In biology, histones are alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. They are the chief protein components of chromatin, acting as spools around which DNA winds, playing a role in gene regulation. Without histones, the unwound DNA in chromosomes would be long. For example, each human diploid cell has about 1.8 meters of DNA. When the diploid cells are duplicated and condensed during mitosis, the result is about 120 micrometers of chromosomes. Five major families of histones exist: H1/H5, H2A, H2B, H3, H4. Histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 are known as the core histones, while histones H1/H5 are known as the linker histones; the core histones all exist as dimers, which are similar in that they all possess the histone fold domain: three alpha helices linked by two loops. It is this helical structure that allows for interaction between distinct dimers in a head-tail fashion; the resulting four distinct dimers come together to form one octameric nucleosome core 63 Angstroms in diameter.
Around 146 base pairs of DNA wrap around this core particle 1.65 times in a left-handed super-helical turn to give a particle of around 100 Angstroms across. The linker histone H1 binds the nucleosome at the entry and exit sites of the DNA, thus locking the DNA into place and allowing the formation of higher order structure; the most basic such formation is the 10 nm fiber or beads on a string conformation. This involves the wrapping of DNA around nucleosomes with 50 base pairs of DNA separating each pair of nucleosomes. Higher-order structures include the 30 nm fiber and 100 nm fiber, these being the structures found in normal cells. During mitosis and meiosis, the condensed chromosomes are assembled through interactions between nucleosomes and other regulatory proteins. Histones are subdivided into canonical replication-dependent histones that are expressed during the S-phase of cell cycle and replication-independent histone variants, expressed during the whole cell cycle. In animals, genes encoding canonical histones are clustered along the chromosome, lack introns and use a stem loop structure at the 3’ end instead of a polyA tail.
Genes encoding histone variants are not clustered, have introns and their mRNAs are regulated with polyA tails. Complex multicellular organisms have a higher number of histone variants providing a variety of different functions. Recent data are accumulating about the roles of diverse histone variants highlighting the functional links between variants and the delicate regulation of organism development. Histone variants from different organisms, their classification and variant specific features can be found in "HistoneDB 2.0 - Variants" database. The following is a list of human histone proteins: The nucleosome core is formed of two H2A-H2B dimers and a H3-H4 tetramer, forming two nearly symmetrical halves by tertiary structure; the H2A-H2B dimers and H3-H4 tetramer show pseudodyad symmetry. The 4'core' histones are similar in structure and are conserved through evolution, all featuring a'helix turn helix turn helix' motif, they share the feature of long'tails' on one end of the amino acid structure - this being the location of post-translational modification.
Archaeal histone only contains a H3-H4 like dimeric structure made out of the same protein. Such dimeric structures can stack into a tall superhelix onto which DNA coils in a manner similar to nucleosome spools. Only some archaeal histones have tails, it has been proposed that histone proteins are evolutionarily related to the helical part of the extended AAA+ ATPase domain, the C-domain, to the N-terminal substrate recognition domain of Clp/Hsp100 proteins. Despite the differences in their topology, these three folds share a homologous helix-strand-helix motif. Using an electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling technique, British researchers measured the distances between the spools around which eukaryotic cells wind their DNA, they determined the spacings range from 59 to 70 Å. In all, histones make five types of interactions with DNA: Helix-dipoles form alpha-helixes in H2B, H3, H4 cause a net positive charge to accumulate at the point of interaction with negatively charged phosphate groups on DNA Hydrogen bonds between the DNA backbone and the amide group on the main chain of histone proteins Nonpolar interactions between the histone and deoxyribose sugars on DNA Salt bridges and hydrogen bonds between side chains of basic amino acids and phosphate oxygens on DNA Non-specific minor groove insertions of the H3 and H2B N-terminal tails into two minor grooves each on the DNA moleculeThe basic nature of histones, aside from facilitating DNA-histone interactions, contributes to their water solubility.
Histones are subject to post translational modification by enzymes on their N-terminal tails, but in their globular domains. Such modifications include methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, SUMOylation, ADP-ribosylation; this affects their function of gene regulation. In general, genes that are active have less bound histone, while inactive genes are associated with histones during interphase, it a
Jean Vallerand, CQ was a composer, music critic, conductor, arts administrator and music educator from Quebec. As a composer he was active from 1935 to 1969. An associate of the Canadian Music Centre, he was appointed a Knight of the National Order of Quebec in 1991. Born in Montreal, Vallerand began studying the violin at age 5 with Lucien Sicotte, with whom he continued to study until he was 20, he entered the Université de Montréal in 1934 where he studied classical literature, earning a diploma there in 1938. While there he pursued private studies in music theory and music composition with Claude Champagne from 1935–1942. Vallerand began his career as a music critic in 1941 when he succeeded Léo-Pol Morin as critic at Le Canada, he remained there through 1946, going on to hold posts as music critic at Montréal-Matin, Le Devoir, Le Nouveau Journal, La Presse. He reviewed cultural events for CBC Radio and CBC Television during the 1940s through the 1960s, he contributed articles to numerous periodicals and journals, including L'Action universitaire, Amérique francaise, Culture vivante, Gants du ciel, Liberté, Musical America and Vie musicale.
He worked as the program annotator for the Montreal Symphony Orchestra for many years appeared numerous times as a host for the French-language version of the Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts. In 1942 Vallerand was appointed Secretary General of the newly formed Conservatoire de musique du Québec à Montréal by Wilfrid Pelletier, he remained in that post and taught orchestration at the school up through 1963. He taught concurrently on the music faculty of the Université de Montréal from 1950–1966. From 1963–1956 he served as the head of the Montreal branch of CBC Radio and from 1966–1970 he was the Quebec Government's cultural attaché in Paris. In 1971 Vallerand became the head of the Conservatoire de musique et d'art dramatique du Québec which at that time oversaw 8 conservatories in higher education in music and theatre in Québec, he remained in that position through 1978, during which time he was instrumental in establishing a 9th conservatoire, the Conservatoire de musique du Québec à Rimouski, in 1973.
He served concurrently as the director of music education for the Ministère des Affaires culturelles du Québec in 1971, was repositioned as director of performing arts for the organization from 1971 though 1975. In 1977–1978 he was secretary general of the Orchestre des jeunes du Québec, he worked as a consultant for the CMQM and the MACQ throughout the 1970s. He retired in 1980. Les Roses à la mer, 1935 Le Diable dans le beffroi, 1942 Nocturne, 1946 Prélude, 1948 Sonata for Violin and Piano, 1950 Concerto for Orchestra, 1951 Quatre Poèmes de Saint-Denys Garneau, 1954 String Quartet, 1955 Réverbérations contractoires, 1961 Le Magicien, opera, 1961 Payse, Ballett, 1964 Étude concertante for Violin and Orchestra, 1969
Avtandil Khurtsidze is a Georgian former professional boxer who competed from 2002 to 2017, held the WBO interim middleweight title in 2017, as well as the IBO middleweight tile in 2011. He challenged once for the interim WBA middleweight title in 2010. In early February 2017, mandatory challenger Khurtsidze took a'step-a-side' fee to allow Billy Joe Saunders to pursue a bigger fight. On 28 February, it was announced that Khurtsidze would fight British boxer Tommy Langford for the vacant interim WBO title in April. After retaining his belts against Jacobs, Gennady Golovkin stated that he wanted to unify the middleweight division and hold all the belts available. Golovkin said, "My goal is all the belts in the middleweight division. Of course, Billy Joe is the last one, it is my dream." Rumors of the fight taking place in Golovkin's home country Kazakhstan in June during the EXPO 2017. The last time Golovkin fought in his home country was in 2010. On 20 March, Golovkin said that he would fight Saunders in his native Kazakhstan or the O2 Arena in London.
Saunders tweeted on social media that although he didn't watch Golovkin's fight with Jacobs, he was ready to fight him. Saunders gave Golovkin a deadline to sign his. On 29 March, Frank Warren stated that Golovkin would have ten days to sign for the fight. Saunders claimed to have moved on from Golovkin, until Warren said the deal was still in place. Over the next week, Saunders continued to insult Golovkin through social media. On 7 April, Warren told iFL TV, that Golovkin had a hand injury, the reason why the fight hadn't been made. In the interview, he said, "At the moment, they're saying. So we're waiting to see, but as far as I’m concerned, we agreed terms." It was noted that he would wait until 6 May, for any updates. On 11 April, it was reported that the fight would not take place and Golovkin would focus on a September 2017 fight against Canelo Alvarez. On 22 April 2017, Khurtsidze knocked Langford out in round 5 with a left hook to secure his next fight against Saunders. A day the fight between Saunders and Khurtsidze was discussed to take place at the Copper Box in London on 8 July 2017.
On 8 June, Khurtsidze was arrested in New York along with 32 others, linking him in a Russian and Georgian crime syndicate. Racketeer charges and conspiracy to commit fraud were the two alleged charges, promoter Lou DiBella said, whilst the fight wouldn't be called off, it would be postponed. Due to the fight being a mandatory defence, Saunders' promoter Frank Warren said that he was unable to make a voluntary defence, as such, taken off the card although the rest of the card would still take place. On June 8, 2017, prosecutors from the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York indicted Khurtsidze on charges of violating the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act and conspiracy to commit wire fraud in connection with a Russian organized crime syndicate operating in the New York City area. According to the indictment, Khurtsidze is alleged to have paid $17,800 for three cases of purportedly stolen cigarettes. In 2018, Khurtsidze was convicted of racketeering and wire fraud conspiracy and sentenced to ten years imprisonment.
Professional boxing record for Avtandil Khurtsidze from BoxRec
Tyrell Allen Burgess is a Bermudian footballer playing for North Village Rams. Born in Smith's Parish, Burgess began his career at North Village CC, before moving from his native Bermuda to Wilbraham, Massachusetts when he was 16 to attend the Wilbraham & Monson Academy, he played college soccer at NCAA Division III Rhode Island College in 2006, helping the Anchormen to an Eastern College Athletic Conference New England title with four goals and five assists in 18 matches. He transferred to Lynn University in 2007, where he was named to the NCAA Division II All-Sunshine State Conference First Team as a senior. In total, Burgess added 14 assists in 53 games for Lynn. During his college years Burgess played for Reading Rage in the USL Premier Development League, helping the team capture the 2008 Mid Atlantic Division regular season title, as well as the Eastern Conference playoff title. Burgess joined the Vancouver Whitecaps FC of the USL First Division on January 30, 2009, after impressing during an open player combine held in Palmyra, Pennsylvania in December 2008.
Burgess played in 23 games and scored one goal in his debut season, before being released by the Whitecaps on November 27, 2009. Burgess returned to his home country in 2010 when he signed to play with the Bermuda Hogges in the USL Premier Development League. In June 2010, Burgess was invited to spend a trial period with English Conference National side Gateshead. Burgess wasn't offered a contract by Gateshead, despite scoring the winner in a pre-season friendly against Harrogate Town. Burgess is a full member of Bermuda national football team and has represented his country in 12 FIFA World Cup qualification matches, he scored his first goal for the senior side in a 1-1 draw with the Cayman Islands during 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifying game on March 30, 2008. Burgess has played for Bermuda’s U-17 and U-20 national teams. Vancouver Whitecaps bio Tyrell Burgess at National-Football-Teams.com
Sonia Rolland is a Rwandan-French actress and was Miss France in the year 2000. She was a contestant in the Miss Universe competition, she was the first African-born winner of the Miss France pageant. Born in Kigali, Rwanda, to a Rwandan mother and a French father and her family fled the country due to safety concerns with the Rwandan genocide instigating since her mother is Tutsi. In 1990 they moved to the neighboring country of Burundi. With the growing unrest that led to the Burundi Civil War, they moved to France in 1994. At the age 13, Rolland settled with her family in Burgundy in the small town of Cluny. In October 1999, Sonia Rolland won the "Miss Burgundy" beauty contest that allowed her to compete for the Miss France 2000 title and at the age of 18 she was the first woman of African descent to win. At the Miss Universe 2000 pageant, which took place in Cyprus, Rolland was a top 10 semi-finalist, placing 9th overall. Rolland once lived in Paris with Christophe Rocancourt, an impostor, confidence man and gentleman thief who scammed affluent people by masquerading as a French member of the Rockefeller family.
They had a daughter together, named Tess. They announced their split on 10 April 2008. Rolland has another daughter, with actor and director Jalil Lespert, her partner since 2009. At twenty years old after serious acting lessons with renowned actor Alain Delon, Rolland embarked for a new career as an actress. Following an unsettling incident during which she was attacked in the metro she took kickboxing classes that proved advantageous as they helped her land the role of Léa in the television series Léa Parker that ran for two seasons from 2004 to 2006. Rolland’ s first book was published in 2007 titled “Les gazelles n’ont pas peur du noir” which in English translates to “ Gazelles are not afraid of the dark”; the book is her testimony to her childhood in Rwanda, transition to a different culture, her modeling and acting career, her philanthropic work and her family. Her next book was "Beauté Black", collaboration with Sandrine Jeanne-Rose, an expert in ethnic and black cosmetics and hair care.
This collection of practical guidelines is meant to reach women of African descent. The two beauty enthusiasts focus on three areas: the face, the body and most the hair afro-textured hair as it is an important subject in the black community. Rolland's work is concentrated in Rwanda where she focuses a lot on education, as it is one of the things children survivors of the Genocide have missed on, she is collecting funds that will go towards building a school. With her new documentary “Rwanda Mon Amour” in the works the former miss France is hoping to inspire other African nations to follow the example of Rwanda by encourage the people to participate in the ongoing changes but at the same time Rolland promises to be impartial and objective about the achievements of the country over the last 20 years; the documentary is expected to make an appearance at the Cannes film festival. Sonia Rolland on IMDb Official website
The Beatles with Tony Sheridan and Their Guests was an American album featuring "Cry for a Shadow," a track recorded by the Beatles in Hamburg in 1961, with five tracks recorded in Hamburg in 1961 in which the Beatles provided backing music for vocalist Tony Sheridan, some of, released in Germany on the album My Bonnie under the name "Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers", because the word "Beatles" sounded too much like "peedles", a vulgar slang term in German. The album was supplemented with six released recordings by the American session group the Titans. Packaged in an attempt to capitalize on The Beatles' success, the record was only moderately successful, as the album peaked at only No. 68 on the Billboard album chart. It was released by MGM Records in both mono and rechanneled stereo MGM augmented the six Sheridan/Beatles tracks with six instrumental tracks by Danny Davis and the Titans, a group of New York session musicians built around guitarist Bill Mure; the Titans included Don Lomond on drums, Dick Hickson on bass trombone, Milt "the Judge" Hinton on bass.
The six Titans tracks had been released on the 1961 MGM album, Let's Do the Twist for Adults. Side onePerformances by the Beatles with Tony Sheridan. "My Bonnie" "Cry for a Shadow" "Johnson Rag" "Swanee River" "Flying Beat" "Darktown Strutters' Ball" Side twoPerformances by the Titans unless otherwise indicated. "The Saints" "Rye Beat" "You Are My Sunshine" "Summertime Beat" "Why" "Happy New Year Beat"