His Majesty's Armed Forces (Tonga)

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His Majesty's Armed Forces
Coat of arms of the Tonga Defence Services.svg
Coat of arms of His Majesty's Armed Forces
Motto: Terra Marique ("Land and Sea")  (Latin)
Service branchesLand Component, Maritime Component, Air Wing, Training Command, Support Unit, HMAF Reserves
HeadquartersVilai Barracks, Nuku'alofa
Leadership
Commander-in-ChiefHM King Tupou VI
Minister of DefenseLord Ma'afu
Chief of Defense Staff(CDS)Brigadier General Lord Fielakepa
Manpower
Military age18
ConscriptionNone
Available for
military service
34,254 males, age 16-49 (2010 est.),
32,974 females, age 16-49 (2010 est.)
Fit for
military service
27,404 males, age 16-49 (2010 est.),
28,509 females, age 16-49 (2010 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
1,448 males (2010 est.),
1,392 females (2010 est.)
Expenditures
Percent of GDP0.9% GDP (2006 est.)

His Majesty's Armed Forces (HMAF) is the military of Tonga. It is composed of three operational components and two support elements (logistics and training groups).

The mission of HMAF is to: Defend the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Tonga.

The HMAF is partially supported by defence co-operation agreements with Australia, United States, China, India and New Zealand; the co-operation aims at capacity development through training of HMAF personnel in leadership, academic and trades while support for infrastructure development is another part of the security co-operation.

In recent years, members of HMAF have supported Coalition of the Willing in Operation Iraqi Freedom, the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, and the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands.

Organisation[edit]

His Majesty's Armed Forces are organised in a unified command system, it consists of three forces: the Regular Force, the Territorial Force, and the Active Reserve Force.

Components[edit]

The main elements of HMAF are:[1]

  • His Majesty's Armed Forces HQ
  • Joint Force HQ
  • Tongan Royal Guards
  • Land Force
  • Tongan Navy
  • Training Command
  • Air Wing
  • Support Unit
  • Territorial Forces

HMAF Navy[edit]

The Tongan patrol boat VOEA Savea (P203) in Sydney Harbour, 2013.

The Maritime Force is equipped with three Pacific-class patrol boats, a tanker, a Landing Craft Mechanised and a motor boat that is the royal yacht.[2] Tongan Maritime Force performs patrol missions, occasionally dealing with border violations. Notably at the Minerva Reef and Tonga’s restricted fishing zones.[3]

HMAF Royal Tongan Marines and Tongan Royal Guards[edit]

The Royal Tongan Marine Infantry is organised as a single battalion with a HQ and three Light Infantry Companies.

The Tongan Royal Guards are a company size unit that are responsible for the security of His Majesty.

HMAF Air Wing[edit]

The Air Wing was established in 1996 and operates one Beechcraft G.18S aircraft in the maritime patrol and search and rescue roles, and an American Champion Citabria light trainer.[4] The current position of the HMAF air wing is unclear but both aircraft have not been active.

A Beechcraft G18S similar to the one operated by the TDS Air Wing

Retired Aircraft[edit]

International Defence Organisations[edit]

The HMAF is a member of the following international defence organisations:

  • Pacific Armies Management Seminar (PAMS)
  • Pacific Area Senior Officers Logistics Seminar (PASOLS)
  • Western Pacific Naval Symposium (WPNS)
  • International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO)
  • South Pacific Hydrographic Commission (SPHC)
  • NATO Codification, where though Pacific Codification System (PCS), Tonga and Fiji are sponsoured by Australia

Tonga has an agreement to share "disaster response knowledge" with the United States Nevada National Guard.[5]

History of Tongan Armed Forces[edit]

TDF during the Italian capitulation parade.

Tonga participated in World War I, as part of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force.

The Tonga Defence Service (TDS) came into existence at the beginning of World War II in 1939. In 1943, New Zealand helped train two Tongan contingents of two thousand personnel, fought in the Solomon Islands.[3] In addition, New Zealand and US troops were stationed on Tongatapu, which became a staging point for shipping.

At the end of World War II, the TDS was disbanded, but was re-formed in 1946.[3]

Former Prime Minister Prince Lavaka Ata 'Ulukalala (now King Tupou VI) joined the naval arm of the Tonga Defence Service in 1982 and became Lieutenant-Commander of the defence force in 1987. From 1990 to 1995 he commanded the PPB VOEA Pangai and his time in charge included peacekeeping operations in Bougainville.

In 2002, TDS soldiers were deployed as part of a multi-national regional [[Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands |peacekeeping force]] in the Solomon Islands. In July 2004, a forty-five personnel contingent of the TDS served in the Solomon Islands. A third contingent was sent in July 2005;[3] this contingent consisted of thirty-three TDS troops, and was expected to remain four months.

In March 2003, military-to-military talks began between Tonga and the United States about Tonga providing personnel for the Multinational force in Iraq. Support arrangements were finalised in May 2004. Forty-five Royal Tongan Marines, led by the Chief of Defence of the Tonga Defence Services, Colonel Tau'aika 'Uta'atu, departed Tonga on 13 June 2004. From July 2004, the Royal Tonga Marines were augmenting the 1st Marine Expeditionary Forces (MEF) in the Al Anbar Province of Iraq; the Royal Marines supported the 1st Marine Division's security and stabilisation mission at Camp Blue Diamond. Tonga first served with the 1st MEF on the Solomon Island during World War II; the Royal Tongan Marines returned from Iraq in December 2004. In December 2008, the Tonga Defence Services ended their mission in the Iraq War and returned home.[6]

Tongan troops training in England with the Royal Air Force Regiment in 2010.
Royal Tongan Marines participate in a "sipi tau," a ceremonial dance, during a flag lowering ceremony aboard Camp Leatherneck, Helmand province, Afghanistan, April 28, 2014.
A group of Royal Tongan Marines during a training exercise in the United States in 2007.

In 2006, TDS soldiers, in co-operation with local police, were deployed to deal with the Nuku'alofa riots.[3]

In 2010, Tongan troops began training with the RAF Regiment, in preparation for operations in Afghanistan; the first troops deployed to Afghanistan during February 2011.[7] Tonga's military size was approximately 450 troops, half of which were sent to fight in the War in Afghanistan, serving in Camp Bastion and Camp Leatherneck.[8][9] During the September 2012 Camp Bastion raid Tonga troops were in perimeter guard towers without any night-vision devices.[10] On September 2013, Tonga Defence Services were officially renamed into His Majesty's Armed Forces (HMAF).[11] In April 2014, the Royal Tongan Marines ended their mission supporting Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.[9]

Ranks[edit]

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
Tonga Tonga
(Edit)
No equivalent
Tonga-Army-OF-6.svg Tonga-Army-OF-5.svg Tonga-Army-OF-4.svg Tonga-Army-OF-3.svg Tonga-Army-OF-2.svg Tonga-Army-OF-1b.svg Tonga-Army-OF-1a.svg None.svg
Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain First Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Officer Cadet


Tonga Tonga
(Edit)
No equivalent
Generic-Navy-O8.svg Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg British Royal Navy OF-1a.svg
Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Sub lieutenant Midshipman


Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Tonga Tonga
(Edit)
Warrant Officer Class 1 Warrant Officer Class 2 Staff Sergeant Sergeant No equivalent Corporal Lance Corporal No insignia
Warrant Officer Class 1 Warrant Officer Class 2 Staff Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance Corporal Private
(or equivalent)

List of commanders[edit]

Commander of the Tongan Defence Services[edit]

Chief of the Defence Staff of the HMAF[edit]

Equipment of the Tongan Defence Service[edit]

Model Image Origin Type Calibre Number Notes
Handguns
Webley Revolver Webley IMG 6789.jpg  UK Revolver 9×20mm [15]
Bolt-action rifles
SMLE Mk IV Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk 1 (1903) - UK - cal 303 British - Armémuseum.jpg  UK Bolt-action rifle .303 Acquired from New Zealand; many remain unissued and in storage.[15]
Assault rifles
FN FNC FNC IMG 1527.jpg  Belgium Assault rifle 5.56×45mm Standard service rifle of Tonga.[15]
IMI Galil Galil.jpg  Israel Assault rifle 5.56×45mm Donated by Israel in 1988.[15]
M4A1 M4 PEO Soldier.jpg  USA Carbine rifle 5.56×45mm M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[16]
M16A2 M16 Variants.jpg  USA Assault rifle 5.56×45mm About twenty-five imported in 1994.[15] A second order for three hundred was cancelled.[15]
Machine Guns
Bren machine gun Bren1.jpg  UK Light machine gun .303 [15]
Vickers machine gun Vickers Machine Gun YORCM CA78ac.JPG  UK Medium machine gun .303 At least two; likely in unserviceable condition.[15]
Model Image Origin Type Number Notes
Wheeled Vehicles
Unimog U1700 Australian Army Unimog truck with digital camouflage.JPG  Australia Military truck Five Five gifted by Australia in 2018.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "HMAF Organisation". Tonga Ministry of Information & Communications. Archived from the original on 6 September 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  2. ^ Moore, John (1984). Jane's All The World's Fighting Ships. Jane's Publishing. p. 465. ISBN 0710607741.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Name Change". Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  4. ^ Flight International, 16–22 November 2004, Directory: World Air Forces (p. 90) Archived 2013-06-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Fournier, Dennis (May 2014). "State begins partnership with Kingdom of Tonga". National Guard. 68 (4). National Guard Association of the United States. p. 39. Archived from the original on 2014-06-06. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  6. ^ Susman, Tina (December 5, 2008). "Tonga troops end Iraq mission". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved December 5, 2008.
  7. ^ "RAF trains Tongan troops for Afghanistan". Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2010-12-02.
  8. ^ "RAF Training". Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  9. ^ a b "Return from Afghanistan". Archived from the original on 9 May 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  10. ^ "British Parliament". Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  11. ^ "HMAF". Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  12. ^ "TDS Commander, Col. Fetu'utolu Tupou retires". Matangi Tonga Online. 20 March 2000. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  13. ^ a b "Brigadier General 'Uta'atu retires from HMAF". Matangi Tonga Online. Vava'u Press. 21 December 2014. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  14. ^ "Fielakepa title goes to HMAF Commander". Matangi Tonga Online. 10 April 2015. Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Capie, David (2004). Under the Gun: The Small Arms Challenge in the Pacific. Wellington: Victoria University Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0864734532.
  16. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20100104174625/http://thegunzone.com/556dw-18.html
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-02-10. Retrieved 2019-02-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]