click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Histogram

A histogram is an approximate representation of the distribution of numerical or categorical data. It was first introduced by Karl Pearson. To construct a histogram, the first step is to "bin" the range of values—that is, divide the entire range of values into a series of intervals—and count how many values fall into each interval; the bins are specified as consecutive, non-overlapping intervals of a variable. The bins must be adjacent, are of equal size. If the bins are of equal size, a rectangle is erected over the bin with height proportional to the frequency—the number of cases in each bin. A histogram may be normalized to display "relative" frequencies, it shows the proportion of cases that fall into each of several categories, with the sum of the heights equaling 1. However, bins need not be of equal width; the vertical axis is not the frequency but frequency density—the number of cases per unit of the variable on the horizontal axis. Examples of variable bin width are displayed on Census bureau data below.

As the adjacent bins leave no gaps, the rectangles of a histogram touch each other to indicate that the original variable is continuous. Histograms give a rough sense of the density of the underlying distribution of the data, for density estimation: estimating the probability density function of the underlying variable; the total area of a histogram used for probability density is always normalized to 1. If the length of the intervals on the x-axis are all 1 a histogram is identical to a relative frequency plot. A histogram can be thought of as a simplistic kernel density estimation, which uses a kernel to smooth frequencies over the bins; this yields a smoother probability density function, which will in general more reflect distribution of the underlying variable. The density estimate could be plotted as an alternative to the histogram, is drawn as a curve rather than a set of boxes. Histograms are preferred in applications, when their statistical properties need to be modeled; the correlated variation of a kernel density estimate is difficult to describe mathematically, while it is simple for a histogram where each bin varies independently.

An alternative to kernel density estimation is the average shifted histogram, fast to compute and gives a smooth curve estimate of the density without using kernels. The histogram is one of the seven basic tools of quality control. Histograms are sometimes confused with bar charts. A histogram is used for continuous data, where the bins represent ranges of data, while a bar chart is a plot of categorical variables; some authors recommend. This is the data for the histogram to the right, using 500 items: The words used to describe the patterns in a histogram are: "symmetric", "skewed left" or "right", "unimodal", "bimodal" or "multimodal", it is a good idea to plot the data using several different bin widths to learn more about it. Here is an example on tips given in a restaurant; the U. S. Census Bureau found. Using their data on the time occupied by travel to work, the table below shows the absolute number of people who responded with travel times "at least 30 but less than 35 minutes" is higher than the numbers for the categories above and below it.

This is due to people rounding their reported journey time. The problem of reporting values as somewhat arbitrarily rounded numbers is a common phenomenon when collecting data from people; this histogram shows the number of cases per unit interval as the height of each block, so that the area of each block is equal to the number of people in the survey who fall into its category. The area under the curve represents the total number of cases; this type of histogram shows absolute numbers, with Q in thousands. This histogram differs from the first only in the vertical scale; the area of each block is the fraction of the total that each category represents, the total area of all the bars is equal to 1. The curve displayed is a simple density estimate; this version shows proportions, is known as a unit area histogram. In other words, a histogram represents a frequency distribution by means of rectangles whose widths represent class intervals and whose areas are proportional to the corresponding frequencies: the height of each is the average frequency density for the interval.

The intervals are placed together in order to show that the data represented by the histogram, while exclusive, is contiguous. In a more general mathematical sense, a histogram is a function mi that counts the number of observations that fall into each of the disjoint categories, whereas the graph of a histogram is one way to represent a histogram. Thus, if we let n be the total number of observations and k be the total number of bins, the histogram mi meets the following conditions: n = ∑ i = 1 k m i. A cumulative histogram is a mapping that counts the cumulative number of observations in all of the bins up to the specified bin; that is, the cumulative histogram Mi of a histogram mj is defined as: M i = ∑ j

Prague Conservatory

The Prague Conservatory or Prague Conservatoire is a music school in Prague, Czech Republic, founded in 1808. Prague Conservatory offers four or six year study courses, which can be compared to the level of high school diploma in other countries. Graduates of Prague Conservatory can continue their training by enrolling in an institution that offers undergraduate education; the Prague Conservatory was founded in 1808 by local aristocrats and burghers following examples of Conservatoire de Paris and Milan Conservatory. It belongs to the oldest modern existing music conservatories in the world. Classes started after a delay caused by the Napoleonic Wars. Bedřich Diviš Weber was appointed the first director of the school. In 1891, Antonín Dvořák joined the faculty as the head of the composition department, he was the school's director between 1901 and 1904. Dvořák's students included the composers Vítězslav Novák, Josef Suk, Rudolf Friml, Oskar Nedbal, Franz Lehár. Another director of the school was pianist Vilém Kurz.

Following the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, drama and ballet departments were established. Students in this period included Lída Baarová, Jiří Langmajer, Tatiana Vilhelmová, Filip Blažek, Zuzana Vejvodová. Katya Zvelebilova began classical ballet training at the Prague Conservatory before joining the Royal Ballet School in London, where she is now a member of the artistic staff, having retired from professional ballet. Applicants must pass stringent entrance examinations held in several elimination rounds, to demonstrate their talent. Applications are accepted once a year, auditions take place at the end of January. Prague Conservatory offers instruction in several instruments, including accordion, guitar and organ, as well as in singing, composing and acting; the curriculum includes one-on-one music lessons, music theory studies, language training, as well as classes on general subjects. The institution has its own symphonic and chamber orchestras, several chamber music ensembles and a theatre company.

About 250 concerts and 40 dramatic performances take place annually. In the academic year of 2005–2006 550 Czech and 40 foreign students studied at the Conservatory. František Brož Ladislav Černý Kateřina Emingerová Emil Hlobil Valentina Kameníková Saša Večtomov Official page

Vicente Zorita Alonso

Vicente Zorita Alonso is a victim of ETA, a candidate in the first elections to the Basque Parliament for People´s Alliance. Vicente Zorita Alonso was murdered in the town of Santurce in Bizcay on November 14, 1980, he was on the third place on People´s Alliance list in the first elections to the Basque Parliament, in March 1980. He had been working for over 30 years as an administrative employee, he had four children. At the time of his murder, he was 60 years old. On Friday's night, November 14, 1980, the terrorist group ETA murdered Vicente Zorita, they introduced him into a vehicle, stolen two hours earlier. Around 23:00 p.m. some young people found Vicente's body upside down, with his face covered and riddled with bullets on a road near the district of Cabieces in Santurce. They gave notice to the Municipal Police. After the arrival of the Municipal Police, the National Police went there, who gave notice to the judge; the body had one of them in the head. The murderers left the body riddled with a Spanish flag inside his mouth like a gag.

The investigations indicated that Vicente Zorita was machine-gunned in the back and shot in the head. The victim had his personal documents with him, his People´s Alliance membership card. About 0:30 p.m. the body was lifted and being transferred in an ambulance to the deposit of the Civil Hospital of Basurto. At 8:00 pm, a vehicle was stolen at gunpoint in the street of María Díaz de Haro from Portugalete a metallic blue Citroen CX Pallas; this vehicle was found, after being abandoned, in the neighbourhood of Buenavista, in Portugalete, at 3:00 in the morning of the following day. There is no condemnation for this attack. According to the Secretariat of Peace and Coexistence of the Basque Government, the procedural situation of the offence is on provisional dismissal; the newspaper Egin affirmed the following day that the military ETA brand of Santurce claimed through an anonymous call the authorship of this attack shortly before 11:30 p.m. on the same day. The terrorist band claimed "to have interrogated him and Vicente Zorita was killed".

He said: "we warned the members of Alianza Popular that of following Olarra with their position of not negotiating with their workers, within a week we will begin to execute members of A. P. for their identification with his ideological approaches. Therefore, we accuse them directly of the decisions taken by Olarra about it". Four days after the attack, on November 18, 1980, Egin published that ETA had reaffirmed its authorship of this murder through a statement. In this statement, ETA's military insists that "they interrogated Vicente Zorita before they kill him "and warns" the Alianza Popular's group and the oligarchic sector to which he lends his political support so that they abandon their authoritarian position to blackmail and wield repressive strategies against the just claims of the class worker, end by renouncing the policy of abuse and arbitrariness to which they are subjecting the movement worker and the politician of decapitalization and economic chaos in which they want to flood the South Euskadi ".

At the moment, the identity of the material authors of this murder is unknown. MERINO, A. CHAPA, A. Raíces de Libertad. Pp. 83–91. FPEV. ISBN 978-84-615-0648-4 This article makes use of material translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish-language Wikipedia

George Edward Post

George Edward Post, son of Alfred Charles Post was a professor of surgery at the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut, now the American University of Beirut. He had graduated from University College of New York, he published 18 articles in Arabic, including Arabic Dictionary of the Holy Bible and Study of Principles of Plant Physiology and Function and Rules How to Succeed and converted 2 text from Arabic into English. Post published broadly in the areas of natural history and theology. Post formally described 221 taxa, published an extensive volume on the Plant of Syria and Sinai in 1896, he was one of the contributors to Smith's Bible Dictionary, in 1893. He was the editor, published in 1932 of'Flora of Syria, And Sinai': Volume 1: A Handbook of The Flowering Plants and Ferns and Naturalized From The Taurus to Ras Muhammad And From the Mediterranean Sea to The Syrian Desert, Vol I and II. Which includes description of many new plants including Iris hermona. Jessup, H. H. 1910. Fifty-three years in Syria.

New York: Fleming H. Revell. 2 volumes. Khoury, G. Y. 1992. The founding fathers of the American University of Beirut biographies. Beirut: American University of Beirut. Pp 232, 215. Musselman, L. J. 2006. The botanical activities of George Edward Post. Archives of Natural History 33: 282-301. George Edward Post at Find a Grave

Franz Walter Stahlecker

Franz Walter Stahlecker was commander of the SS security forces for the Reichskommissariat Ostland in 1941–42. Stahlecker commanded Einsatzgruppe A, the most murderous of the four Einsatzgruppen active in German-occupied Eastern Europe, he was replaced by Heinz Jost. Stahlecker was born into a wealthy family in Sternenfels on 10 October 1900. From 1919–20 Stahlecker was a member of the Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund and the Organisation Consul, he studied at the University of Tübingen, where he obtained a doctorate of law in 1927. On 14 October 1932, he married Luise-Gabriele Freiin von Gültlingen. On 1 May 1932, Stahlecker joined the Nazi Party as well as the SS. On 29 May 1933, he was appointed deputy director of the Political Office of the Württemberg State Police. In 1934, he was appointed head of the Gestapo in the German state of Württemberg and soon assigned to the main office of the Sicherheitsdienst. On 11 May 1937, he became head of the Gestapo in Breslau. After the incorporation of Austria in 1938, Stahlecker became SD chief of the Danube district, a post he retained after being promoted to SS-Standartenführer.

In the summer of 1938, Stahlecker became Inspector of the Security Police in Austria, succeeding Gestapo chief Heinrich Müller in that position. As of 20 August 1938, Stahlecker was the formal head of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna, though its de facto leader was Adolf Eichmann. Differences of opinion with Reinhard Heydrich motivated Stahlecker to move to the Auswärtiges Amt, after which he held posts as the commander of the Security Police and SD in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under SS-Brigadeführer Karl Hermann Frank. In mid-October 1939, Eichmann and Stahlecker decided to begin implementation of the Nisko Plan. On 29 April 1940, Stahlecker arrived in Oslo, where he held various posts, most notably as commander of about 200 Einsatzgruppe members of the Security Police and SD, he was promoted to SS-Oberführer. He was succeeded in this position in autumn 1940 by Heinrich Fehlis. On 6 February 1941 Stahlecker was promoted to SS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor der Polizei and took over as commanding officer of Einsatzgruppe A, in hopes of furthering his career with the Reich Main Security Office, Nazi Germany's security police and intelligence organization.

In June 1941, Einsatzgruppe A followed Army Group North and operated in the Baltic states and areas of Russia up to Leningrad. Its mission was to hunt down and murder the Jews, Gypsies and other "undesirables". In a 15 October 1941 report, Stahlecker wrote: Considering that the population of the Baltic countries had suffered heavily under the government of Bolshevism and Jewry while they were incorporated in the USSR, it was to be expected that after the liberation from that foreign government, they would render harmless most of the enemies left behind after the retreat of the Red Army, it was the duty of the Security Police to set in motion these self-cleansing movements, to direct them into the correct channels in order to accomplish the purpose of the cleansing operations as as possible. It was no less important, in view of the future, to establish the unshakeable and provable fact that the liberated populations themselves took the most severe measures against the Bolshevist and Jewish enemy quite on their own, so that the direction by German authorities could not be found out.

In Lithuania this was achieved for the first time by Partisan activities in Kowno. To our surprise it was not easy at first to set in motion an extensive pogrom against Jews. Klimatis, the leader of the partisan unit mentioned above, used for this purpose succeeded in starting a pogrom on the basis of advice given to him by a small advance detachment acting in Kowno, in such a way that no German order or German instigation was noticed from the outside. During the first pogrom on the night of 25-26, the Lithuanian partisans did away with more than 1,500 Jews, set fire to several Synagogues or destroyed them by other means, burned down a Jewish dwelling district consisting of about 60 houses. During the following nights about 2,300 Jews were made harmless in a similar way. By winter 1941, Stahlecker reported to Berlin, he was made Higher SS and Police Leader of Reichskommissariat Ostland, which included the occupied territory of Estonia, Latvia and Belarus, at the end of November 1941. Stahlecker was killed in action on 23 March 1942, by Soviet partisans near Russia.

Heinz Jost assumed command of Einsatzgruppe A. Jelgava massacres Kaunas pogrom Hale, Christopher. Hitler's Foreign Executioners: Europe's Dirty Secret; the History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5974-5. Gerwarth, Robert. Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11575-8. Longerich, Peter. Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6

Jonas Troest

Jonas Troest is a Danish professional footballer, who plays as a defender. He is on a free agent, he has played 25 matches for the Danish under-21 national team. Jonas Troest is the older brother of footballer Magnus Troest. Troest started his senior career with B 93 in the secondary Danish 1st Division league. In 2004, he moved to Silkeborg IF in the top-flight Danish Superliga championship. While at Silkeborg, he made his debut for the Danish under-21 national team in September 2004, he moved abroad to play for German Bundesliga club Hannover 96 in January 2006. In May 2006, he was selected to compete for the Danish under-21 national squad at the 2006 European Under-21 Championship, where he played in all Denmark's three matches, he signed with Konyaspor on 2010 Summer. Danish national team profile Jonas Troest at fussballdaten.de