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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Histopathology

Histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. In clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides. In contrast, cytopathology examines free cells or tissue micro-fragments. Histopathological examination of tissues starts with biopsy, or autopsy; the tissue is removed from the body or plant, then...often following expert dissection in the fresh state...placed in a fixative which stabilizes the tissues to prevent decay. The most common fixative is formalin; the tissue is prepared for viewing under a microscope using either chemical fixation or frozen section. If a large sample is provided e.g. from a surgical procedure a pathologist looks at the tissue sample and selects the part most to yield a useful and accurate diagnosis - this part is removed for examination in a process known as grossing or cut up.

Larger samples are cut to situate their anatomical structures in the cassette. Certain specimens can undergo agar pre-embedding to assure correct tissue orientation in cassette & in the block & on the diagnostic microscopy slide; this is placed into a plastic cassette for most of the rest of the process. In addition to formalin, other chemical fixatives have been used. But, with the advent of immunohistochemistry staining and diagnostic molecular pathology testing on these specimen samples, formalin has become the standard chemical fixative in human diagnostic histopathology. Fixation times for small specimens are shorter, standards exist in human diagnostic histopathology. Water is removed from the sample in successive stages by the use of increasing concentrations of alcohol. Xylene is used in the last dehydration phase instead of alcohol - this is because the wax used in the next stage is soluble in xylene where it is not in alcohol allowing wax to permeate the specimen; this process is automated and done overnight.

The wax infiltrated specimen is transferred to an individual specimen embedding container. Molten wax is introduced around the specimen in the container and cooled to solidification so as to embed it in the wax block; this process is needed to provide a properly oriented sample sturdy enough for obtaining a thin microtome section for the slide. Once the wax embedded block is finished, sections will be cut from it and placed to float on a waterbath surface which spreads the section out; this is done by hand and is a skilled job with the lab personnel making choices about which parts of the specimen microtome wax ribbon to place on slides. A number of slides will be prepared from different levels throughout the block. After this the thin section mounted slide is stained and a protective cover slip is mounted on it. For common stains, an automatic process is used; the second method of histology processing is called frozen section processing. This is a technical scientific method performed by a trained histoscientist.

In this method, the tissue is frozen and sliced thinly using a microtome mounted in a below-freezing refrigeration device called the cryostat. The thin frozen sections are mounted on a glass slide, fixed & in liquid fixative, stained using the similar staining techniques as traditional wax embedded sections; the advantages of this method is rapid processing time, less equipment requirement, less need for ventilation in the laboratory. The disadvantage is the poor quality of the final slide, it is used in intra-operative pathology for determinations that might help in choosing the next step in surgery during that surgical session. This can be done to slides processed by frozen section slides. To see the tissue under a microscope, the sections are stained with one or more pigments; the aim of staining is to reveal cellular components. The most used stain in histopathology is a combination of hematoxylin and eosin. Hematoxylin is used to stain nuclei blue, while eosin stains cytoplasm and the extracellular connective tissue matrix pink.

There are hundreds of various other techniques. Other compounds used to color tissue sections include safranin, Oil Red O, congo red, silver salts and artificial dyes. Histochemistry refers to the science of using chemical reactions between laboratory chemicals and components within tissue. A performed histochemical technique is the Perls' Prussian blue reaction, used to demonstrate iron deposits in diseases like Hemochromatosis. Antibodies have been used to stain particular proteins and carbohydrates. Called immunohistochemistry, this technique has increased the ability to identify categories of cells under a microscope. Other advanced techniques include in situ hybridization to identify specific DNA or RNA molecules; these antibody staining methods require the use of frozen section histology. These procedures above are carried out in the laboratory under scrutiny and precision by a trained specialist Medical laboratory scientist Digital cameras are used to capture histopathological images; the histo

List of companies of Togo

Togo the Togolese Republic, is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea. Togo covers an area of 57,000 square kilometres with a population of 6.7 million. Togo serves as a regional trade center; the government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, bring revenues in line with expenditures, has stalled. Political unrest, including private and public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, jeopardized the reform program, shrank the tax base, disrupted vital economic activity; this list includes notable companies with primary headquarters located in the country. The industry and sector follow the Industry Classification Benchmark framework. Organizations which have ceased operations are noted as defunct. Economy of Togo List of airlines of Togo List of banks in Togo

Paralympic Games

The Paralympic Games or Paralympics are a periodic series of international multi-sport events involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, ataxia, vision impairment and intellectual impairment. There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, are held immediately following the respective Olympic Games. All Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee; the Paralympics has grown from a small gathering of British World War II veterans in 1948 to become one the largest international sporting events by the early 21st century. The Paralympics has grown from 400 athletes with a disability from 23 countries in 1960 to thousands of competitors from over 100 countries at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Paralympians strive for equal treatment with non-disabled Olympic athletes, but there is a large funding gap between Olympic and Paralympic athletes.

The Paralympic Games are organized in parallel with the Olympic Games, while the IOC-recognized Special Olympics World Games include athletes with intellectual disabilities, the Deaflympics include deaf athletes. Given the wide variety of disabilities that Paralympic athletes have, there are several categories in which the athletes compete; the allowable disabilities are broken down into ten eligible impairment types. The categories are impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, ataxia, vision impairment and intellectual impairment; these categories are further broken down into classifications. Athletes with disabilities did compete at the Olympic Games prior to the advent of the Paralympics; the first athlete to do so was German American gymnast George Eyser in 1904, who had one artificial leg. Hungarian Karoly Takacs competed in shooting events in both 1952 Summer Olympics, he could shoot left-handed. Another disabled athlete to appear in the Olympics prior to the Paralympic Games was Lis Hartel, a Danish equestrian athlete who had contracted polio in 1943 and won a silver medal in the dressage event.

The first organized athletic day for disabled athletes that coincided with the Olympic Games took place on the day of the opening of the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Jewish-German born Dr. Ludwig Guttmann of Stoke Mandeville Hospital, helped to flee Nazi Germany by the Council for Assisting Refugee Academics in 1939, hosted a sports competition for British World War II veteran patients with spinal cord injuries; the first games were called the 1948 International Wheelchair Games, were intended to coincide with the 1948 Olympics. Dr. Guttman's aim was to create an elite sports competition for people with disabilities that would be equivalent to the Olympic Games; the games were held again at the same location in 1952, Dutch and Israeli veterans took part alongside the British, making it the first international competition of its own kind. These early competitions known as the Stoke Mandeville Games, have been described as the precursors of the Paralympic Games. There have been several milestones in the Paralympic movement.

The first official Paralympic Games, no longer open to war veterans, was held in Rome in 1960. 400 athletes from 23 countries competed at the 1960 Games. Since 1960, the Paralympic Games have taken place in the same year as the Olympic Games; the Games were open only to athletes in wheelchairs. With the inclusion of more disability classifications the 1976 Summer Games expanded to 1,600 athletes from 40 countries; the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul was another milestone for the Paralympic movement. It was in Seoul that the Paralympic Summer Games were held directly after the 1988 Summer Olympics, in the same host city, using the same facilities; this set a precedent, followed in 1992, 1996 and 2000. It was formalized in an agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee in 2001, was extended through 2020. On March 10, 2018, the two committees further extended their contract to 2032; the 1992 Winter Paralympics were the first Winter Games to use the same facilities as the Winter Olympics.

The first Winter Paralympic Games were held in 1976 in Sweden. This was the first Paralympics in which multiple categories of athletes with disabilities could compete; the Winter Games were celebrated every four years on the same year as their summer counterpart, just as the Olympics were. This tradition was upheld until the 1992 Games in France; the IPC is the global governing body of the Paralympic Movement. It comprises 176 National Paralympic Committees and four disability-specific international sports federations; the president of the IPC is Andrew Parsons. The IPC's international headquarters are in Germany; the IPC is responsible for organizing Winter Paralympic Games. It serves as the International Federation for nine sports (Paralympic athletics, Paralympic swimming, Paralympic shooting, Paralympic powerlifting, Para-alpine skiing, Paralympic biathlon, Paralympic cross-country skiing, ice sledge hockey and Wheelchair

Sooty falcon

The sooty falcon is a medium-sized falcon breeding from northeastern Africa to the southern Persian Gulf region. The sooty falcon belongs to the hobby group, a rather close-knit number of similar falcons considered a subgenus Hypotriorchis. Eleonora's falcon is sometimes considered its closest relative, but while they belong to the same lineage, they do not seem to be close sister species; this is an elegant bird of 32 -- 37 cm long with a 78 -- 90 cm wingspan. It is shaped like a large hobby or a small Eleonora's falcon, with its long pointed wings, long tail and slim body; the adults are blue-grey, lack the black underwing coverts of the Eleonora's falcon. The young bird is like small juvenile Eleanora's falcon, its dark trailing edge to the wings and tail distinguish it from the former species, it lacks the underwing contrast caused by the dark coverts of the larger falcon. This species breeds on islands and coastal or desert cliffs from Libya to Pakistan), it is a long-distance migrant, wintering in east Africa and south to Madagascar and north-eastern South Africa.

Regular sightings and a lack of historical records suggests that the wintering range has expanded south in recent decades. It is a rare vagrant north of its breeding range; the sooty falcon eats birds, but it will take large insects, such as dragonflies, which are transferred from talons to beak and eaten in flight. It nests on rocks, laying up to four eggs. Sooty Falcons lay eggs during mid-summer, unlike most other falcons nest in colonies. Birds nesting on islands in the Sea of Oman have a mean clutch size of 2.83 and brood size of 2.11, with 12% of nests failing at the egg or nesting stage. It was classified as Least Concern by the IUCN, but has been shown to be rarer than believed, it was uplisted to Vulnerable status in 2017. The breeding population of Sooty falcons on the islands of northern Oman is in decline, with human disturbance on accessible islands a cause, as falcons breeding close to beaches have lower nesting success than those breeding further away. Sooty falcon - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds

Mabon ap Modron

Mabon ap Modron is a prominent figure from Welsh literature and mythology, the son of Modron and a member of Arthur's war band. Both he and his mother were deities in origin, descending from a divine mother–son pair, his name is related to the Romano-British god Maponos, whose name means "Great Son". He is equated with the Demetian hero Pryderi fab Pwyll, may be associated with the minor Arthurian character Mabon fab Mellt; the name Mabon is derived from the Common Brittonic and Gaulish deity name Maponos "Great Son", from the Proto-Celtic root *makwo- "son". Modron is derived from the name of the Brittonic and Gaulish deity Mātronā, meaning "Great Mother", from Proto-Celtic *mātīr "mother". Culhwch's father, King Cilydd, the son of Celyddon, loses his wife Goleuddydd after a difficult childbirth; when he remarries, the young Culhwch rejects his stepmother's attempt to pair him with his new stepsister. Offended, the new queen puts a curse on him so that he can marry no one besides the beautiful Olwen, daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden.

Though he has never seen her, Culhwch becomes infatuated with her, but his father warns him that he will never find her without the aid of his famous cousin Arthur. The young man sets off to seek his kinsman, he asks for support and assistance. Cai is the first knight to volunteer to assist Culhwch in his quest, promising to stand by his side until Olwen is found. A further five knights join them in their mission, they travel onwards until they come across the "fairest of the castles of the world", meet Ysbaddaden's shepherd brother, Custennin. They learn that the castle belongs to Ysbaddaden, that he stripped Custennin of his lands and murdered the shepherd's twenty-three children out of cruelty. Custennin sets up a meeting between Culhwch and Olwen, the maiden agrees to lead Culhwch and his companions to Ysbadadden's castle. Cai pledges to protect the twenty-fourth son, with his life; the knights attack the castle by stealth, killing the nine porters and the nine watchdogs, enter the giant's hall.

Upon their arrival, Ysbaddaden attempts to kill Culhwch with a poison dart, but is outwitted and wounded, first by Bedwyr by the enchanter Menw, by Culhwch himself. Ysbaddaden relents, agrees to give Culhwch his daughter on the condition that he completes a number of impossible tasks, including hunting the Twrch Trwyth and recovering the exalted prisoner, Mabon son of Modron, the only man able to hunt the dog Drudwyn, in turn the only dog who can track the Twrch Trwyth. Arthur and his men learn that Mabon was stolen from his mother's arms when he was three nights old, question the world's oldest and wisest animals about his whereabouts, until they are led to the salmon of Llyn Llyw, the oldest animal of them all; the enormous salmon carries Bedwyr downstream to Mabon's prison in Gloucester. The rest of Arthur's men launch an assault on the front of the prison, while Cei and Bedwyr sneak in the back and rescue Mabon, he subsequently plays a key role in the hunt for the Twrch Trwyth. One of the earliest direct reference to Mabon can be found in the tenth century poem Pa Gur, in which Arthur recounts the feats and achievements of his knights so as to gain entrance to a fortress guarded by Glewlwyd Gafaelfawr, the eponymous porter.

The poem relates that Mabon fab Mydron is one of Arthur's followers, is described as a "servant to Uther Pendragon". A second figure, Mabon fab Mellt, is described as having "stained the grass with blood", he further appears in the medieval tale The Dream of Rhonabwy, in which he fights alongside Arthur at the Battle of Badon and is described as one of the king's chief advisors. Mabon is certainly related to the continental Arthurian figures Mabonagrain, Nabon le Noir and Maboun

New Power Party

The New Power Party is a political party in Taiwan formed in early 2015. The party emerged from the Sunflower Student Movement in 2014, advocates for universal human rights and political liberties, as well as Taiwan independence/nationalism; the party is a part of the political phenomenon known as the "Third Force", in which new political parties, unaligned with traditional Pan-Green or Pan-Blue Coalitions, sought to provide an alternative in Taiwanese politics. The NPP's policies are much aligned and matches the Pan-Green camp; the party works in tandem with a perceived generational shift towards Taiwan-centrism as the new socio-cultural norm. The party was started by Freddy Lim, lead vocalist of Taiwanese heavy metal band Chthonic, veteran activist Michael Lin, human rights lawyers Lin Feng-cheng, Chiu Hsien-chih, other prominent figures of the Sunflower Student Movement. Lim headed the party-building process, which saw the inclusion of Hung Tzu-yung, sister of the late Hung Chung-chiu, environmental lawyer Ko Shao-chen, author-activist Neil Peng into the party.

On 12 September 2015, the NPP was formed with the election of Huang Kuo-chang as executive leader, heading a leadership team of six deputy leaders. The NPP won five legislative seats in the 2016 Taiwanese legislative election, three from constituency and two from party-list votes, beating out long-time third party People First Party. However, two of its members left the party in 2019. In the 2020 Taiwanese legislative election, NPP retained three seats; the NPP aims to rewrite the Constitution of the Republic of China. The constitution operates under the assumption that the Republic governs all of China, to just refer to Taiwan; the NPP supports the legalization of same-sex marriage and is in favor of abolition of capital punishment. And the NPP takes a more leftist stance than the DPP in labor and welfare issues; the party was established on 25 January 2015. In the 2016 Taiwan legislative election, the first contested by the party, the NPP won five seats in the Legislative Yuan, making it the third largest party there.

Three of the winners gained two were elected through the party list. Freddy Lim and Hung Tzu-yung left the NPP in August 2019, though both remained independent members of the ninth Legislative Yuan; that same month, NPP legislator Kawlo Iyun Pacidal was suspended from the party. Kawlo, an at-large legislator, was replaced by Jang Show-ling in September 2019. In the 2020 legislative elections, the New Power Party won three party list seats, occupied by Chen Jiau-hua, Chiu Hsien-chih, Claire Wang; the New Power Party fielded 40 candidates for city and county councils across Taiwan in the local elections of November 2018. Sixteen NPP candidates for local office won. Pan-Purple Coalition List of political parties in Taiwan Politics of the Republic of China Formosa Alliance New Power Party on Facebook Official website