Johann Friedrich Struensee
Johann Friedrich, Greve Struensee was a German doctor. He became royal physician to the mentally ill King Christian VII of Denmark and a minister in the Danish government, he rose in power to a position of "de facto" regent of the country, where he tried to carry out widespread reforms. His affair with Queen Caroline Matilda caused a scandal after the birth of a daughter, Princess Louise Augusta, was the catalyst for the intrigues and power play that caused his downfall and dramatic death. Born at Halle an der Saale and baptized at St. Moritz on 7 August 1737, Struensee was the third child of six born to Pietist theologian and minister Adam Struensee, Pfarrer in Halle an der Saale in 1732, "Dr. theol. von Halle" in 1757, pastor in Altona between 1757 and 1760, "Kgl. Generalsuperintendant von Schleswig und Holstein" between 1760 and 1791, his wife Maria Dorothea Carl, a respectable middle-class family that believed in religious tolerance. Three of the Struensee sons went to University. Johann Friedrich entered the University of Halle on 5 August 1752 at the age of fifteen where he studied Medicine, graduated as a Doctor in Medicine on 12 December 1757.
The university exposed him to Age of Enlightenment ideals, social and political critique and reform. He supported these new ideas, becoming a proponent of atheism, the writings of Claude Adrien Helvétius, other French materialists; when Adam and Maria Dorothea Struensee moved to Altona in 1758, where the elder Struensee became pastor of Trinitatiskirche, Johann Friedrich moved with them. He was soon employed as a public doctor in Altona, in the estate of Count Rantzau, in the Pinneberg District, his wages were meager, he expected to supplement them with private practice. His parents moved to Rendsburg in 1760 where Adam Struensee became first superintendent for the duchy, subsequently superintendent-general of Schleswig-Holstein. Johann Struensee, now 23 years old, had to set up his own household for the first time, his lifestyle expectations were not matched by his economics. His superior intelligence and elegant manners, soon made him fashionable in the better circles, he entertained his contemporaries with his controversial opinions.
He was ambitious, petitioned the Dano-Norwegian government in the person of Denmark-Norways’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count von Bernstorff for funds. He tried his hand at writing Enlightenment treatises, published many of them in his journal Zum Nutzen und Vergnügen. During Struensee's near ten-year residence in Altona he came into contact with a circle of aristocrats, sent away from the royal court in Copenhagen. Among them were Enevold Brandt and Count Schack Carl Rantzau, who were supporters of the Enlightenment. Rantzau recommended Struensee to the court as a physician to attend King Christian VII on his forthcoming tour to princely and royal courts in western Germany, the Netherlands and France. Struensee received the appointment in April 1768; the king and his entourage set forth on 6 May. While in England Struensee received the honorary degree of Doctor in Medicine from the University of Cambridge. During the eight-month tour he gained the king's affection; the king's ministers and Finance Minister H.
C. Schimmelmann, were pleased with Struensee's influence on the king, who began making fewer embarrassing "scenes". Upon the court's return to Copenhagen in January 1769, Struensee was appointed personal physician to the king. In May, he was given the honorary title of State Councillor, which advanced him to the class of the third rank at court. Struensee wrote an important report on the mental health of the King First he reconciled the king and queen. At first Caroline Matilda disliked Struensee, but she was unhappy in her marriage and spurned by the king, affected by his illness, but Struensee was one of the few people who paid attention to the lonely queen, he seemed to do his best to alleviate her troubles. Over time her affection for the young doctor grew and by spring 1770 he became her lover. Struensee was involved with the upbringing of the Crown Prince Frederick VI along the principles of Enlightenment, such as outlined by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's challenge to return to nature; however he had his own rather strict interpretation of Rousseau's ideas, by isolating the child, encouraging him to manage things on his own.
He took Rousseau's advice about cold being beneficial for children and the Crown Prince was thus only sparsely clothed during winter time. Struensee was named royal adviser and konferensråd on 5 May 1770; the royal court and government spent the summer of 1770 in Schleswig-Holstein. On 15 September the King dismissed Chancellor Bernstorff and on 18 December Struensee appointed himself maître des requêtes, consolidating his power and starting the 16-month period referred to as the "Time of Struensee"; when in the course of the year the king sank into a condition of mental torpor, Struensee's auth
Hørsholm Kommune is a municipality in the Copenhagen Capital Region in the northern part of the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 31 km², has a total population of 24,796, its mayor as of 2010 is a member of the Conservative People's Party political party. The main town and the site of its municipal council is the town of Hørsholm. Neighboring municipalities, in line with the Kommunalreformen, are Fredensborg municipality to the north, Allerød municipality to the west, Rudersdal municipality to the south. To the east is the Øresund, the strait that separates Denmark from Sweden; the distance to Sweden from the coast at Hørsholm is ca. 17 km to Landskrona or ca. 9 km to the Swedish island of Ven. Hørsholm and the neighbouring town Rungsted has an average income per household among the highest in the country - a fact strongly reflected in the price of housing in the area. Wealthy households are attracted to Hørsholm by its comparatively low income tax rate, proximity to forests and the sea.
Moreover, the commuting distance to central Copenhagen remains reasonably short. The Hørsholm Midtpunkt shopping mall with its 65 stores opened in the early 1970s and is the second largest shopping mall in Northern Zealand and among the ten largest shopping malls in the Copenhagen Capital Region. Hørsholm municipality was not merged with other municipalities on January 1, 2007 under the nationwide Kommunalreformen. Hørsholm was the site of the infamous Hirschholm Palace, which served as the summer retreat for King Christian VII and his court in 1771, when his consort, Queen Caroline Matilda, gave birth to her child by Johann Friedrich Struensee, Princess Louise Augusta; the castle, referred to as the "Versailles of the North", was neglected after that fateful year and torn down by Frederick VI, the King's son, in order to provide building materials for Christiansborg Palace, which had burned down in 1794. Hørsholm Church, built in 1832 and designed by Christian Frederik Hansen, is now found on the spot where the castle once stood.
Local museum Hørsholm Egns Museum has a display dedicated to its fate. Princess Louise Auguste of Denmark close to her older brother, Crown Prince Frederick Wilhelmine Schröder a Swedish telegraphist and journalist and confidant and royal mistress of King Charles XV of Sweden Johannes Ewald a Danish national dramatist and poet, lived in the municipality Harald Conrad Stilling a Danish architect of the Late Classical period Dagmar Hansen a Danish cabaret-singer, stage-performer and Denmark's first "pin-up girl". Karen Blixen a Danish author, best known for Out of Africa Sir Stig Fogh Andersen a Danish operatic tenor, a Wagner-tenor Jesper Kyd a Danish composer and sound designer Alex Vargas a Danish singer and record producer Cecilie Wellemberg a Danish model and beauty pageant titleholder, Miss Universe Denmark 2015 Holger Scheuermann a Danish surgeon after whom Scheuermann's disease is named Dorete Bloch a Danish zoologist and author of numerous books on the animals and plants of the Faroe Islands.
Anja Cetti Andersen an astronomer and astrophysicist Louise Conring a Danish superintendent, hospital inspector and nurse. Thomas Dinesen VC a Danish recipient of the Victoria Cross, won whilst serving for Canada Gunnar Dyrberg a member of the Danish resistance movement during WWII Simon Spies a Danish tycoon, lived in the municipality, paid an annual municipality tax of DK 50 to 60 m. Henrik Stiesdal a Danish inventor and businessman in the modern wind power industry Anisette Torp-Lind a Danish former competitive figure skater, competed at the 1992 Winter Olympics Tommy Løvenkrands a Danish former professional football player, 157 club caps Louise Hansen a Danish retired association football player, considered the most successful Danish woman footballer Peter Løvenkrands is a Danish former footballer, 313 club caps and 22 for Denmark Joachim B. Hansen a Danish professional golfer, lives in Rungsted Christina Nielsen a Danish auto racing driver Municipality's official website Rungsted Harbour's website Karen Blixen's website Hørsholm's local museum Hørsholms hunting and forest museum Municipal statistics: NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD aka Kommunedata Municipal merges and neighbors: Eniro new municipalities map
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
Vallerød is a former village and current neighbourhood in Hørsholm, Denmark. It is located in the parishes of Kokkedal; the greenspace Nattergaleengen separates Vallerød from the Hørsholm neighbourhood. Several large burial mounds were created in the area in the Bronze Age; the village of Vallerød was established in a clearing in the vast forest of North Zealand some time during the 13th century. I'm the 1900s, thThe first known reference to the name is from 1375. In 1800, Vallerød consisted of eight farms; the Coast Line opened in 1887 and after the turn of the century, several of the farms in Vallerød sold off their land in lots. In 1939, Hørsholm Municipality began to purchase land in the area, developed with single family detached homes; the Helsingør Motorway opened in 1958, increasing the demand for housing in the area more. In 1959, Hørsholm Municipality launched a masterplan competition for the area between Vallerød, Usserød and Hørsholm, it was won by Max Brüel and Jørgen Selchau. Kirstineparken is a dense-low development from 1960 designed by the architect Jørgen Bo and Vilhelm Wohlert.
It consists of 50 terraced houses arranged around a hill with views of Kokkedal Skov. It is registered with a SAVE value of 3. A total of 11 single family detached homes are registered with a SAVE value of 3: Constantiavej 2A, Constantiavej 6, Louise Petersensvej 1, Højskolevej 11, Højskolevej 12, Højskolevej 14-16, Gl. Vallerødvej 26, Gl. Vallerødvej 28, Gl. Vallerødvej 29, Sanskevej 9B and Sanskevej 15C. Villa Clovelly was designed by Sven Risom; the public primary school Vallerødskolen is located at Stadionallé 12. Hørsholm Sports Park is located in the Vallerød area. In the 1941 Development Plan for Hørsholm, it was decided to maintain greenspaces between the historic centres of the municipality. Nattergaleengen, which separates Vallerød from Hørsholm, creates a green corridor between Folehaven and the Kokkedal estate. Vallerød - matrikelkort
Den Danske Vitruvius
Den Danske Vitruvius I-II is a richly illustrated 18th-century architectural work on Danish monumental buildings of the period, written by the Danish Baroque architect Lauritz de Thurah. It was commissioned by Christian V in 1735 and published in two volumes between 1746 and 1749; the title refers to the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius, who published De architectura in the 1st century AD, an authoritative treatise on the architecture of the time. The direct inspiration for de Thurah's Den Danske Vitruvius was Colen Campbell's Vitruvius Britannicus. With its numerous illustrations, Den Danske Vitruvius is a valuable source of information on the many Danish buildings of the mid-18th century, which have since been demolished, rebuilt or lost in fires. A facsimile edition published in 1966-67 includes a third volume, based on an until unpublished manuscript kept at the Royal Danish Library, it covers buildings completed than 1749. Lauritz de Thurah had a military education and was a self-taught architect who learned much of what he knew by studying the inspiring buildings he saw on his travels outside Denmark between 1729 and 1731.
His architectural writings can be seen as a natural continuation of this interest. In 1735 de Thurah received a royal grant to collect information and to write a comprehensive work on architecture in Denmark, detailing all the royal buildings in the country, it appeared between 1746 and 1749, published at the King's expense, printed by the best Danish printer at that time, Ernst Henrich Berling. Den Danske Vitruvius provides a richly illustrated documentation of monumental Danish buildings of the period. Like Campbell's work, it is not a treatise in the empirical vein but a cateloque of designs. Descriptions are short and text appears in Danish and German in parallel columns. First volume, with 121 plates, covers the most important buildings in Copenhagen within all categories, down to two burgouis houses at Kongens Nytorv; the second volume has 161 plates and covers all royal palaces and other buildings of note in the rest of Denmark. Buildings are shown in plan and elevation as well as many bird's-eye perspective.
All prospects are drawn by Johan Jacob Bruun. Many of the plates were executed by Michael Keyl and C. L. Wüst, two German engravers who were commissioned by Thurah for the project. Den Danske Vitruvius is a valuable source of knowledge about the design of many buildings and landscaped gardens in mid-18th century Denmark, many of which no longer exist. Some, like Copenhagen's city gates, have been demolished, while others, such as the first Christiansborg, were destroyed by fire. Still others have been redesigned or otherwise altered to satisfy contemporary tastes and functions; the book is an important source of information on the landscape architecture of the time. It offers valuable, contemporary illustrated records of works by Johan Cornelius Krieger, the leading landscape architect of Frederik IV, who brought baroque landscape gardening to life in Denmark. De Thurah's work shows Fredensborg prior to the extensive modifications instituted by Nicolas-Henri Jardin in the 1760s under the direction of Frederik V, who made Fredensborg the favoured royal summer residence.
Lauritz de Thurah Architecture of Denmark
Christian Frederik Hansen
Christian Frederik Hansen, known as C. F. Hansen, was the leading Danish architect between the late 18th century and the mid 19th century, on account of his position at the Royal Danish Academy of Art the most powerful person in artistic circles for many years, he was known as "Denmark’s Palladio" on account of the architectural style he promoted. His buildings are known for their simplicity and scale, he was born in Copenhagen into the poor household of shoemaker and leatherworker Matthias Hansen and his wife Anna Marie, nursemaid for Prince Christian VII. He was the youngest son in the family, there was not much money to spend on his upbringing, his parents sent him to train in business. His mother used her connections at the royal court, found some influential people who interested themselves in his education and training, he was brought into training as a bricklayer, at the same time he attended classes at the Academy of Art starting in 1766. He studied at the Academy under architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, but also received some training from Nicolas-Henri Jardin.
He won the Academy’s small silver medallion in 1772-1773, the large silver medallion in 1774-1775, the large gold medallion in 1779. He was taken into Harsdorff's private studio where he worked on the construction of Frederik V's chapel at Roskilde Cathedral in 1780, he received no travel grant in spite of his receiving the gold medallion. Instead he received economic support from Dowager Queen Juliane Marie and King Christian VII for a shorter tour, he traveled out of the country starting in late 1782, travelling over Vienna and Venice to Rome, where he studied ancient Roman art, his student drawings from the trip are kept in the Academy’s Library to this day. He returned home September 1784, became a member of the Academy in 1785. Shortly afterwards he was named to the position of Regional Architect for the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, with residence in Altona, a position for which he had applied in 1782, he held this position from 24 November 1784 until his retirement on 31 October 1844.
He was named titular Professor at the Academy in 1791. In 1792 he married Anne Margrethe Rahbek, he prospered during his 18 years in Altona and Hamburg, with a private practice that made up for the meager earnings he made in his official position. He built fine houses for the well-to-do, both in town and out in the country, estates on Elbchaussee, small churches, he designed many fine houses along Altona's elegant boulevard Palmaille, including some investment houses at his own expense, which helped boost his earnings when sold. He used a simple Roman Palladio-style in his work; when Harsdorff died in 1799 a number of public building projects were transferred to Hansen, among these the completion of Frederik's Church known as The Marble Church in Copenhagen. He returned to Copenhagen in 1804, he had a social household in a fabulously appointed apartment in Copenhagen. In 1808 he was named Professor of Architecture, Chief Building Director, given the position of State Advisor, he held the title of Chief Building Director until his retirement.
Hansen was responsible for the building of the City Hall and Courthouse on Nytorv, the rebuilding of Church of Our Lady along with the surrounding square, after the church was burned down during the bombing of the second Battle of Copenhagen in 1807. He overtook Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard's leading position at the Academy, was chosen eight times as Director of the Academy, 1811–1818, 1821–1827, 1830-1833, he was responsible for the Town Hall and Court Building at the site of the old Waisenhus, completed in 1815. That same year Metropolitan School was completed on Frue Plads; the other major work he did was the rebuilding of Christiansborg Palace, which had burned down during the fire of 1794. The chapel was completed in 1826, the rest of the building was completed in 1828. In 1823 his church in Hørsholm, on the site of the former Hirschholm Palace, was dedicated. In 1826 he was named ‘’Konferensråd’’. In 1830 he established a medallion to be given to young architects, he became titled with the Order of the Dannebrog in 1840.
His marble bust of sculptor Hermann Ernst Freund is in the Academy’s Assembly Hall, as is his portrait of artist Conrad Christian August Bøhndel. He died at his home in Frederiksberg at the age of nearly 90, is buried in the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen. Krummbek Manor, Germany Det Hvide Palæ, Randbøldal, Denmark Christiansborg Palace, Denmark Copenhagen Court House, Denmark Hørsholm Church Church of Our Lady, Denmark Renderings by C. F. Hansen