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Historia Augusta

The Historia Augusta is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284. Modeled on the similar work of Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, it presents itself as a compilation of works by six different authors, written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine I and addressed to those emperors or other important personages in Rome; the collection, as extant, comprises thirty biographies, most of which contain the life of a single emperor, while some include a group of two or more, grouped together because these emperors were either similar or contemporaneous. The true authorship of the work, its actual date, its reliability, its purpose, have long been matters for controversy amongst historians and scholars since Hermann Dessau in 1889 rejected both the date and the authorship as stated within the manuscript. Major problems include the nature of the sources it used, how much of the content is pure fiction.

For instance, the collection contains in all about 150 alleged documents, including 68 letters, 60 speeches and proposals to the people or the senate, 20 senatorial decrees and acclamations. All of these are now considered to be fraudulent. By the second decade of the 21st century, the overall consensus supported the position that there was only a single author, writing either at the end of the 4th century or the beginning of the 5th century, and, interested in blending contemporary issues into the lives of the 3rd century emperors. There is further consensus that the author used the fictitious elements in the work to highlight references to other published works, such as to Cicero and Ammianus Marcellinus in a complex allegorical game. Despite these conundrums, it is the only continuous account in Latin for much of its period and is thus continually being re-evaluated, since modern historians are unwilling to abandon it as a unique source of possible information, despite its obvious untrustworthiness on many levels.

The name Historia Augusta originated with Isaac Casaubon, who produced a critical edition in 1603, working from a complex manuscript tradition with a number of variant versions. The title as recorded on the Codex Palatinus manuscript is Vitae Diversorum Principum et Tyrannorum a Divo Hadriano usque ad Numerianum Diversis compositae, it is assumed that the work may have been called de Vita Caesarum or Vitae Caesarum. How the work was circulated in late antiquity is unknown, but its earliest use was in a Roman History composed by Quintus Aurelius Memmius Symmachus in 485. Lengthy citations from it are found in authors of the 6th and 9th centuries, including Sedulius Scottus who quoted parts of the Marcus Aurelius, the Maximini and the Aurelian within his Liber de Rectoribus Christianis, the chief manuscripts date from the 9th or 10th centuries; the six Scriptores – "Aelius Spartianus", "Julius Capitolinus", "Vulcacius Gallicanus", "Aelius Lampridius", "Trebellius Pollio", "Flavius Vopiscus" – dedicate their biographies to Diocletian and various private persons, so ostensibly were all writing around the late 3rd and early 4th century.

The first four scriptores are attached to the lives from Hadrian to Gordian III, while the final two are attached to the lives from Valerian to Numerian. The biographies cover the emperors from Hadrian to Numerian. A section covering the reigns of Philip the Arab, Trebonianus Gallus and all but the end of the reign of Valerian is missing in all the manuscripts, it has been argued that biographies of Nerva and Trajan have been lost at the beginning of the work, which may suggest the compilation might have been a direct continuation of Suetonius' The Twelve Caesars, it has been theorized that the mid-3rd-century lacuna might be a deliberate literary device of the author or authors, saving the labour of covering Emperors for whom little source material may have been available. Despite devoting whole books to ephemeral or in some cases non-existent usurpers, there are no independent biographies of the Emperors Quintillus and Florian, whose reigns are briefly noted towards the end of the biographies of their respective predecessors, Claudius Gothicus and Tacitus.

For nearly 300 years after Casaubon's edition, though much of the Historia Augusta was treated with some scepticism, it was used by historians as an authentic source – Edward Gibbon used it extensively in the first volume of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. However, "in modern times most scholars read the work as a piece of deliberate mystification written much than its purported date, however the fundamentalist view still has distinguished support; the Historia Augusta is unfortunately, the principal Latin source for a century of Roman history. The historian must make use of it, but only with extreme circumspection and caution." Existing manuscripts and witnesses of the Historia Augusta fall into three groups: A manuscript of the first quarter of the ninth century, Vatican Pal. lat. 899, known as P, its direct and indirect copies. P was written at Lorsch in Caroline minuscule; the text in this manuscript has several lacunae marked with dots indicating the missing letters, a confusion in the order of the biographies between Verus and Alexander, the transposition of several passages: two long ones which correspond to a quire of the original which became loose and was inserted in a wrong place, a sim

Multichannel Television Sound

Multichannel Television Sound, better known as MTS, is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an analog NTSC-format audio carrier. It was developed by the Broadcast Television Systems Committee, an industry group, sometimes known as BTSC as a result. MTS worked by adding additional audio signals in otherwise empty portions of the television signal. MTS allowed up to a total of four audio channels. Two were broadcast to produce the left and right stereo channels. An additional Separate Audio Program, or SAP, could be used to broadcast other languages or different audio like weather alerts that could be accessed by the user through a button on their remote control; the fourth channel, PRO, was only used by the broadcasters. Initial work on design and testing of a stereophonic audio system began in 1975 when Telesonics approached Chicago public television station WTTW. WTTW was producing a music show titled Soundstage at that time, was simulcasting the stereo audio mix on local FM stations.

Telesonics offered a way to send the same stereo audio over the existing television signals, thereby removing the need for the FM simulcast. Telesonics and WTTW formed a working relationship and began developing the system, similar to FM stereo modulation. Twelve WTTW studio and transmitter engineers added the needed broadcast experience to the relationship; the Telesonics system was tested and refined using the WTTW transmitter facilities on the Sears Tower. In 1979, WTTW had installed a stereo Grass Valley master control switcher and had added a second audio channel to the microwave STL. By that time, WTTW engineers had further developed stereo audio on videotape recorders in their plant, using split audio track heads manufactured to their specifications, outboard record electronics, Dolby noise reduction that allowed Soundstage to be recorded and electronically edited. In addition, an Ampex MM1100, 24-track audio recorder was used for music production and mixing. PBS member stations who wished to deliver Soundstage in stereo were provided with a four-track audiotape that could be synced with the video machines in those cities.

During the FCC approval process, several manufacturers applied to the FCC for consideration. Most notably the Electronic Industries Alliance and Japanese EIA asked to be included in order to represent their members in the testing and specification phases of the approval process. WTTW engineers helped set standards for frequency response and other uses of the spectrum, they provided program source material used for the testing and maintained the broadcast chain. A 3M 24-track audio recorder was used to allow the selection of 12 different stereo programs for testing; the Matsushita Quasar TV manufacturing plant and laboratory, just west of Chicago, was used as the source for all testing of the competing systems. Following the testing, several questions were raised about the validity of some of the tests, a second round of testing began. WTTW installed a Broadcast Electronics prototype stereo modulator in October 1983 and began full-time broadcasting in stereo at that time using the Telesonics system prior to Federal Communications Commission rule-making on the BTSC system.

MTS was adopted by the FCC on 23 April 1984. Following EIA and FCC recommendations, the BE modulator was modified to meet BTSC specifications, by August 1984 was in full-time use on WTTW. Sporadic network transmission of stereo audio began on NBC on July 26, 1984, with The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, although at the time only the network's New York City flagship station, WNBC, had stereo broadcast capability. ABC and CBS followed suit in 1987, respectively. FOX was the last network to join around 1990, with the four networks having their entire prime-time schedules in stereo by late 1994. One of the first television receiving systems to include BTSC capability was the RCA Dimensia, released in 1984. From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s and in the 2000s, the networks would display the disclaimer "in stereo" at the beginning of stereo programming, sometimes using marketing tags such as CBS's "StereoSound" to describe their institution of stereo service; the original North American television standards provided a significant amount of bandwidth for the audio signal, 0.5 MHz, although the audio signal itself was defined to extend from 50 Hz to 15,000 Hz.

This was centered on the audio carrier signal 4.5 MHz above the video signal, given 25 kHz on either side of the carrier, using only 15 kHz of it. This meant. Due to the nature of the NTSC color signals added in the 1950s, the upper parts of the color signal pushed into the lower audio sideband. With the audio signal centered within the 0.5 MHz channel, the lower 0.25 MHz being infringed on by leftover video signal, the upper 0.25 MHz was left empty. MTS worked by adding new signals to the free portion of this upper 0.25 MHz allocation. The original audio signal was broadcast as it always had been. Under MTS, this is the Main Channel; the actual signal in this channel is constructed by adding together the two stereo channels to produce a signal identical to the original monoaural signals and can be received on any NTSC television without stereo circuitry. A second channel is added, the Stereo Subchannel, centered at 31.468 kHz and extending 15 kHz on either side. This left a small gap between the Main and Stereo signals, known as the Pilot, at the 15.734 kHz. Thi

Magazine (Jump, Little Children album)

Magazine is the major label debut and third album by American indie rock group Jump, Little Children, released on September 1, 1998. All songs written except where noted. "Not Today" – 3:26 "Violent Dreams" – 4:02 "Come Out Clean" – 2:54 "Cathedrals" – 3:55 "All Those Days Are Gone" – 3:40 "Body Parts" – 3:44 "My Guitar" – 3:35 "B-13" – 3:49 "Habit" – 4:52 "Say Goodnight" – 4:31 "Close Your Eyes" – 2:49 Jump, Little Children Evan Bivins – Drums, Hammer Dulcimer, Vocals Matthew Bivins – Accordion, Electronic Mandolin, Harmonica, Moog Bass, Vocals Jonathan GrayBass, Vocals Jay Clifford – Composer, Guitar, Organ, String Arrangements, Toy Piano, Vocals Ward Williams – Cello, Group Member, Programming, Vocals Brad Jones – Engineer, Producer Amanda Kapousouz – Musician Jason Lehning – Assistant Engineer Matt Martone – Engineer Frank Ockenfels – Photography Dee Dee Ramone – count-in vocals to "Come Out Clean" Jim Rondinelli – Mixing Lamar SorrentoCover Art Leon ZervosMastering