred to the name of a renegade tribe, driven out of the area by the Mariposa Battalion; the area had been called "Ahwahnee" by indigenous people. Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3,000 years, although humans may have first visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the indigenous natives called themselves the Ahwahnechee, meaning "dwellers in Ahwahnee." They are related to the Northern Mono tribes. Many tribes visited the area to trade, including nearby Central Sierra Miwoks, who lived along the drainage area of the Tuolumne and Stanislaus Rivers.
A major trading route went over Mono Pass and through Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake, just to the east of the Yosemite area. Vegetation and game in the region were similar to that present today; the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century increased travel by European-Americans in the area, causing competition for resources between the regional Paiute and Miwok and the miners and hangers on. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance, United States Army Major Jim Savage led the Mariposa Battalion into the west end of Yosemite Valley, he was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley. Attached to Savage's unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, who wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya.
Bunnell wrote. The Miwok, a neighboring tribe, most white settlers considered the Ahwahneechee to be violent because of their frequent territorial disputes; the Miwok term for the Pai-Ute band was yohhe'meti, meaning "they are killers". Correspondence and articles written by members of the battalion helped to popularize the natural wonders of the Yosemite Valley and the surrounding area. Chief Tenaya and his Ahwahneechee were captured and their village burned; the chief and some others were allowed to return to Yosemite Valley. In the spring of 1852 they attacked a group of eight gold miners, moved east to flee law enforcement. Near Mono Lake, they took refuge with the nearby Mono tribe of Paiute, they stole horses from their hosts and moved away, but the Mono Paiutes tracked down and killed many of the Ahwahneechee, including Chief Tenaya. The Mono Paiute took the survivors as captives back to Mono Lake and absorbed them into the Mono Lake Paiute tribe. After these wars, a number of Native Americans continued to live within the boundaries of Yosemite.
A number of Indians supported the growing tourism industry by worki
National Irrigation Congress
The National Irrigation Congress was held periodically in the Western United States beginning in 1891 and ending in 1916, by which time the organization had changed its name to International Irrigation Congress. It was a "powerful pressure group." 1891 The first congress was organized in Salt Lake City, Utah, by William Ellsworth Smythe, the editor of the publication Irrigation Age, Elwood Mead, a Wyoming irrigation engineer, Senator Francis E. Warren of Wyoming; as a result, irrigation became a substantial national issue. The congress passed a resolution urging that public lands controlled by the federal government be turned over to the states and territories "needful of irrigation." Between 450 and 600 delegates attended.1893 The panic of 1893 undermined financial backing for the congress. Irish of San Francisco and the presence of a number of foreign representatives who had responded to an appeal by the State Department to attend the meeting, they came from France, Mexico and New South Wales.
The body appointed commissioners in every state and territory to survey arid lands and submit the results to the U. S. Congress. C. W. Allingham of Los Angeles introduced his "heliomotor," a sun-powered engine that he said could be used to pump irrigation water; the Los Angeles Times reported: "He said it might be stated that the idea was a cranky one, but it must be remembered that it was the cranks that made things move."1894 The congress in Omaha, was highlighted by adoption of a plan to settle 250 families in a planned community called New Plymouth in Idaho. "Farmers were... restricted to living no more than two miles away from their crops, the sale of alcohol was banned... to keep the farmers sober and well-mannered at all times."John Wesley Powell, director of the United States Geological Survey, "talked of the storm-water storage plan. He thought. In Utah and California, where it had been tried, it had been successful."1895 A congress held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1895 adopted a resolution that stated in part: We declare that it should be the policy of Congress to frame laws which will enable the people to obtain possession of the arid public lands upon terms which bear a fair relation to the cost of reclamation, that this cost should be regulated by public authority....
We earnestly ask for the creation of a National Irrigation Commission... to be composed of men familiar with the condition of the arid region and including a representative of skilled engineers. We would have this commission empowered to use the facilities of the Department of the Interior or Agriculture and of War. 1896 At the fifth congress in Phoenix, Arizona, A. G. Wolfenbarger of Nebraska described the West as "a country destined to become at some future time the Garden of the Gods, the home of intelligence, riches, everything that can measure the power and greatness of a great nation... millions of people are waiting to be led out into these great plains waiting to welcome them to a home that will make them independent."1897 The congress of 1897 in Lincoln, which attracted representatives from thirteen states, was opened with an address by E. R. Moses, chairman of the national executive committee, who said: We irrigationists are satisfied that Congress will have to adopt our plan of preventing the overflow of large streams by the storage of waters near the heads in such a manner as to feed the stream at times of low water, at other times to be used in irrigation and manufacturing industries... and large tracts of arid land can be reclaimed by these waters and opened for settlement.
Defeated Democratic candidate for the U. S. Presidency William Jennings Bryan told the delegates he was opposed "to turning over large bodies of land to corporations controlling water rights, unless safeguards were thrown around the transaction to protect small holders of irrigable land."1898 The 1898 congress in Cheyenne, called for the federal government to allocate "no less than $100,000 for hydrographic surveys for the measurement of streams and the survey of reservoir sites" and urged the formation of a forestry bureau. But a Colorado legislator likened the America West "to a graveyard, littered with defunct irrigation corporations."1899 A battle developed at the 1899 Wichita, meeting of another Western body — the Trans-Mississippi Congress — over the stand by the National Irrigation Congress favoring federal "storage reservoirs" and the "leasing of the public grazing lands by the states without cession and those who advocated the public lands to the States and Territories." After much debate, the Trans-Mississippi group endorsed the policy of the Irrigation Congress.
1900 The 1900 meeting of the Irrigation Congress in Chicago, featured a paper read by Captain Hiram M. Chittenden of the Army Corps of Engineers contending that the best way to get the U. S. Congress to act on irrigation was to "divorce the storage reservoir problem from that of irrigation in general, that the former is properly within the field of the General Government, is in a fair way to secure favorable action by Congress, provided that it is well understood that no attempt will be made to involve the Government in irrigation work." 1903 The eleventh congress was held in Ogden, Utah, in September 1903, with Senator William A. Clark of Montana as chairman; the agenda included "Practical forestry lessons.
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft was the 27th president of the United States and the tenth chief justice of the United States, the only person to have held both offices. Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for re-election by Woodrow Wilson in 1912 after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft to be chief justice, a position in which he served until a month before his death. Taft was born in Cincinnati in 1857, his father, Alphonso Taft, was a U. S. Attorney General and Secretary of War. Taft attended Yale and, like his father, was a member of Bones. After becoming a lawyer, he was appointed a judge while still in his twenties, he continued a rapid rise, being named Solicitor General and as a judge of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. In 1901, President William McKinley appointed Taft civilian governor of the Philippines. In 1904, Roosevelt made him Secretary of War, he became Roosevelt's hand-picked successor.
Despite his personal ambition to become chief justice, Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, believing his political work to be more important. With Roosevelt's help, Taft had little opposition for the Republican nomination for president in 1908 and defeated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency that November. In the White House, he focused on East Asia more than European affairs and intervened to prop up or remove Latin American governments. Taft sought reductions to trade tariffs a major source of governmental income, but the resulting bill was influenced by special interests, his administration was filled with conflict between the conservative wing of the Republican Party, with which Taft sympathized, the progressive wing, toward which Roosevelt moved more and more. Controversies over conservation and antitrust cases filed by the Taft administration served to further separate the two men. Roosevelt challenged Taft for renomination in 1912.
Taft used his control of the party machinery to gain a bare majority of delegates and Roosevelt bolted the party. The split left Taft with little chance of re-election and he took only Utah and Vermont in Wilson's victory. After leaving office, Taft returned to Yale as a professor, continuing his political activity and working against war through the League to Enforce Peace. In 1921, President Harding appointed Taft as an office he had long sought. Chief Justice Taft was a conservative on business issues and under him there were advances in individual rights. In poor health, he resigned in February 1930. After his death the next month, he was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the first president and first Supreme Court justice to be interred there. Taft is listed near the middle in historians' rankings of U. S. presidents. William Howard Taft was born September 15, 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Alphonso Taft and Louise Torrey; the Taft family was not wealthy. Alphonso served as a judge, ambassador and in the cabinet, as War Secretary and Attorney General under Ulysses S. Grant.
William Taft was a hard worker. He attended Woodward High School in Cincinnati. At Yale College, which he entered in 1874, the heavyset, jovial Taft was popular, was an intramural heavyweight wrestling champion. One classmate described him succeeding through hard work rather than being the smartest, as having integrity. In 1878, Taft graduated, second in his class out of 121, he attended Cincinnati Law School, graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1880. While in law school, he worked on The Cincinnati Commercial newspaper, edited by Murat Halstead. Taft was assigned to cover the local courts, spent time reading law in his father's office. Shortly before graduating from law school, Taft went to the state capital of Columbus to take the bar examination and passed. After admission to the Ohio bar, Taft devoted himself to his job at the Commercial full-time. Halstead was willing to take him on permanently at an increased salary if he would give up the law, but Taft declined. In October 1880, Taft was appointed assistant prosecutor for Hamilton County, took office the following January.
Taft served for a year as assistant prosecutor. He resigned in January 1882 after President Chester A. Arthur appointed him Collector of Internal Revenue for Ohio's First District, an area centered on Cincinnati. Taft refused to dismiss competent employees who were politically out of favor, resigned effective in March 1883, writing to Arthur that he wished to begin private practice in Cincinnati. In 1884, Taft campaigned for the Republican candidate for president, Maine Senator James G. Blaine, who lost to New York Governor Grover Cleveland. In 1887, Taft aged 29, was appointed to a vacancy on the Superior Court of Cincinnati by Governor Joseph B. Foraker; the appointment was good for just over a year, after which he would have to face the voters, in April 1888, he sought election for the first of three times in his lifetime, the other two being for the presidency. He was elected to a full five-year term; some two dozen of Taft's opinions as a state judge survive, the most significant being Moores & Co. v. Bricklayers' Union No. 1 if only because it was used against him when he ran for president in 1908.
The case involved bricklayers who refused to work for any firm that de
Hayden Geological Survey of 1871
The Hayden Geological Survey of 1871 explored the region of northwestern Wyoming that became Yellowstone National Park in 1872. It was led by geologist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden; the 1871 survey was not Hayden's first, but it was the first federally funded, geological survey to explore and further document features in the region soon to become Yellowstone National Park and played a prominent role in convincing the U. S. Congress to pass the legislation creating the park. In 1894, Nathaniel P. Langford, the first park superintendent and a member of the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition which explored the park in 1870, wrote this about the Hayden expedition: We trace the creation of the park from the Folsom-Cook expedition of 1869 to the Washburn expedition of 1870, thence to the Hayden expedition of 1871, Not to one of these expeditions more than to another do we owe the legislation which set apart this "pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people" The 1871 Hayden survey had its roots in the Pacific Railroad Survey bill passed by Congress in 1853 to find the best routes for railroads from the Mississippi to the Pacific coast.
The bill spawned an era of federally funded Great Surveys undertaken by the Department of the Interior after the Civil War that brought together explorers, engineers and topographers in a common effort to chart the western U. S. Hayden along with John Wesley Powell, Clarence King and George Wheeler were the leaders of these great surveys. In March 1871, a sum of $40,000 was appropriated by Congress to finance Hayden's fifth survey to explore the territories of Idaho and Montana. Hayden was familiar with Jay Cooke's desire to promote the Yellowstone region for the Northern Pacific Railroad and had attended Nathaniel P. Langford's January 1871 lecture in Washington D. C. on the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition to Yellowstone of the previous year. The $40,000, granted for Hayden's expedition was not available until July 1, the beginning of the fiscal year. After the passage of the Sundry Civil bill, Hayden applied to the Secretary of War for permission to draw on equipment and transportation at frontier army posts.
This was authorized, together with a small escort "when deemed necessary and the public service will permit." The Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads agreed to carry Hayden's men and equipment without cost. Hayden had James Stevenson. In 1866, Stevenson accompanied Hayden into the badlands of Dakota Territory in a search for minerals and fossils, from that time on he was Hayden's assistant in every venture until the Hayden Survey was merged with those of King and Powell to form the U. S. Geological Survey in 1879; the two were now able to outfit and equip members of Hayden's survey at Fort D. A. Russell in Wyoming and transport the equipment, subsistence and animals he would need by rail to Ogden, where a base camp had been set up in May on an old lake terrace a mile east of the city. During the weeks leading up to the expedition the scientists and other men were to make up the party that would venture into the Yellowstone region. In the spring of 1871, Hayden selected the members of the survey team, 32 in all, from among friends and colleagues, seven previous survey participants, a few political patrons.
Included in the party was William Henry Jackson, his photographer from his 1870 survey and Thomas Moran, a guest artist arranged by Jay Cooke. Two of the members, the young mineralogist Albert Peale and the botanist George Allen, were a student of Hayden's at the University of Pennsylvania and Hayden's Natural History professor at Oberlin College. Both Allen and Peale kept private journals of the expedition which when discovered in years have brought great insight to the daily operations of the survey team; the survey began on June 8, 1871 when it departed Ogden, Utah 41.227744°N 111.961193°W / 41.227744. The party traveled north, reaching Taylor's Bridge 43.491775°N 112.032509°W / 43.491775. On June 30, 1871, the survey party had reached into Montana, camping just over the Continental Divide near Monida Pass 44.55861°N 112.30556°W / 44.55861. Hayden and his survey party reached Virginia City, Montana 45.294107°N 111.94123°W / 45.294107. By this time, Thomas Moran, the guest artist had joined the survey.
At Fort Ellis, both George Allen, the botanist and Cyrus Thomas, the agricultural statistician and entomologist left the party for health reasons, while José, the guide, joined the team. After resupplying and coordinating with the U. S. Army at Fort Ellis, the survey departed south along the Yellowstone River on July 15, 1871. For the next 45 days, the Hayden Survey would coordinate efforts with the Barlow-Heap expedition under the command of Colonel John W. Barlow, Chief Engineer for General Philip Sheridan that the U. S. Army was sending into Yellowstone at the same time; as the survey team traveled up the Yellowstone River in what is now called Paradise Valley, they confirmed what Hayden knew, that the trail was unsuitable for their wagons. Near Bottler's Ranch 45°19′30″N 110°47′33″W, the last outpost in the valley near Emigrant Gulch, the survey team set up a base camp that would be used to ass
Salmon Bay is a portion of the Lake Washington Ship Canal—a canal which passes through the city of Seattle, linking Lake Washington to Puget Sound—that lies west of the Fremont Cut. It is the westernmost section of the canal, empties into Puget Sound's Shilshole Bay; because of the Hiram M. Chittenden Locks, the smaller, western half of the bay is salt water, the eastern half is fresh water. Before construction of the Ship Canal, Salmon Bay was salt water. East of the locks, Salmon Bay is spanned by the Ballard Bridge, a bascule bridge that carries 15th Avenue traffic between Ballard and Interbay. West of the locks, it is spanned by the Salmon Bay Bridge that carries the BNSF Railway railroad tracks between Ballard and Magnolia
Lake Washington is a large freshwater lake adjacent to the city of Seattle. It is the largest lake in King County and the second largest natural lake in the state of Washington, after Lake Chelan, it borders the cities of Seattle on the west and Kirkland on the east, Renton on the south and Kenmore on the north, encloses Mercer Island. The lake is fed by the Cedar River at its south. Lake Washington received its present name in 1854 after Thomas Mercer suggested it be named after George Washington, as the new Washington Territory had been named the year before. Prior names for Lake Washington have included the Duwamish name Xacuabš, as well as Lake Geneva, Lake Duwamish, the Chinook jargon name, "Hyas Chuck," meaning, "Big Lake."The lake provides sport fishing opportunities. Some species found in this lake are Coastal Cutthroat Trout, Rainbow Trout, Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Yellow Perch, Black Crappie. A ribbon lake, Lake Washington is long and finger-like. Ribbon lakes are excavated by glaciers.
As the Puget lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet flowed south near the end of the Late Pleistocene, it met bands of harder and softer rock. Erosion of the softer rock was faster and a linear depression was created in the flow direction; when the glacier melted, the lake filled with the meltwater, retained by moraine deposits. A dam can be created by the bands of harder rock either side of the softer rock. There is a river at both ends of a ribbon lake, one being the inlet, the other, the outlet—though in the case of present-day Lake Washington, inlet rivers are located at both ends, with a man-made outlet in the middle; the main inflowing rivers are the Cedar Rivers. Prior to the construction of the Lake Washington Ship Canal in 1916, the Sammamish was the primary source of water for Lake Washington; the creation of the ship canal lowered the water level of Lake Washington by 8 feet, which increased the flow of the Sammamish River. As part of the ship canal project, the Cedar River was diverted into Lake Washington, it is now the primary source of water for Lake Washington.
In addition, there are numerous small creeks and rivers which feed the lake, including: Before construction of the Lake Washington Ship Canal in 1916, Lake Washington's outlet was the Black River, which joined the Duwamish River and emptied into Elliott Bay. When the canal was opened the level of the lake dropped nearly nine feet; the canal to the Puget Sound became the lake's sole outlet, causing the Black River to dry up and disappear. Concrete floating bridges are employed to span the lake because Lake Washington's depth and muddy bottom prevented the emplacement of the pilings or towers necessary for the construction of a causeway or suspension bridge; the bridges consist of hollow concrete pontoons that float atop the lake, anchored with cables to each other and to weights on the lake bottom. The roadway is constructed atop these concrete pontoons. Three floating bridges cross Lake Washington: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge carries State Route 520 from Seattle's Montlake neighborhood to Medina while the Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and the Third Lake Washington Bridge carry Interstate 90 from Seattle's Mount Baker neighborhood to Mercer Island.
The East Channel Bridge carries Interstate 90 from Mercer Island to Bellevue. The Evergreen Point, Lacey V. Murrow, Third Lake Washington bridges are the longest, second longest, fifth longest floating bridges in the world, respectively. Many questioned the wisdom of concrete floating bridge technology after the sinking of a portion of the Lacey V. Murrow bridge on November 25, 1990. However, a Washington State Department of Transportation investigation revealed that that incident resulted from the improper handling of hydrodemolition water being used during bridge renovations, rather than in any basic flaw in the bridge's concept or design. Concrete floating bridges continue to remain a viable means for the conveyance of vehicle traffic over Lake Washington. In 1950 one year after the tolls were removed from the Murrow bridge, the inland ferry system on the lake came to an end, having operated since the 1880s; the cities and towns bordering the lake, going clockwise from the west, are Seattle, Lake Forest Park, Kirkland, Yarrow Point, Hunts Point, Bellevue, Beaux Arts Village, Renton.
The city of Mercer Island occupies the island of the same name, in the southern half of the lake. Kenmore Air operates passenger seaplane service at Kenmore Air Harbor at the northern end of the lake. Around 1900, Seattle began discharging sewage into Lake Washington. During the 1940s and 1950s, eleven sewage treatment plants were sending state-of-the-art treated water into the lake at a rate of 20 million gallons per day. At the same time, phosphate-based detergents came into wide use; the lake responded to the massive input of nutrients by developing unpleasant blooms of noxious blue-green algae. The water lost its clarity, the desirable fish populations declined, masses of dead algae accumulated on the shores of the lake. After significant pollution, the October 5, 1963 issue of the Post Intelligencer referred to the lake as "Lake Stinko". Citizen concern led to the creation of a system that diverted the treatment-plant effluents into nearby Puget Sound, where tidal flushing would mix them with open-ocean water.
The diversion was complete by 1968, the lake responded quickly. The algal blooms diminished, the water regained it