Together with the associated mortuary and chapel, boundary walls and railings, the property is designated a Category B listed building. The separate nurses residence, on Salisbury Road, now converted to flats, is Category B listed, the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh did not have facilities to care for the chronically ill. The Edinburgh Association for the Relief of Incurables, using a £10,000 bequest from the Edinburgh solicitor John Longmore of Deanhaugh, bought 8 Salisbury Place and opened it as a hospital in 1875. The Association purchased 9 and 10 Salisbury Place and commissioned a new hospital for the site, the new 3-storey Longmore Hospital opened on 10 December 1880. Extensions, designed by Dick Peddie, were built to the east and to the west, on the site of a row of villas, in 1903 the Edinburgh Association for Incurables received a royal charter. In 1906 Liberton Hospital opened, and the two together were known as the Royal Edinburgh Hospital for Incurables. In 1948 the hospital was taken over by the Scottish National Health Service, Longmore Hospital closed in 1991, with services, including breast cancer diagnosis and care, being transferred to the Western General Hospital.
Historic Scotland moved to the converted and extended property in 1994
Hospitality refers to the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes hospitality in the Encyclopédie as the virtue of a soul that cares for the whole universe through the ties of humanity. Hospitality ethics is a discipline that studies this usage of hospitality, derives from the Latin hospes, meaning host, guest, or stranger. Hospes is formed from hostis, which means stranger or enemy, by metonymy the Latin word Hospital means a guest-chamber, guests lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host, hospice, in ancient cultures hospitality involved welcoming the stranger and offering him food and safety. In Ancient Greece, hospitality was right, with the host being expected to make sure the needs of his guests were met, the ancient Greek term xenia, or theoxenia when a god was involved, expressed this ritualized guest-friendship relation.
In Greek society a persons ability to abide by the laws of hospitality determined nobility, the Stoics regarded hospitality as a duty inspired by Zeus himself. In India/Nepal hospitality is based on the principle Atithi Devo Bhava and this principle is shown in a number of stories where a guest is revealed to be a god who rewards the provider of hospitality. From this stems the Indian or Nepal practice of graciousness towards guests at home, judaism praises hospitality to strangers and guests based largely on the examples of Abraham and Lot in the Book of Genesis. In Hebrew, the practice is called hachnasat orchim, or welcoming guests, one of the main principles of Pashtunwali is Melmastia. This is the display of hospitality and profound respect to all visitors without any hope of remuneration or favour, pashtuns will go to great lengths to show their hospitality. Celtic societies valued the concept of hospitality, especially in terms of protection, a host who granted a persons request for refuge was expected not only to provide food and shelter for his/her guest, but to make sure they did not come to harm while under their care.
In the West today hospitality is rarely a matter of protection and survival and is associated with etiquette. However, it still involves showing respect for guests, providing for their needs. Cultures and subcultures vary in the extent to which one is expected to show hospitality to strangers, Jacques Derrida offers a model to understand hospitality that divides unconditional hospitality from conditional hospitality. Over the centuries, philosophers have devoted considerable attention to the problem of hospitality, hospitality offers a paradoxical situation since inclusion of those who are welcomed in the sacred law of hospitality implies others will be rejected. Julia Kristeva alerts readers to the dangers of “perverse hospitality”, which consists of taking advantage of the vulnerability of aliens to dispossess them, Hospitality serves to reduce the tension in the process of host-guest encounters, producing a liminal zone that combines curiosity about others and fear of strangers. In general terms, the meaning of hospitality centres on the belief that strangers should be assisted and protected while traveling, not all voices are in agreement with this concept
Cadw is the historic environment service of the Welsh Government and part of the Tourism and Culture group. Cadw works to protect the buildings and structures, the landscapes and heritage sites of Wales, so that the public can visit them, understand their significance. Cadw arranges events at its properties, provides lectures and teaching sessions, offers heritage walks. Members of the public can become members of Cadw and have such privileges as a magazine, reduced prices at the online shop and free entry to properties. It offers reciprocal arrangements with similar organisations in other parts of the United Kingdom, Cadw offers employment possibilities and work experience placements. As the Welsh Government’s historic environment service, Cadw is charged with protecting the environment of Wales. Besides these, there were in 2011 in Wales 29,936 listed buildings, in Wales were 4,175 Scheduled Monuments,6 Designated historic wrecks, and 523 Conservation Areas, these designations means that the buildings or objects concerned are protected by statute.
A register of significant Welsh battlefield sites is under preparation, many of these listed sites are in private ownership, but Cadw has a specific responsibility for the care and upkeep of the 127 historic sites that are in state ownership. Many of Wales great castles and other monuments, such as palaces, historic houses. Cadw has been appointed by the Welsh Government and is the body in Wales to the Ministry of Works. There are 58 Historic Landscapes and 376 Historic parks and gardens in Wales, Cadw is undertaking urban character studies of urban areas. Eight had been completed by September 2013, combined with a register of buildings and ancient monuments at risk these aim to enable management decision making and grant allocation to strengthen the character of different areas. Cadw operates most of the sites in its care and opens them to the public. In 2010-11 there were an estimated 2 million visits to Cadw properties, in some cases, these are major tourist attractions and offer tours of the monuments and display panels.
Cadw produces books and guidebooks on many of their properties, however many of the sites are unstaffed, free to access, and have interpretation boards to explain their significance. Cadw Membership, formerly known as Heritage in Wales, gives the free admission to all Cadw properties. Other membership advantages are a magazine, reduced prices at the online gift shop. Cadw has entered into agreements with English Heritage, Historic Scotland
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 local government council areas. Located in Lothian on the Firth of Forths southern shore, it is Scotlands second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom. The 2014 official population estimates are 464,990 for the city of Edinburgh,492,680 for the authority area. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is home to the Scottish Parliament and it is the largest financial centre in the UK after London. Historically part of Midlothian, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, the sciences and engineering. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, was placed 17th in the QS World University Rankings in 2013 and 2014. The city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe. The citys historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdoms second most popular tourist destination after London, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year.
Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, Edinburghs Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, which has been managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. It appears to derive from the place name Eidyn mentioned in the Old Welsh epic poem Y Gododdin, the poem names Din Eidyn as a hill fort in the territory of the Gododdin. The Celtic element din was dropped and replaced by the Old English burh, the first documentary evidence of the medieval burgh is a royal charter, c. 1124–1127, by King David I granting a toft in burgo meo de Edenesburg to the Priory of Dunfermline. In modern Gaelic, the city is called Dùn Èideann, the earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithic camp site dated to c.8500 BC. Traces of Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have found on Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat, Craiglockhart Hill. When the Romans arrived in Lothian at the end of the 1st century AD, at some point before the 7th century AD, the Gododdin, who were presumably descendants of the Votadini, built the hill fort of Din Eidyn or Etin.
Although its location has not been identified, it likely they would have chosen a commanding position like the Castle Rock, Arthurs Seat. In 638, the Gododdin stronghold was besieged by forces loyal to King Oswald of Northumbria and it thenceforth remained under their jurisdiction. The royal burgh was founded by King David I in the early 12th century on land belonging to the Crown, in 1638, King Charles Is attempt to introduce Anglican church forms in Scotland encountered stiff Presbyterian opposition culminating in the conflicts of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the 17th century, Edinburghs boundaries were defined by the citys defensive town walls
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. The 2011 census of Scotland showed that a total of 57,375 people in Scotland could speak Gaelic at that time, the census results indicate a decline of 1,275 Gaelic speakers from 2001. A total of 87,056 people in 2011 reported having some facility with Gaelic compared to 93,282 people in 2001, only about half of speakers were fully literate in the language. Nevertheless, revival efforts exist and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 has increased, Scottish Gaelic is neither an official language of the European Union nor the United Kingdom. Outside Scotland, a group of dialects collectively known as Canadian Gaelic are spoken in parts of Atlantic Canada, mainly Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the 2011 census, there were 7,195 total speakers of Gaelic languages in Canada, with 1,365 in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island where the responses mainly refer to Scottish Gaelic.
About 2,320 Canadians in 2011 claimed Gaelic languages as their mother tongue, with over 300 in Nova Scotia, aside from Scottish Gaelic, the language may be referred to simply as Gaelic. In Scotland, the word Gaelic in reference to Scottish Gaelic specifically is pronounced, outside Ireland and Great Britain, Gaelic may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic should not be confused with Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, from the late 15th century, however, it became increasingly common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a language from Irish. Gaelic in Scotland was mostly confined to Dál Riata until the 8th century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth, by 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct, completely replaced by Gaelic.
An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, however, though the Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of Gaelicisation was clearly underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, by the 10th century, Gaelic had become the dominant language throughout northern and western Scotland, the Gaelo-Pictic Kingdom of Alba. Its spread to southern Scotland, was even and totalizing. Place name analysis suggests dense usage of Gaelic in Galloway and adjoining areas to the north and west as well as in West Lothian, less dense usage is suggested for north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was ever widely spoken, the area shifted from Cumbric to Old English during its long incorporation into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962.
Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen.
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
Urquhart Castle sits beside Loch Ness in the Highlands of Scotland. The castle is on the A82 road,21 kilometres south-west of Inverness and 2 kilometres east of the village of Drumnadrochit, the present ruins date from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though built on the site of an early medieval fortification. Founded in the 13th century, Urquhart played a role in the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century and it was subsequently held as a royal castle, and was raided on several occasions by the MacDonald Earls of Ross. The castle was granted to the Clan Grant in 1509, though conflict with the MacDonalds continued, despite a series of further raids the castle was strengthened, only to be largely abandoned by the middle of the 17th century. Urquhart was partially destroyed in 1692 to prevent its use by Jacobite forces, in the 20th century it was placed in state care and opened to the public, it is now one of the most-visited castles in Scotland. The castle, situated on a headland overlooking Loch Ness, is one of the largest in Scotland in area and it was approached from the west and defended by a ditch and drawbridge.
The buildings of the castle were laid out two main enclosures on the shore. The northern enclosure or Nether Bailey includes most of the more structures, including the gatehouse. The southern enclosure or Upper Bailey, sited on higher ground, the name Urquhart derives from the 7th-century form Airdchartdan, itself a mix of Gaelic air and Old Welsh cardden. Pieces of vitrified stone, subjected to heat and characteristic of early medieval fortification, had been discovered at Urquhart from the early 20th century. Speculation that Urquhart may have been the fortress of Bridei son of Maelchon, king of the northern Picts, Adomnáns Life of Columba records that St. Columba visited Bridei some time between 562 and 586, though little geographical detail is given. Adomnán relates that during the visit, Columba converted a Pictish nobleman named Emchath, who was on his deathbed, his son Virolec, and their household, at a place called Airdchartdan. The excavations, supported by radiocarbon dating, indicated that the knoll at the south-west corner of the castle had been the site of an extensive fort between the 5th and 11th centuries.
Some sources state that William the Lion had a castle at Urquhart in the 12th century. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Meic Uilleim, descendents of Malcolm III, staged a series of rebellions against David I, the last of these rebellions was put down in 1229, and to maintain order Alexander II granted Urquhart to his Hostarius, Thomas de Lundin. On de Lundins death a few years it passed to his son Alan Durward and it is considered likely that the original castle was built soon after this time, centred on the motte at the south-west of the site. In 1275, after Alans death, the king granted Urquhart to John II Comyn, the first documentary record of Urquhart Castle occurs in 1296, when it was captured by Edward I of England. Edwards invasion marked the beginning of the Wars of Scottish Independence, Edward appointed Sir William fitz Warin as constable to hold the castle for the English
Manx National Heritage
Manx National Heritage is the national heritage organisation for the Isle of Man. The organisation manages a significant proportion of the physical heritage assets including over 3000 acres of coastline. It holds property, artwork and museum collections in trust for the Manx nation and it is the Isle of Mans statutory heritage agency and an Isle of Man registered charity. Manx National Heritages role is to lead the Isle of Mans community in recognising, understanding and promoting its cultural heritage and identity to a worldwide audience. Gob ny Rona Niarbyl The Sound and the Calf of Man Upper Ballaharry Raad ny Foillan http, //www. manxnationalheritage. im/ The Friends of Manx National Heritage