Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historic environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, scheduling ancient monuments, registering historic Parks and Gardens and by advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England, which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England as a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and underwater, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care. However, they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. National Heritage List for England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
Quantum neural networks are computational neural network models which are based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The first ideas on quantum neural computation were published independently in 1995 by Subhash Kak and Ron Chrisley, engaging with the theory of quantum mind, which posits that quantum effects play a role in cognitive function. However, typical research in QNNs involves combining classical artificial neural network models with the advantages of quantum information in order to develop more efficient algorithms. One important motivation for these investigations is the difficulty to train classical neural networks in big data applications; the hope is that features of quantum computing such as quantum parallelism or the effects of interference and entanglement can be used as resources. Since the technological implementation of a quantum computer is still in a premature stage, such quantum neural network models are theoretical proposals that await their full implementation in physical experiments.
Quantum neural network research is still in its infancy, a conglomeration of proposals and ideas of varying scope and mathematical rigor have been put forward. Most of them are based on the idea of replacing classical binary or McCulloch-Pitts neurons with a qubit, resulting in neural units that can be in a superposition of the state ‘firing’ and ‘resting’. A lot of proposals attempt to find a quantum equivalent for the perceptron unit from which neural nets are constructed. A problem is that nonlinear activation functions do not correspond to the mathematical structure of quantum theory, since a quantum evolution is described by linear operations and leads to probabilistic observation. Ideas to imitate the perceptron activation function with a quantum mechanical formalism reach from special measurements to postulating non-linear quantum operators. A direct implementation of the activation function using the circuit-based model of quantum computation has been proposed by Schuld and Petruccione based on the quantum phase estimation algorithm.
At a larger scale, researchers have attempted to generalize neural networks to the quantum setting. One way of constructing a quantum neuron is to first generalise classical neurons and generalising them further to make unitary gates. Interactions between neurons can be controlled quantumly, with unitary gates, or classically, via measurement of the network states; this high-level theoretical technique can be applied broadly, by taking different types of networks and different implementations of quantum neurons, such as photonically implemented neurons and quantum reservoir processor. Most learning algorithms follow the classical model of training an artificial neural network to learn the input-output function of a given training set and use classical feedback loops to update parameters of the quantum system until they converge to an optimal configuration. Learning as a parameter optimisation problem has been approached by adiabatic models of quantum computing. Quantum neural networks can be applied to algorithmic design: given qubits with tunable mutual interactions, one can attempt to learn interactions following the classical backpropagation rule from a training set of desired input-output relations, taken to be the desired output algorithm's behavior.
The quantum network thus ‘learns’ an algorithm. The quantum associative memory algorithm was introduced by Dan Ventura and Tony Martinez in 1999; the authors do not attempt to translate the structure of artificial neural network models into quantum theory, but propose an algorithm for a circuit-based quantum computer that simulates associative memory. The memory states are written into a superposition, a Grover-like quantum search algorithm retrieves the memory state closest to a given input. An advantage lies in the exponential storage capacity of memory states, however the question remains whether the model has significance regarding the initial purpose of Hopfield models as a demonstration of how simplified artificial neural networks can simulate features of the brain. A substantial amount of interest has been given to a “quantum-inspired” model that uses ideas from quantum theory to implement a neural network based on fuzzy logic. Optical neural network Holographic associative memory Quantum cognition Quantum machine learning Recent review of quantum neural networks by M. Schuld, I.
Sinayskiy and F. Petruccione Review of quantum neural networks by Wei Article by P. Gralewicz on the plausibility of quantum computing in biological neural networks Training a neural net to recognize images
Heinz Felsch was a German painter and graphic artist. He created a comprehensive oeuvre of mixed media. Since he had trained as a lithographer, he produced a large number of lithographic prints in his own printing workshop; the themes of his paintings and graphic oeuvre are landscapes, still lives, portraits and people. After completing school, Felsch did an apprenticeship in merchandising, which he could not complete due to the start of World War II. At the age of seventeen, he was enlisted into the German army and was moved to France, where he served as the chauffeur for a higher-ranking officer. After his first year in France, he was destined to be sent to Africa but instead was transferred to Russia, where he flew reconnaissance flights with the German air force. During one of the missions, he suffered a serious head injury which rendered him unfit to serve and he ended up in a hospital in Denmark where he stayed until the end of the war. After the war, Felsch moved back to Weißenfels, he started an apprenticeship as a lithographer.
In 1946, he enrolled as a student at the art school Burg Giebichenstein in Halle and joined the art class with the teacher Professor Charles Crodel. Felsch became part of group of painters, now known as the “Hallesche Schule”, it was a movement of modern painting during a period from 1945 until the late 1950s, under the influence of the professors of fine art Charles Crodel and Erwin Hahs. The term “Hallesche Schule” describes a specific regional movement rooted in classic modern art. Felsch had a close personal and artistic bond with the painter Albert Ebert, which started when both met as art students and continued until Ebert died in 1976; this close artistic bond is reflected in many of his paintings. When Crodel was appointed professor for Fine Art at the Munich Art Academy in 1951, he asked Felsch to join him as his assistant and lithographer. After some consideration, he decided to stay in Halle due to family circumstances. In 1949, Felsch married his fellow student Brigitte Reiff, they both met at art school.
They had two daughters. Felsch and his wife spent the summer months during the late 1940s to the mid-1950s in Ahrenshoop, a little fishing village on the Baltic Sea, known for their artist community. A number of paintings and lithographic prints originate from this time and reflect the rough but gentle landscapes between the sea, with its dunes and cliffs, the Bodden laguna. Felsch, with the support of his wife, worked on larger scale commissions of architectural art from the mid-1960s to the late 1970s, which were mosaic wall friezes in the lobbies of newly built hospitals and schools. There are still two of the three larger wall mosaics in the lift lobbies of the Policlinic Reil in Halle. A further 17-meter long wall mosaic frieze can still be seen in a school in Braunsbedra near Halle. In the late 1970s when their commercial opportunities were not as plentiful, the couple started to produce their own range of small ceramic medallions and ceramic jewellery, which helped to support them financially.
Felsch carried on painting right up into his 90s. He took pride in the frames of his paintings, which were meticulously made and most of them applied with a layer of flat silver. In 1951, Felsch became a member of the Landesverband Bildender Künstler Sachsen-Anhalt and in 1952, he became member of the ‘Verband Bildender Künstler der DDR’, he took part in numerous group exhibitions throughout Germany to include earlier participation in the art exhibitions of the GDR. 2014 Participation in exhibition of Crodel students in Halle. 2017 Exhibition of paintings, lithographic prints and drawings In London at STUDIO_13A. 2018 Exhibition "Heinz Felsch 1922 - 2016" Kunstkaten Ahrenshoop in corporation with Galerie Alte Schule Ahrenshoop. 2018 "Heinz Felsch 1922 - 2016" published in Hasenverlag Halle/Saale with introduction by Dr Paul Kaiser, Dresdener Institut für Kulturstudien. Recent exhibition of paintings, lithographic prints and drawings In London at STUDIO_13A http://www.studio13a.london