Bronze is an alloy consisting of copper with about 12–12.5% tin and with the addition of other metals and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability; the archeological period in which bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in India and western Eurasia is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, to the early 2nd millennium BC in China; the Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, although bronze continued to be much more used than it is in modern times. Because historical pieces were made of brasses and bronzes with different compositions, modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects use the more inclusive term "copper alloy" instead. There are two basic theories as to the origin of the word.
Romance theoryThe Romance theory holds that the word bronze was borrowed from French bronze, itself borrowed from Italian bronzo "bell metal, brass" from either, bróntion, back-formation from Byzantine Greek brontēsíon from Brentḗsion ‘Brindisi’, reputed for its bronze. Proto-Slavic theoryThe Proto-Slavic theory reflects the philological issue that in the most of Slavonic languages word "bronza" corresponds to "war metal" while at the early stages of the Bronze working it was used exclusively for military purposes; the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than possible. Bronze tools, weapons and building materials such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors. Bronze was made out of copper and arsenic, forming arsenic bronze, or from or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic, with the earliest artifacts so far known coming from the Iranian plateau in the 5th millennium BC, it was only that tin was used, becoming the major non-copper ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC.
Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the alloying process could be more controlled, the resulting alloy was stronger and easier to cast. Unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic; the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik. Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Egypt and some ancient sites in China and Mesopotamia. Ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a major influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a major source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall, which were traded as far as Phoenicia in the eastern Mediterranean. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artifacts are found, suggesting that bronze represented a store of value and an indicator of social status. In Europe, large hoards of bronze tools socketed axes, are found, which show no signs of wear.
With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources, the case is clear. These were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, used by the living for ritual offerings. Though bronze is harder than wrought iron, with Vickers hardness of 60–258 vs. 30–80, the Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age after a serious disruption of the tin trade: the population migrations of around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean and from Britain, limiting supplies and raising prices. As the art of working in iron improved, iron improved in quality; as cultures advanced from hand-wrought iron to machine-forged iron, blacksmiths learned how to make steel. Steel holds a sharper edge longer. Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day. There are many different bronze alloys, but modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper.
Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins, springs and blades. Historical "bronzes" are variable in composition, as most metalworkers used whatever scrap was on hand; the proportions of this mixture suggests. The Benin Bronzes are in fact brass, the Romanesque Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass. In the Bronze Age, two forms of bronze were used: "classic bronze", about 10% tin, was used in
The Meiji Restoration known as the Meiji Renovation, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were ruling emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the emperor of Japan; the goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure and spanned both the late Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji period; the Japanese knew that they were behind the Western world when American Commodore Matthew C. Perry came to Japan in 1853 in large warships with armament and technology that far outclassed those of Japan with the intent to conclude a treaty that would open up Japanese ports to trade. Figures like Shimazu Nariakira concluded. Observing Japan's response to the Western powers, Chinese general Li Hongzhang considered Japan to be China's "principal security threat" as early as 1863, five years before the Meiji Restoration.
The leaders of the Meiji Restoration, as this revolution came to be known, acted in the name of restoring imperial rule to strengthen Japan against the threat represented by the colonial powers of the day, bringing to an end the era known as sakoku. The word "Meiji" means "enlightened rule" and the goal was to combine "modern advances" with traditional "eastern" values; the main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, Yamaguchi Naoyoshi. The foundation of the Meiji Restoration was the 1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance between Saigō Takamori and Kido Takayoshi, leaders of the reformist elements in the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain; these two leaders supported the Emperor Kōmei and were brought together by Sakamoto Ryōma for the purpose of challenging the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and restoring the Emperor to power. After Kōmei's death on January 30, 1867, Meiji ascended the throne on February 3; this period saw Japan change from being a feudal society to having a market economy and left the Japanese with a lingering influence of Modernity.
The Tokugawa government had been founded in the 17th century and focused on reestablishing order in social and international affairs after a century of warfare. The political structure, established by Ieyasu and solidified under his two immediate successors, his son Hidetada and grandson Iemitsu, bound all daimyōs to the shogunate and limited any individual daimyō from acquiring too much land or power; the Tokugawa shogunate came to its official end on November 9, 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the 15th Tokugawa shōgun, "put his prerogatives at the Emperor's disposal" and resigned 10 days later. This was the "restoration" of imperial rule – although Yoshinobu still had significant influence and it was not until January 3, the following year, with the young Emperor's edict, that the restoration occurred. Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War started with the Battle of Toba–Fushimi in which Chōshū and Satsuma's forces defeated the ex-shōgun's army; this forced the Emperor to strip Yoshinobu of all power.
On January 3, 1868, the Emperor made a formal declaration of the restoration of his power: The Emperor of Japan announces to the sovereigns of all foreign countries and to their subjects that permission has been granted to the Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu to return the governing power in accordance with his own request. We shall henceforward exercise supreme authority in all the internal and external affairs of the country; the title of Emperor must be substituted for that of Taikun, in which the treaties have been made. Officers are being appointed by us to the conduct of foreign affairs, it is desirable. All Tokugawa lands were seized and placed under "imperial control", thus placing them under the prerogative of the new Meiji government. With Fuhanken sanchisei, the areas were split into three types: urban prefectures, rural prefectures and the existing domains. In 1869, the daimyōs of the Tosa, Satsuma and Chōshū Domains, who were pushing most fiercely against the shogunate, were persuaded to "return their domains to the Emperor".
Other daimyō were subsequently persuaded to do so, thus creating, arguably for the first time, a central government in Japan which exercised direct power through the entire "realm". Some shogunate forces escaped to Hokkaidō, where they attempted to set up a breakaway Republic of Ezo; the defeat of the armies of the former shōgun marked the final end of the Tokugawa shogunate, with the Emperor's power restored. By 1872, the daimyōs, past and present, were summoned before the Emperor, where it was declared that all domains were now to be returned to the Emperor; the 280 domains were turned into 72 prefectures, each under the control of a state-appointed governor. If the daimyōs peacefully complied, they were given a prominent voice in the new Meiji
A Shinto shrine is a structure whose main purpose is to house one or more kami. Its most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects, not for worship. Although only one word is used in English, in Japanese Shinto shrines may carry any one of many different, non-equivalent names like gongen, -gū, jingū, mori, myōjin, -sha, ubusuna or yashiro. Structurally, a Shinto shrine is characterized by the presence of a honden or sanctuary, where the kami is enshrined; the honden may however be absent, as for example when the shrine stands on a sacred mountain to which it is dedicated, and, worshiped directly. The honden may be missing when there are nearby altar-like structures called himorogi or objects believed capable of attracting spirits called yorishiro that can serve as a direct bond to a kami. There may be a haiden and other structures as well. However, a shrine's most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects rather than for worship. Miniature shrines can be found on roadsides.
Large shrines sometimes have on their precincts miniature shrines. The portable shrines which are carried on poles during festivals enshrine kami and are therefore true shrines. In 927 CE, the Engi-shiki was promulgated; this work listed all of the 2,861 Shinto shrines existing at the time, the 3,131 official-recognized and enshrined Kami. That number has grown and exceeded this figure through the following generations. In Agency for Cultural Affairs in Japan placed the number of shrines at 79,467 affiliated with the Association of Shinto Shrines; some shrines, such as the Yasukuni Shrine are independent of any outside authority. The number of Shinto shrines in Japan is estimated to be around 100,000; this figure may, or may not, include private shrines in homes and owned by small groups, abandoned or derelict shrines, roadside Hokora. etc. Ancestors are kami to be worshiped. Yayoi-period village councils sought the advice of ancestors and other kami, developed instruments to evoke them. Yoshishiro means "approach substitute" and were conceived to attract the kami to allow them physical space, thus making kami accessible to human beings.
Village-council sessions were held in quiet spots in the mountains or in forests near great trees or other natural objects that served as yorishiro. These sacred places and their yorishiro evolved into today's shrines, whose origins can be still seen in the Japanese words for "mountain" and "forest", which can mean "shrine". Many shrines have on their grounds one of the original great yorishiro: a big tree, surrounded by a sacred rope called shimenawa; the first buildings at places dedicated to worship were huts built to house some yorishiro. A trace of this origin can be found in the term hokura, "deity storehouse", which evolved into hokora, is considered to be one of the first words for shrine. True shrines arose with the beginning of agriculture, when the need arose to attract kami to ensure good harvests; these were, just temporary structures built for a particular purpose, a tradition of which traces can be found in some rituals. Hints of the first shrines can still be found there. Ōmiwa Shrine in Nara, for example, contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve the mountain on which it stands.
Those images or objects are therefore unnecessary. For the same reason, it has a worship hall but no place to house the kami. Archeology confirms that, during the Yayoi period, the most common shintai in the earliest shrines were nearby mountain peaks that supplied stream water to the plains where people lived. Besides the mentioned Ōmiwa Shrine, another important example is Mount Nantai, a phallus-shaped mountain in Nikko which constitutes Futarasan Shrine's shintai; the name Nantai means "man's body". The mountain not only provides water to the rice paddies below but has the shape of the phallic stone rods found in pre-agricultural Jōmon sites. In 905 CE, Emperor Daigo ordered a compilation of Shinto rules. Previous attempts at codification are known to have taken place, neither the Konin nor the Jogan Gishiki survive. Under the direction of Fujiwara no Tokihira, the project stalled at his death in April 909. Fujiwara no Tadahira, his brother, took charge and in 912 CE and in 927 CE the Engi-shiki was promulgated in fifty volumes.
This, the first formal codification of Shinto rites and Norito to survive, became the basis for all subsequent Shinto liturgical practice and efforts. In addition to the first ten volumes of this fifty volume work, sections in subsequent volumes addressing the Ministry of Ceremonies and the Ministry of the Imperial Household regulated Shinto worship and contained liturgical rites and regulation. Felicia Gressitt Brock published a two-volume annotated English language translation of the first ten volumes with an introduction entitled Engi-shiki; the arrival of Buddhism changed the situation, introducing to Japan the concept of the permanent shrine. A great number of Buddhist temples were built next to existing shrines in mixed complexes called jingū-ji (神宮寺, lit. shri
Tenshu is an architectural typology found in Japanese castle complexes. They are identifiable as the highest tower within the castle. Common translations of tenshu include keep, main keep, or donjon Tenshu are characterized as timber-framed, having multiple stories, being seated on ishigaki foundations, having individual floors delineated by surrounding tiled eaves. Further, tenshu are decorated with varying patterns of dormer gables, are capped with hip-and-gabled roofs with shachihoko finials. Not all Japanese castles possessed tenshu, many well-known castles have lost their tenshu, many have had the tenshu rebuilt on multiple occasions. While both the term, “tenshu” and the emergence of tenshu as a distinct architectural typology occurred in the 1560s and 1570s, the early relationship between the etymology and typology are not well understood; the first known use of the term “tenshu” can be found in Yoshida Kanemi’s journal, Kanemi kyōki, in the entry for the 24th day, 12th month of Genki 3:「明智為見廻下向坂本…城中天主作事以下悉披見也、驚目了… 」“Left the capital with Akechi for Sakamoto for the purpose of a survey…in the center of castle, all saw that a tenshu was being built and were surprised…”Subsequent mentions in Kanemi kyōki and in other primary sources during the 1570s reveal two points about the emergence of the term.
First, the term was reserved for those castles under the direct control of Nobunaga or one of his vassals. These include Sakamoto Castle, Takatsuki Castle, Ashikaga Yoshiaki’s Nijō Castle, Azuchi Castle, Itami Castle, Kitanosho Castle, Yamazaki Castle, Nagahama Castle, Ishigakiyama Ichiyoru Castle, Yodo Castle. Second, in its earliest uses there was no single standard for writing the term; the earliest variants include 天主, 殿主, 殿守,” or phonetically as てんしゅ. The first known use of the current standard “天守” appears in a letter dated the 27th day, 10th month of Tensho 7 issued by Nobunaga. While this way of writing tenshu became the standard during the reign of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the older manner of writing is preferred when discussing certain castles. One important example of this is the Azuchi Castle tenshu, referred as “天主.” The history of tenshu as an architectural typology seems to have begun earlier than the use of the term. Towers at Tamonyama Castle and Gifu Castle are known to have had the physical character of a tenshu, but are referred to in the primary record as yagura.
Azuchi Castle is credited as the birthplace of the tenshu. Given the earliest usages of the name, however, it seems more that Azuchi played a key role in linking the typology and the name; the Compact Nelson Japanese-English Dictionary, Charles E. Tuttle Company, Tokyo 1999, ISBN 4-8053-0574-6 Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, Kenkyusha Limited, Tokyo 1991, ISBN 4-7674-2015-6
Yagura is the Japanese word for "tower", "turret", "keep", or "scaffold". The word is most seen in reference to structures in Japanese castle compounds but can be used in other situations as well; the bandstand tower erected for Bon Festival is called a yagura, as are similar structures used in other festivals. Yagura-daiko is a traditional part of professional sumo competitions. There were signs that the first written form of kanji was during ancient periods being a character representing a tower before being changed to — in which the former replaced the latter once again; the term derives from the use of fortress towers as high/tall or arrow storehouses, was thus written as 矢倉. The term was used for a collection of towers. Today, modern towers such as skyscrapers or communications towers are exclusively referred to or named using the English-derived word tawā and not yagura. Castle towers varied in shape and purpose. Many served as watchtowers and for similar military purposes. Arrows were stored there, with other equipment.
As castles served as the luxurious homes of Japan's feudal lords, it was not uncommon for a castle to have an astronomy tower or a tower that provided a good vantage point for enjoying the natural beauty of the scenery. Japan has feared invasion or maintained border forts. However, it is that guardtowers or watchtowers would have been kept, outside of larger castle compounds, at times and places throughout its history. Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Castles 1540-1640. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Motoo, Hinago. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 200 pages. ISBN 0-87011-766-1
Tsugaru Nobuhira was the second daimyō of Hirosaki Domain in northern Mutsu Province, Honshū, Japan. His courtesy title was Etchū-no-kami, his Court rank was Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade. Tsugaru Nobuhira was born in 1586 as the third son of head of the Ōura clan. In 1596, with his two elder brothers Nobutake and Nobukata, he is known to have converted to Christianity. In 1600, at the Battle of Sekigahara, he accompanied his father as part of Tokugawa Ieyasu's Eastern Army, served in Ieyasu's retinue. At the same time, his elder brother Nobutake was at Osaka Castle and served as a page to Toyotomi Hideyori; this was a similar situation as with the Sanada clan, where two brothers fought on opposing sides, which ensured the clan's survival whichever side won. Ōura Tamenobu was on good terms with Ishida Mitsunari, the leader of the pro-Toyotomo Western Army, provided protection for Ishida's son and daughter in Tsugaru after the defeat of the Western Army. As a reward for his services at the battle of Sekigahara, the clan was given only a nominal 2000 koku increase in kokudaka with an estate in Kōzuke Province.
After the battle, Ōura Tamenobu changed the clan name to "Tsugaru". On Tamenobu’s death in 1607, Nobuhira became head of the Tsugaru clan over the objections of a faction which supported his nephew Tsugaru Kumachiyo, the young son of Nobutake; this was the first of many O-Ie Sōdō internal conflicts in the Tsugaru clan during the Edo period. An O-Ie Sōdō placed the domain in danger of attainer, but the issue was resolved through the arbitration of the Tokugawa shogunate giving Nobuhira the title of daimyō. From 1609 to 1611, Nobuhira rushed to complete Takaoka Castle, demolishing other castles in his domains for buildings and materials to speed up construction; the completed castle, with its huge five-story donjon was on a scale far larger than typical for a 47,000 koku daimyō. To secure his position vis-à-vis the Tokugawa shogunate, he married Tokugawa Ieyasu's niece, Mate-hime. Nobuhira was married at the time to Tatsu-hime, a daughter of Ishida Mitsunari, she was demoted in status to concubine and exiled to the clan's small subsidiary holding in Kozuke Province.
In 1614, Nobuhira dispatched his forces in support of the Tokugawa at the Osaka Winter Campaign. He was ordered remain on garrison duty in Edo before being told to return to his home domain to guard against unrest from other northern domains who might come out in support of the Toyotomi. In June 1619, Ieyasu demoted Fukushima Masanori from Hiroshima Domain to Hirosaki Domain, with the Tsugaru clan ordered to be transferred to Echigo Province; the Tsugaru clan protested this move and, through the assistance of the influential priest Nankōbō Tenkai, were able to get the Fukushima clan transferred to Nakajima Domain in Shinano Province instead. In September 1627, a lightning strike set the five-story donjon of Takaoka Castle on fire, which caused a warehouse filled with gunpowder to explode; the fire spread to other parts of the castle and surrounding castle town. The castle was rebuilt on a smaller scale, was renamed Hirosaki Castle in August 1628. Nobuhira developed Aomori port on Mutsu Bay as a main port for shipping to Edo, for transit to the northern island of Ezo.
He took steps to increase the rice production in his province by developing new paddy fields, by bringing in craftsmen and artisans from other parts of Japan. Nobuhira died on January 1631, at the clan residence in Edo, his grave is at the temple of Shinryō-in in Tokyo. Nobuhira was succeeded by Tsugaru Nobuyoshi by his first wife Tatsuhime. Nobuhira had four daughters, his second son, Tsugaru Nobufusa, by his second wife Mate-hime was given a 5000 koku hatamoto holding in Kuroishi, was the ancestor of the future daimyō of Kuroishi Domain. Tsugaru clan "Hirosaki-jō" "Tsugaru-han" on Edo 300 HTML The content of much of this article was derived from that of the corresponding article on Japanese Wikipedia
Tsugaru Tamenobu was a Sengoku period Japanese daimyō, the first daimyō of Hirosaki Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate. He was born as Ōura Tamenobu, was a hereditary retainer of the Nanbu clan. Much about the early life of Tamenobu and the ancestry of the Ōura clan is uncertain. Tamenobu was born in 1550, as the adopted son and heir of Ōura Tamenori, a retainer of the Nanbu clan, based at Sannohe Castle, he succeeded his father in 1567 or 1568 as castellan of Ōura Castle, located in what is now part of the city of Hirosaki. According to Tsugaru clan records, the clan was descendent from the noble Fujiwara clan and had an ancient claim to ownership of the Tsugaru region of northern Honshu. In any event, the Ōura were hereditary vice-district magistrate under the Nanbu clan's local magistrate Ishikawa Takanobu, he captured castles at Ishikawa and Aburakawa, soon gathered support of many former Nanbu retainers in the region. In 1582, with the death of Nanbu Harumasa, the Nanbu clan collapsed into numerous factions.
The 25th hereditary clan chieftain, Nanbu Harutsugu, was a boy of 13, soon died under uncertain circumstances, the Kunohe branch of the clan under the warlord Kunohe Masazane began to expand its influence over the Sannohe main branch. Given these circumstances, Tamenobu declared that the western Nanbu territories under his control would be independent for Nanbu rule. Proclaimed a traitor by the Nanbu clan, rivals Nanbu Nobunao and Kunohe Masazane both called for Tamenobu's death. Tamenobu was successful in taking castle after castle in the region due to the divided state of the Nanbu clan, but realising that in the long term he would need to solicit outside help, he approached the Mogami clan for an introduction to the regime of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Tamenobu departed by boat from Ajigasawa, but inclement winds blew the boat north as far as Matsumae, he made attempts to reach Hideyoshi overland in 1586, 1587 and 1588, but was blocked each time by hostile forces in the territories to the south of Tsugaru.
In 1589, Tamenobu approached Ishida Mitsunari with gifts of horses and falcons for Toyotomi Hideyoshi, asked for formal recognition as daimyō over his existing holdings. The area has had a formally assessed kokudaka of 45,000 koku. Tamenobu, accompanied by 18 of his closest vassals, participated in the Siege of Odawara in 1590, was received in audience by Hideyoshi. Nanbu Nobunao, supported by Maeda Toshiie declared Tamenobu to be a rebellious vassal who had seized the Tsugaru region illegally, demanded his punishment. Tamenobu was supported by Ishida Mitsunari, Hashiba Hidetsugu and Oda Nobukatsu and as he had pledged fealty to Hideyoshi earlier than Nanbu Nobunao, his claims to Tsugaru were recognised. Tamenobu revived his clan's claims to have been descendent from the Fujiwara clan and made lavish presents to the kampaku Konoe Sakihisa into order to receive former recognition of this claim, he changed his family name from Ōura to Tsugaru at this time. In 1591, he accompanied Toyotomi forces in the suppression of the Kunohe Rebellion.
During Hideyoshi's invasion of Korea, he was stationed at Fushimi Castle near Kyoto, in 1597 moved his seat from Ōura Castle to Horikoshi Castle. In 1600, Tamenobu received the courtesy title of Ukyo-no-daifu, together with his third son, Tsugaru Nobuhira, participated in the Battle of Sekigahara as part of the Eastern Army under Tokugawa Ieyasu. However, at the time, his eldest son Tsugaru Nobutake, was serving Toyotomi Hideyori as a page in Osaka Castle, so the situation of the Tsugaru clan was similar to that of the Sanada clan in that it was divided between the two armies. After the battle, he took in the orphaned children of Ishida Mitsunari and provided them shelter in Tsugaru, married Nobuhira to Mitsunari's daughter; as a reward for his efforts at the Battle of Sekigahara, his rewards were remarkable low - only an additional 2000 koku in Kozuke Province, which brought his kokudaka to 47,000 koku. Tamenobu feared a rebellion within his domains during his absence, had the suspected leader, Morioka Nobumoto, put to death before his departure.
The rebellion occurred anyway, the rebels occupied Horikoshi Castle before receiving word of the defeat of the Western Army, surrendering without a fight. Afterwards, Tamenobu decided to relocate his seat to a location called Takaoka, sandwiched between the Iwaki River and the Tabuchi River, began work on a new castle on a massive scale; the new castle was Hirosaki Castle. In 1607, Tamenobu received word that his eldest son, was ill in Kyoto and set out from Hirosaki to visit him. However, Nobutake died in October, before Tamenobu arrived, Tamenobu himself died in Kyoto that December at the age of 58, his grave is at the Tsugaru clan temple of Kakushū-ji in Hirosaki. As Tamenobu's second son, had in 1597, the title went to his third son, Nobuhira; this resulted in an O-Ie Sōdō, as many retainers felt that Nobutake's son was the legitimate heir. However, the Tokugawa shogunate intervened and proclaimed Nobuhira as the next daimyō; the content of much of this article was derived from that of th