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Hiram Maxim

Sir Hiram Stevens Maxim was an American-born British inventor best known as the creator of the first portable automatic machine gun, the Maxim gun. Maxim held patents on numerous mechanical devices such as hair-curling irons, a mousetrap, steam pumps. Maxim laid claim to inventing the lightbulb. Maxim experimented with powered flight, he designed a successful amusement ride called the "Captive Flying Machine" to fund his research while generating public interest in flight. Maxim moved from the United States to the United Kingdom at the age of 41, remained an American citizen until he became a naturalised British subject in 1899, received a knighthood in 1901. Maxim was born in Sangerville, Maine on 5 February 1840, he became an apprentice coachbuilder at the age of 14 and ten years took up a job at the machine works of his uncle, Levi Stephens, at Fitchburg, Massachusetts. He subsequently worked as a draughtsman. Maxim, a longtime sufferer of bronchitis and manufactured a pocket menthol inhaler and a larger "Pipe of Peace", a steam inhaler using pine vapour, that he claimed could relieve asthma, hay fever and catarrh.

After being criticised for applying his talents to quackery, he protested that "it will be seen that it is a creditable thing to invent a killing machine, nothing less than a disgrace to invent an apparatus to prevent human suffering". He invented a curling iron, an apparatus for demagnetising watches, magno-electric machines, devices to prevent the rolling of ships and riveting machines, aircraft artillery, an aerial torpedo gun, coffee substitutes, various oil and gas engines. A large furniture factory had burned down, Maxim was consulted on how to prevent a recurrence; as a result, Maxim invented the first automatic fire sprinkler. It would douse the areas that were on fire, it would report the fire to the fire station. Maxim was unable to sell the idea elsewhere. Maxim developed and installed the first electric lights in a New York City building in the late 1870s. However, he was involved in several lengthy patent disputes with Thomas Edison over his claims to the lightbulb. One of these actions regarded the incandescent bulb, for which Maxim claimed that Edison was credited by means of his better understanding of patenting law.

Maxim claimed that an employee of his had falsely patented the invention under his own name, that Edison proved the employee's claim to be false, knowing that patent law would mean the invention would become public property, allowing Edison to manufacture the lightbulb without crediting Maxim as the true inventor. Maxim was reported to have said: "In 1882 I was in Vienna, where I met an American whom I had known in the States, he said:'Hang your chemistry and electricity! If you want to make a pile of money, invent something that will enable these Europeans to cut each others' throats with greater facility.'"As a child, Maxim had been knocked over by a rifle's recoil, this inspired him to use that recoil force to automatically operate a gun. Between 1883 and 1885 Maxim patented gas and blowback methods of operation. After moving to England, he settled in a large house owned by Lord Thurlow in West Norwood where he developed his design for an automatic weapon, using an action that would close the breech and compress a spring, by storing the recoil energy released by a shot to prepare the gun for its next shot.

He thoughtfully ran announcements in the local press warning that he would be experimenting with the gun in his garden and that neighbours should keep their windows open to avoid the danger of broken glass. Maxim founded an arms company with financial backing from Edward Vickers to produce his machine gun in Crayford, which merged with Nordenfelt. Subsequently, part of the Barrow Shipbuilding Company purchase by Vickers Corporation in 1897, formed'Vickers, Son & Maxim', their improved development of the Maxim gun design, the Vickers machine gun, after Maxim's resignation from the board in 1911 on his 71st birthday, was the standard British machine gun for many years. With arms sales led by Basil Zaharoff, variants of the Maxim gun were bought and used extensively by both sides during World War I. In his years Maxim became profoundly deaf, as his hearing had been damaged by years of exposure to the noise of his guns. Maxim's father had earlier conceived of a helicopter powered by two counter-rotating rotors, but was unable to find a powerful enough engine to build it.

Hiram first sketched out plans for a helicopter in 1872, but when he built his first "flying machine" he chose to use wings. Before starting design work, he carried out a series of experiments on aerofoil sections and propeller design, at first using a wind tunnel and building a whirling arm test rig. Construction started in 1889 of a 40-foot-long craft with a 110-foot wingspan that weighed 3.5 tons, powered by two lightweight naptha-fired 360-horsepower steam engines driving two 17-foot-diameter laminated pine propellers. Conceived of as a test rig, the machine ran on an 1,800-foot length of rail track which Maxim laid down for the purpose at his home, Baldwyn's Park Mansion, Baldwyn's Park in Bexley; the initial intention was to prevent the machine from lifting off by using heavy cast-iron wheels, but after initial trials, Maxim concluded that this would not suffice, so the machine was fitted with four wheeled outriggers which were restrained

2019 in Philippine music

The following is a list of notable events that are related to Philippine music in 2019. May 15 – The music video of "St4y Up", a collaboration song by Nadine Lustre was named Favorite Artist of the Year and Favorite Music Video at the Myx Music Awards 2019 held at the ABS-CBN Vertis Tent. Rivermaya, was this year's Myx Magna Awardee July 11 – Myx introduces the five new VJs of the channel, Dani Mortel, Anton Fausto, Aya Fernandez, Ylona Garcia and Edward Barber. July 28 Zephanie Dimaranan won the first season of Idol Philippines held at the Newport Performing Arts Theater, Resorts World Manila. Aicelle Santos finished the 2nd Placer at the ASEAN+3 Song Contest held in Vietnam. Tim Pavino represented the Philippines in the singing competition. Coke Studio Philippines announced its lineup of contemporary and indie Filipino acts for Season 3, namely: Sarah Geronimo, UDD, Iñigo Pascual, This Band, Janine Teñoso, Al James, Silent Sanctuary, Bea Lorenzo, St. Wolf, Ron Henley, Morissette Amon, Lola Amour, Just Hush, Clara Benin.

September 9 – Filipino music icon Ryan Cayabyab and four other Asian trailblazers has receives the Ramon Magsaysay Award at the Cultural Center of the Philippines. September 28 – Elaine Duran from Butuan City was hailed as It's Showtime's Tawag ng Tanghalan Year 3 Grand Champion, it was held at Barangay Bagumbong, North Caloocan City. October 13 – "Mabagal", composed by Dan Tañedo and interpreted by Daniel Padilla and Moira dela Torre, wins Best Song at Himig Handog 2019. October 15 – Rock of Manila TV was soft launched on all cable TV and Digital providers in the Philippines, it is owned by the Rajah Broadcasting Network. November 3 – Vanjoss Bayaban, coached by Sarah Geronimo, won the fourth season of The Voice Kids, the grand finals of which were held at the Newport Performing Arts Theater, Resorts World Manila. November 9 – Ethel Booba of General Santos City was emerged as the first-ever Tawag ng Tanghalan Celebrity Grand Champion. Indie band Meryl won Eastwood City's first-ever artist/band search.

Joyce Pring Arvey De Vera Alex Bruce Bea Lorenzo Just Hush Nik Makino Michael Dutchi Libranda Good Kid$ ALLMO$T ST. WOLF The Vowels They Orbit Nathan and Mercury Lola Amour Any Name's Okay COLN Sandiwa SB19 BRWN Flu Ysanygo Frio Jensen Gomez Ciudad Tom's Story The following albums are to be released in 2019 locally. Note: All soundtracks are not included in this list. Note 1.^ Jed Madela was planned to be part of the Visayas and Mindanao legs of the concert but backed out due to scheduling conflicts with his Higher Than High tour. January 15 – Wish 107.5 Music Awards 2019, organized by Wish 107.5 May 15 – Myx Music Awards 2019, organized by myx July 11 – MOR Pinoy Music Awards 2019, organized by MOR 101.9 October 10 – 32nd Awit Awards, organized by the Philippine Association of the Record Industry January 16 – Brian Velasco, drummer. January 28 – Pepe Smith and guitarist. March 5 – Annie Brazil, jazz singer. March 31 – Ferdie Marquez, founding member of True Faith June 20 – Jacqui Magno, jazz singer

Matildaville, Virginia

Matildaville was a town located along the Patowmack Canal in the present day area of Great Falls, United States. The town, chartered by the Virginia General Assembly in 1790, began as a staging and headquarters area for construction of the canal. At its height the town boasted the Patowmack Canal Company superintendent's house, a market, grist mill, foundry, ice house, workers' barracks, boarding houses, a number of residences. Boaters stopped there to wait their turn through the locks. Tourists who came to view Great Falls dined and lodged at one of the town's taverns. Dickey's Tavern, constructed circa 1797, was a popular destination for both tourists and sport fishermen, it was the last remaining building in Matildaville before it was destroyed by fire in 1950. The town declined after the Patowmack Canal closed in 1828. An attempt to reinvent the town as a textile manufacturing center, modeled after the town of Lowell, was made in 1839 by the Great Falls Manufacturing Company; the Company purchased the Patowmack Canal land at Great Falls along with several town lots.

The town was re-chartered as South Lowell. All that remains of the town are a series of ruins on the grounds of Great Falls Park. Http://


The Mockingboard is a sound card for the Apple II family of microcomputers built by Sweet Micro Systems, which improve on the Apple II's limited sound capabilities. In 1981, Sweet Micro Systems began designing products not only for creating music, but speech and general sound effects as well, culminating in the release of the Mockingboard in 1983; the Mockingboard's hardware allowed programmers to create complex, high-quality sound without need for constant CPU attention. The Mockingboard could be connected to external speakers. However, as the quality of the built-in speaker was not high, the instruction manual recommended obtaining external speakers; the Mockingboard was available in various models for either the slot-based Apple II / Apple II Plus / Apple IIe systems or in one special model for the Apple IIc. Sound was generated through one or more AY-3-8910 or compatible sound chips, with one chip offering three square-wave synthesis channels; the boards could be equipped with an optional speech chip.

Some software products supported more than one Mockingboard. Ultima V supported two boards, for a total of 12 voices. Most other programs supported at most one board with six voices. Applied Engineering's Phasor was compatible with the Mockingboard, it thus provided 12 audio channels. Few programs supported using it for more than six voices, however. In 2005, an Apple II retrocomputing hardware company,, cloned the Mockingboard and offered it for sale. It is fairly easy to build a clone on a prototyping board, since the Mockingboard contains few components. An IBM PC-compatible version was only distributed with Bank Street Music Writer. Sound I: one AY-3-8910 chip for three audio channels Speech I: one SC-01 chip Sound II: two AY-3-8910 chips for six audio channels Sound/Speech I: one AY-3-8910 and one SC-01 Mockingboard A: two AY-3-8913 chips for six audio channels and two open sockets for SSI-263 speech chips Mockingboard B: SSI-263 speech chip upgrade for Mockingboard A Mockingboard C: two AY-3-8913 and one SSI-263 Mockingboard D: for Apple IIc only, not software compatible with the other Mockingboards, two AY-3-8913 and one SSI-263 Mockingboard M: Bundled with Mindscape's Bank Street Music Writer, with two AY-3-8913 chips and an open socket for one speech chip.

This model included a headphone jack and a jumper to permit sound to be played through the Apple's built-in speaker. Mockingboard v1: A clone of the Mockingboard A from Mockingboard for IIc: This mocking board is software compatible with the other Mockingboard A/C without voice. Special designed for the APPLE IIc. install on the CPU socket. Used two AY-3-8912 and CPLD for IO Bus interface. Developed by Ian Kim in Korea. Mustalgame Card: Mockingboard clone from Capital Computer Co with two AY-3-891x chips. Integrated Software Automatic Mouth for speech synthesis. Amplifies Apple II speaker sound without need for interconnecting cable. Mega Audio: emulates 2 x Mockingboard cards without voice support, 1 x ALF Music card, 4 x S. A. M.-cards. Developed by A2Heaven. Phasor: emulates 2 x Mockingboard cards with optional voice support, 1 x ALF Music Card. Developed by Applied Engineering. SD Music card: First FM sound card for APPLE II, Used a YM2413 and ATmega128 to emulate Mockingboard A/C without voice support.

It provide Maximum 9 voices and provide direct register control for YM2413. Developed by Ian Kim in Korea. Apple II peripheral cards Mockingboad Mini-Manual Detailed Mockingboard info, software compatibility table, data sheets for programming information

Usman Salahuddin

Usman Salahuddin is a Pakistani international cricketer, selected to play against the West Indies for the May 2011 series. Salahuddin averages 36 in List A cricket and 47 in First-class cricket, he represented Lahore Eagles team in Faysal Bank T20 Cup 2012–13 season.2016 season he was signed by Newcastle city cricket club as their pro. In April 2017, he was added to Pakistan's Test squad for their series against the West Indies, but he did not play, he regained his place for the Test series against Sri Lanka played in September and October 2017, but again, did not play. In April 2018, he was named in Pakistan's Test squad for their tours to Ireland and England in May 2018, he made his Test debut against England on 1 June 2018. In August 2018, he was one of thirty-three players to be awarded a central contract for the 2018–19 season by the Pakistan Cricket Board. In September 2019, he was named in Central Punjab's squad for the 2019–20 Quaid-e-Azam Trophy tournament

William Pitt Debating Union

The William Pitt Debating Union is the debating society of the University of Pittsburgh. Falling under the auspices of the Department of Communication, the WPDU is a co-curricular program and hub for a wide range of debating activities, including intercollegiate policy debate, public debate, debate outreach. One of the oldest collegiate debating organizations in the nation, the WPDU grew from the University’s Division of Public Speaking in 1912. Throughout its history, the WPDU has participated in national and international competitions, including capturing the affirmative team two-man debate national championship at the 1947 Grand National Forensic Tournament, appearing 45 times at the National Debate Tournament, where it captured the 1981 national championship; the WPDU is located in the heart Pitt's campus and occupies the eastern wing of the eleventh floor of the Cathedral of Learning. The WPDU offers scholarships to top team participants; the WPDU has participated in, traveled extensively to intercollegiate debate competitions since its early history.

A regular participant regional and national competitions, the WPDU has won the Pennsylvania State Debating Championship, qualified for the National Debate Tournament forty-five times, captured the 1981 National Debate Tournament national championship. In addition, at the 1947 Grand National Forensic Tournament, a two-man affirmative debate team won the national championship competing against 89 other teams, while Pitt's negative team finished as runners-up; the WPDU has finished first in the American Debate Association’s varsity rankings and its debaters have won hundreds of individual speaking awards. In the past the WPDU hosted major intercollegiate debating competitions, through the years, the team has appeared on television, including once hosting its own weekly television show in the 1950s, its success has enjoyed coverage in local and regional media. Throughout its history, the WPDU has convened public debates on salient and pressing topics facing local and national communities, sometimes drawing large crowds and media attention.

Today, these debates feature a mix of student and expert advocates, audience participation periods, formats tailored for each debate. Topics have included school vouchers, the merging local governments, transportation issues, peer-to-peer file sharing, textbook pricing, sex education. In 2000, the Cross Examination Debate Association recognized the Union’s public debate efforts with the Public Sphere Award; the Union hosts foreign national teams on their debating tours of the United States, having entertained the British, Japanese and Irish national teams, has traveled for international debates. In 2000, the WPDU hosted a public debate between the national high school select teams from New Zealand and South Africa. From 2001-2006, WPDU coaches worked with the U. S. State Department to teach the public debate process as a strategy of civil society empowerment to high school students from Albania, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro; the WPDU has a long history of outreach exemplified by its history of hosting high school debate clinics and tournaments as far back as at least the 1930s.

Since 1995, the WPDU has reached thousands of elementary and secondary school students through its outreach initiatives, including the College in High School Argument program and the Middle School Public Debate Program. The WPDU employs two full-time directors and numerous graduate teaching assistants working with debate therefore making it one of the largest and most experienced debating coaching staffs in the United States; the current WPDU faculty includes the following:Current Director of the William Pitt Debating Union: Calum Matheson 2015–Present Director of Debate: Eric English 2015–Present Former Directors of Debate Robert P. Newman - 1952 to 1967 Thomas Kane - 1967 to 1990 Arnie Madsen - 1990 to 1994 Gordon Mitchell, 1995-2007 Shanara Reid-Brinkley, 2007-2015 Former Coaches Matt Brigham, Matt Gayetsky, Taylor Hahn, Amber Kelsie, Odile Hobeika, Joseph Packer, Sydney Pasquinelli, John Rief, Brent Saindon: Cambridge Union Society: Oxford Union Society: The Durham Union Society: London School of Economics, Grimshaw International Relations Club: Yale Debate Association: Berkeley Forum: Olivaint Conférence: Olivaint Conference of Belgium: Debattierclub Stuttgart: Common Sense Society Budapest: Queen's Debating Union William Pitt Debating Union homepage William Pitt Debating Union streaming media site